Ad blocker interference detected!
Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers
Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.
Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
Notable characteristics Edit
Zinc is a moderately-reactive bluish-white metal that tarnishes in moist air and burns in air with a bright greenish flame, giving off plumes of zinc oxide. It reacts with acids, alkalis and other non-metals. If not completely pure, zinc reacts with dilute acids to release hydrogen. The one common oxidation state of zinc is +2. From 100 °C to 210 °C zinc metal is malleable and can easily be beaten into various shapes. Above 210 °C, the metal becomes brittle and will be pulverized by beating.
Zinc is included in most single tablet over-the-counter daily vitamin and mineral supplements. Preparations include zinc oxide, zinc acetate, and zinc gluconate. It is believed to possess antioxidant properties, which may protect against accelerated aging of the skin and muscles of the body; studies differ as to its effectiveness. Zinc also helps speed up the healing process after an injury.
Zinc preparations can protect against sunburn in the summer and windburn in the winter. Applied thinly to a baby's diaper area (perineum) with each diaper change, it can protect against diaper rash.
The Age-Related Eye Disease Study determined that zinc can be part of an effective treatment for age-related macular degeneration. Zinc supplementation is an effective treatment for acrodermatitis enteropathica, a genetic disorder affecting zinc absorption that was previously fatal to babies born with it.
Zinc is an essential trace element, necessary for plants, animals, and microorganisms. Zinc is found in nearly 100 specific enzymes (other sources say 300), serves as structural ions in transcription factors and is stored and transferred in metallothioneins. It is "typically the second most abundant transition metal in organisms" after iron and it is the only metal which appears in all enzyme classes.
In proteins, Zn ions are often coordinated to the amino acid side chains of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, cysteine and histidine. The theoretical and computational description of this zinc binding in proteins (as well as that of other transition metals) is difficult.
There are 2–4 grams of zinc distributed throughout the human body. Most zinc is in the brain, muscle, bones, kidney, and liver, with the highest concentrations in the prostate and parts of the eye. Semen is particularly rich in zinc, which is a key factor in prostate gland function and reproductive organ growth.
In humans, zinc plays "ubiquitous biological roles". It interacts with "a wide range of organic ligands", and has roles in the metabolism of RNA and DNA, signal transduction, and gene expression. It also regulates apoptosis. A 2006 study estimated that about 10% of human proteins (2800) potentially bind zinc, in addition to hundreds which transport and traffic zinc; a similar in silico study in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana found 2367 zinc-related proteins.
In the brain, zinc is stored in specific synaptic vesicles by glutamatergic neurons and can "modulate brain excitability". It plays a key role in synaptic plasticity and so in learning. However it has been called "the brain's dark horse" since it also can be a neurotoxin, suggesting zinc homeostasis plays a critical role in normal functioning of the brain and central nervous system.
Zinc is an efficient Lewis acid, making it a useful catalytic agent in hydroxylation and other enzymatic reactions. The metal also has a flexible coordination geometry, which allows proteins using it to rapidly shift conformations to perform biological reactions. Two examples of zinc-containing enzymes are carbonic anhydrase and carboxypeptidase, which are vital to the processes of carbon dioxide (CO2) regulation and digestion of proteins, respectively.
In vertebrate blood, carbonic anhydrase converts CO2 into bicarbonate and the same enzyme transforms the bicarbonate back into CO2 for exhalation through the lungs. Without this enzyme, this conversion would occur about one million times slower at the normal blood pH of 7 or would require a pH of 10 or more. The non-related β-carbonic anhydrase is required in plants for leaf formation, the synthesis of indole acetic acid (auxin) and anaerobic respiration (alcoholic fermentation).
Carboxypeptidase cleaves peptide linkages during digestion of proteins. A coordinate covalent bond is formed between the terminal peptide and a C=O group attached to zinc, which gives the carbon a positive charge. This helps to create a hydrophobic pocket on the enzyme near the zinc, which attracts the non-polar part of the protein being digested.
Zinc serves a purely structural role in zinc fingers, twists and clusters. Zinc fingers form parts of some transcription factors, which are proteins that recognize DNA base sequences during the replication and transcription of DNA. Each of the nine or ten Zn2+ ions in a zinc finger helps maintain the finger's structure by coordinately binding to four amino acids in the transcription factor. The transcription factor wraps around the DNA helix and uses its fingers to accurately bind to the DNA sequence.
