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Individual differences |
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- Main article: Comparative psychology
The pronunciation of "zoology" is /zoʊˈɑləʤɪ/; however, an alternative pronunciation is /zuˈɑləʤɪ/. Traditionally (and more properly), the word was pronounced with the first syllable rhyming with "toe", followed by "-ology". Recently, it has become more common to pronounce the first syllable as "zoo". The word zoology originates from the Greek zoion, meaning animal, and logos, meaning study.
Subfields of zoologyEdit
The study of animal life is, of course, ancient: but as 'zoology' it is relatively modern, for what we call biology was known as 'natural history' at the start of the nineteenth century. During the lifetime of Charles Darwin natural history turned from a gentlemanly pursuit to a modern scientific activity. Zoology as we know it was first established in German and British universities. The institution of zoology training in British universities was mainly established by Thomas Henry Huxley. His ideas were centered on the morphology of animals: he was himself the greatest comparative anatomist of the second half of the nineteenth century. His courses were composed of lectures and laboratory practical classes; and his system became widely spread.
There was much left out by Huxley, especially the study of animals in their environment, which had been the main stimulus for both Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace (who both came up with the idea of natural selection). The fact that neither Darwin nor Wallace ever held a university teaching post may have contributed to this rather startling omission. Gradually Huxley's comparative anatomy was supplemented by other much-needed methods. The field of zoology in the twentieth century mainly comprised these approaches:
- Comparative anatomy studies the structure of animals.
- The physiology of animals is studied under various fields including anatomy and embryology
- The common genetic and developmental mechanisms of animals and plants is studied in molecular biology, molecular genetics and developmental biology
- Ethology is the study of animal behavior.
- The ecology of animals is covered under behavioral ecology and other fields
- Evolutionary biology of both animals and plants is considered in the articles on evolution, population genetics, heredity, variation, Mendelism, reproduction.
- Systematics, cladistics, phylogenetics, phylogeography, biogeography and taxonomy classify and group species via common descent and regional associations.
- The various taxonomically-oriented disciplines such as mammalogy, herpetology, ornithology identify and classify species, and study the structures and mechanisms specific to those groups. Entomology is the study of insects, by far the largest group of animals.
- Palaeontology, including all that may be learnt of ancient environments.
Systems of classification Edit
- Main article: Scientific classification
Morphography includes the systematic exploration and tabulation of the facts involved in the recognition of all the recent and extinct kinds of animals and their distribution in space and time. (1) The museum-makers of old days and their modern representatives the curators and describers of zoological collections, (2) early explorers and modern naturalist travelers and writers on zoo-geography, and (3) collectors of fossils and palaeontologists are the chief varieties of zoological workers coming under this heading. Gradually, since the time of Hunter and Cuvier, anatomical study has associated itself with the more superficial morphography until today no one considers a study of animal form of any value which does not include internal structure, histology and embryology in its scope.
See also Edit
- Abramson, C. I. (1990). Introduction. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
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- Bitgood, S., Patterson, D., & Benefield, A. (1988). Exhibit design and visitor behavior: Empirical relationships: Environment and Behavior Vol 20(4) Jul 1988, 474-491.
- Brown, G. R. (2000). Can studying non-human primates inform us about human rape?: A zoologist's perspectives: Psychology, Evolution & Gender Vol 2(3) Dec 2000, 321-324.
- Cadwallader, T. C. (1987). Early zoological input to comparative and animal psychology at the University of Chicago. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
- Cairns, R. B. (1977). Sociobiology: A New Synthesis or an Old Cleavage? : PsycCRITIQUES Vol 22 (1), Jan, 1977.
- Cederstrom, J. A. (1931). Repeaters at the college level: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 15(4) Aug 1931, 411-417.
- Daniel, S. A., & Perelle, I. B. (1987). Undergraduate animal behavior program: Teaching and research: Zoo Biology Vol 6(3) 1987, 253-259.
- Derwin, C. W., & Piper, J. B. (1988). The African Rock Kopje exhibit: Evaluation and interpretive elements: Environment and Behavior Vol 20(4) Jul 1988, 435-451.