In blood plasma, zinc is bound to and transported by albumin (60%, low-affinity) and transferrin (10%). Since transferrin also transports iron, excessive iron reduces zinc absorption, and vice-versa. A similar reaction occurs with copper. The concentration of zinc in blood plasma stays relatively constant regardless of zinc intake. Cells in the salivary gland, prostate, immune system and intestine use zinc signaling as one way to communicate with other cells.
Zinc may be held in metallothionein reserves within microorganisms or in the intestines or liver of animals. Metallothionein in intestinal cells is capable of adjusting absorption of zinc by 15–40%. However, inadequate or excessive zinc intake can be harmful; excess zinc particularly impairs copper absorption because metallothionein absorbs both metals.
In the U.S., the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is 8 mg/day for women and 11 mg/day for men. Median intake in the U.S. around 2000 was 9 mg/day for women and 14 mg/day in men. Red meats, especially beef, lamb and liver have some of the highest concentrations of zinc in food.
The concentration of zinc in plants varies based on levels of the element in soil. When there is adequate zinc in the soil, the food plants that contain the most zinc are wheat (germ and bran) and various seeds (sesame, poppy, alfalfa, celery, mustard). Zinc is also found in beans, nuts, almonds, whole grains, pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds and blackcurrant.
Other sources include fortified food and dietary supplements, which come in various forms. A 1998 review concluded that zinc oxide, one of the most common supplements in the United States, and zinc carbonate are nearly insoluble and poorly absorbed in the body. This review cited studies which found low plasma zinc concentrations after zinc oxide and zinc carbonate were consumed compared with those seen after consumption of zinc acetate and sulfate salts. However, harmful excessive supplementation is a problem among the relatively affluent, and should probably not exceed 20 mg/day in healthy people, although the U.S. National Research Council set a Tolerable Upper Intake of 40 mg/day.
For fortification, however, a 2003 review recommended zinc oxide in cereals as cheap, stable, and as easily absorbed as more expensive forms. A 2005 study found that various compounds of zinc, including oxide and sulfate, did not show statistically significant differences in absorption when added as fortificants to maize tortillas. A 1987 study found that zinc picolinate was better absorbed than zinc gluconate or zinc citrate. However, a study published in 2008 determined that zinc glycinate is the best absorbed of the four dietary supplement types available.
Zinc is found in oysters, and to a far lesser degree in most animal proteins, beans, nuts, whole grains, pumpkin seeds and sunflower seeds. Phytates, which are found in whole grain breads, cereals, legumes and other products, have been known to decrease zinc absorption. Clinical studies have found that zinc, combined with antioxidants, may delay progression of age-related macular degeneration[How to reference and link to summary or text], but the effect is extremely small and not likely to be clinically important. Significant dietary intake of zinc has also recently been shown to impede the onset of flu[How to reference and link to summary or text]. Soil conservation analyzes the vegetative uptake of naturally occurring zinc in many soil types.
The (US) recommended dietary allowance of zinc from puberty on is 11mg for males and 8mg for females, with higher amounts recommended during pregnancy and lactation.
Zinc deficiency results from inadequate intake of zinc, or inadequate absorption of zinc into the body. Signs of zinc deficiency includes hair loss, skin lesions, diarrhea, wasting of body tissues, and, eventually, death. Eyesight, taste, smell and memory are also connected with zinc. A deficiency in zinc can cause malfunctions of these organs and functions. Congenital abnormalities causing zinc deficiency may lead to a disease called Acrodermatitis enteropathica.
Obtaining a sufficient zinc intake during pregnancy and in young children is a very real problem, especially among those who cannot afford a good and varied diet. Brain development is stunted by zinc insufficiency in utero and in youth.
Even though zinc is an essential requirement for a healthy body, too much zinc can be harmful. Excessive absorption of zinc can also suppress copper and iron absorption. The free zinc ion in solution is highly toxic to plants, invertebrates, and even vertebrate fish. The Free Ion Activity Model (FIAM) is well-established in the literature, and shows that just micromolar amounts of the free ion kills some organisms. A recent example showed 6 micromolar killing 93% of all daphnia in water.  Swallowing an American one cent piece (98% zinc) can also cause damage to the stomach lining due to the high solubility of the zinc ion in the acidic stomach.  Zinc toxicity, mostly in the form of the ingestion of US pennies minted after 1982, is commonly fatal in dogs where it causes a severe hemolytic anemia. 
Zinc and cognitionEdit
Zinc and mental disordersEdit
Zinc has been studied as to its role in various mental disorders
Zinc salts are effective against pathogens in direct application. Gastrointestinal infections are also strongly attenuated by ingestion of zinc, and this effect could be due to direct antimicrobial action of the zinc ions in the GI tract, or to absorption of the zinc and re-release from immune cells (all granulocytes secrete zinc) or both.
The direct effect of zinc (as in lozenges) on bacteria and viruses is also well-established, and has been used since at least 2000 BC, from when zinc salts in palliative salves are documented. However, exactly how to deliver zinc salts against pathogens without injuring one's own tissues is still being investigated.
Zincs role in geneticsEdit
Metallic zinc is not considered to be toxic, but free zinc ions in solution (like copper or iron ions) are highly toxic. There is also a condition called zinc shakes or zinc chills (see metal fume fever) that can be induced by the inhalation of freshly formed zinc oxide formed during the welding of galvanized materials. Excessive intake of zinc can promote deficiency in other dietary minerals.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 DiSilvestro, Robert A. (2004). Handbook of Minerals as Nutritional Supplements, 135, 155, CRC Press.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Milbury, Paul E.; Richer, Alice C. (2008). Understanding the Antioxidant Controversy: Scrutinizing the "fountain of Youth", Greenwood Publishing Group.
- ↑ Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; no text was provided for refs named
- ↑ Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group (2001). A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial of High-Dose Supplementation With Vitamins C and E, Beta Carotene, and Zinc for Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Vision Loss. Arch Ophthalmology 119 (10).
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 Broadley, M. R., White, P. J.; Hammond, J. P.; Zelko I.; Lux A. (2007). Zinc in plants. New Phytologist 173 (4).
- ↑ Prasad A. S. (2008). Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells. Mol. Med. 14 (5–6).
- ↑ Zinc's role in microorganisms is particularly reviewed in: Sugarman B (1983). Zinc and infection. Review of Infectious Diseases 5 (1).
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 NRC 2000, p. 443
- ↑ Cotton 1999, pp. 625–629
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Brandt, Erik G. et al. (2009). Molecular dynamics study of zinc binding to cysteines in a peptide mimic of the alcohol dehydrogenase structural zinc site. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11 (6): 975–83.
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 Rink, L. (2000). Zinc and the immune system. Proc Nutr Soc 59 (4).
- ↑ Wapnir, Raul A. (1990). Protein Nutrition and Mineral Absorption, Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 Berdanier, Carolyn D.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Feldman, Elaine B. (2007). Handbook of Nutrition and Food, Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
- ↑ Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; no text was provided for refs named
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 15.2 Bitanihirwe BK, Cunningham MG (2009). Zinc: The brain's dark horse. Synapse 63 (11).
- ↑ Nakashima AS, Dyck RH (2009). Zinc and cortical plasticity. Brain Res Rev 59 (2).
- ↑ Stipanuk, Martha H. (2006). Biochemical, Physiological & Molecular Aspects of Human Nutrition, 1043–1067, W. B. Saunders Company.
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 Greenwood 1997, pp. 1224–1225
- ↑ Kohen, Amnon; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich (2006). Isotope Effects in Chemistry and Biology, Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 Greenwood 1997, p. 1225
- ↑ Cotton 1999, p. 627
- ↑ Gadallah, M. A. A. (2000). Effects of indole-3-acetic acid and zinc on the growth, osmotic potential and soluble carbon and nitrogen components of soybean plants growing under water deficit. Journal of Arid Environments 44 (4).
- ↑ Cotton 1997, p. 628
- ↑ Whitney, Eleanor Noss (2005). Understanding Nutrition, 10th, 447–450, Thomson Learning.
- ↑ NRC 2000, p. 447
- ↑ Hershfinkel, Michal, Silverman, William F.; Sekler, Israel (2007). The Zinc Sensing Receptor, a Link Between Zinc and Cell Signaling. Molecular Medicine 13 (7–8).