- Finlay, T., James, L. R., & Maple, T. L. (1988). People's perceptions of animals: The influence of zoo environment: Environment and Behavior Vol 20(4) Jul 1988, 508-528.
- Ford, C. S. (1993). The influence of experiential nonformal learning strategies on fifth-grade students' knowledge and attitudes toward snakes: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Genosko, G. (1993). Freud's bestiary: How does psychoanalysis treat animals? : Psychoanalytic Review Vol 80(4) Win 1993, 603-632.
- Gilliland, A. R. (1935). The measurable effects of zoology on psychology grades: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 26(5) May 1935, 384-387.
- Greenberg, G. (1987). Historical review of the use of captive animals in comparative psychology. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
- Grier, N. M. (1918). The Range of Information Test in Biology. II. Zoology: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 9(7) Sep 1918, 388-392.
- Harless, M. (1972). A primer of zoological taxonomy of psychologists: Journal of Biological Psychology Vol 14(1) Jul 1972, 12-16.
- Heleski, C. R., & Zanella, A. J. (2006). Animal science student attitudes to farm animal welfare: Anthrozoos Vol 19(1) 2006, 3-16.
- Herzog, H. A., Podberscek, A. L., & Docherty, A. (2005). The reliability of peer review in anthrozoology: Anthrozoos Vol 18(2) 2005, 175-182.
- Irwin, O. C. (1932). The organismic hypothesis and differentiation of behavior. III. The differentiation of human behavior: Psychological Review Vol 39(4) Jul 1932, 387-393.
- Lloyd, N. (2007). "Something of interest about ourselves": Natural history and the evolutionary hierarchy at Taronga Zoological Park: Society & Animals Vol 15(1) 2007, 57-67.
- Mahler, A. E. (1984). Activity budgets and use of exhibit space by South American tapir (Tapirus terrestris) in a zoological park setting: Zoo Biology Vol 3(1) 1984, 35-46.
- Maple, T. L., & Kuhar, C. W. (2007). The Comparative Psychology of Duane Rumbaugh and His Influence on Zoo Biology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- No authorship, i. (1916). Jean-Henri Fabre: Journal of Animal Behavior Vol 6(1) Jan-Feb 1916, 74-80.
- Ogden, J. J. (1992). A comparative evaluation of naturalistic habitats for captive lowland gorillas: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Roach, K., & Hammond, R. (1976). Zoology by self-instruction: Studies in Higher Education Vol 1(2) Oct 1976, 179-196.
- Ross, C. N., Fite, J. E., Jensen, H., & French, J. A. (2007). Demographic review of a captive colony of Callitrichids (Callithrix kuhlii): American Journal of Primatology Vol 69(2) Feb 2007, 234-240.
- Rumbaugh, D. M. (1996). Beast machines of the monkey wars: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 41 (4), Apr, 1996.
- Sallares, R. (2005). La Migration des Animaux: Connaissances Zoologiques et Exploitations Anthropologiques Selon les Especes, les Lieux et les Epoques: Anthrozoos Vol 18(1) 2005, 89-92.
- Serrell, B. (1988). The evolution of educational graphics in zoos: Environment and Behavior Vol 20(4) Jul 1988, 396-415.
- Shettel-Neuber, J. (1988). Second- and third-generation zoo exhibits: A comparison of visitor, staff, and animal responses: Environment and Behavior Vol 20(4) Jul 1988, 452-473.
- Van Houten, J. (1994). Chemosensory transduction in eukaryotic microorganisms: Trends for neuroscience? : Trends in Neurosciences Vol 17(2) Feb 1994, 62-71.
- Verderber, S., Gardner, L., Islam, D., & Nakanishi, L. (1988). Elderly persons' appraisal of the zoological environment: Environment and Behavior Vol 20(4) Jul 1988, 492-507.
- A Study Guide to Invertebrate Zoology ~ at Wikibooks
- Online Dictionary of Invertebrate Zoology
- An online dissection pictures of animals
- Dictionary.com's discussion of pronunciation
- This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
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