- ↑ Cotton 1999, p. 629
- ↑ Blake, Steve (2007). Vitamins and Minerals Demystified, McGraw-Hill Professional.
- ↑ Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; no text was provided for refs named
- ↑ (21 May 2009) Handbook of Clinical Nutrition and Aging, 151–, Springer. URL accessed 23 June 2011.
- ↑ Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; no text was provided for refs named
- ↑ Ensminger, Audrey H.; Konlande, James E. (1993). Foods & Nutrition Encyclopedia, 2nd, 2368–2369, Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
- ↑ Zinc content of selected foods per common measure. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 20. United States Department of Agriculture. URL accessed on 2007-12-06.
- ↑ 34.0 34.1 Allen, Lindsay H. (1998). Zinc and micronutrient supplements for children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68 (2 Suppl).
- ↑ Maret, W. (2006). Zinc requirements and the risks and benefits of zinc supplementation. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 20 (1).
- ↑ Zinc – Summary. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001). Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. URL accessed on 2010-03-30.
- ↑ Rosado, J. L. (2003). Zinc and copper: proposed fortification levels and recommended zinc compounds. Journal of Nutrition 133 (9).
- ↑ Hotz, C., DeHaene, J.; Woodhouse, L. R.; Villalpando, S.; Rivera, J. A.; King, J. C. (2005). Zinc absorption from zinc oxide, zinc sulfate, zinc oxide + EDTA, or sodium-zinc EDTA does not differ when added as fortificants to maize tortillas. Journal of Nutrition 135 (5).
- ↑ Barrie, SA. (1987). Comparative absorption of zinc picolinate, zinc citrate and zinc gluconate in humans. Agents Actions 21 (1–2): 223–8.
- ↑ DiSilvestro, Robert A.. (2008). Comparison of Four Commercially Available Zinc Supplements for Performance in a Zinc Tolerance Test. The FASEB Journal 22.
- ↑ Muyssen et al., (Aquat Toxicol. 2006)
- ↑ Bothwell and Mair, PEDIATRICS 2003
- ↑ Stowe CM, Nelson R, Werdin R, et al: Zinc phosphide poisoning in dogs. JAVMA 173:270, 1978
- Impact of antioxidants, zinc, and copper on cognition in the elderly: A randomized, controlled trial. (2004).): Neurology Vol 63(9) Nov 2004, 1705-1707.
- Adams, C. E., DeMasters, B. K., & Freedman, R. (1995). Regional zinc staining in postmortem hippocampus from schizophrenic patients: Schizophrenia Research Vol 18(1) Dec 1995, 71-77.
- Ajjimaporn, A., Swinscoe, J., Shavali, S., Govitrapong, P., & Ebadi, M. (2005). Metallothionein provides zinc-mediated protective effects against methamphetamine toxicity in SK-N-SH cells: Brain Research Bulletin Vol 67(6) Nov 2005, 466-475.
- Andrasi, E., Farkas, E., Gawlik, D., Rosick, U., & Bratter, P. (2000). Brain Iron and Zinc Contents of German Patients with Alzheimer Disease: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Vol 2(1) 2000, 17-26.
- Arnold, L. E., Bozzolo, H., Hollway, J., Cook, A., DiSilvestro, R. A., Bozzolo, D. R., et al. (2005). Serum Zinc Correlates with Parent- and Teacher-Rated Inattention in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology Vol 15(4) Sep 2005, 628-636.
- Arnold, L. E., & DiSilvestro, R. A. (2005). Zinc in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology Vol 15(4) Sep 2005, 619-627.
- Arnold, L. E., Votolato, N. A., Kleykamp, D., Baker, G. B., & et al. (1990). Does hair zinc predict amphetamine improvement of ADD/hyperactivity? : International Journal of Neuroscience Vol 50(1-2) Jan 1990, 103-107.
- Bakan, R., Birmingham, C. L., Aeberhardt, L., & Goldner, E. M. (1993). Dietary zinc intake of vegetarian and nonvegetarian patients with anorexia nervosa: International Journal of Eating Disorders Vol 13(2) Mar 1993, 229-233.
- Banach, D. K., & Morasiewicz, J. (1994). Zinc concentration in blood serum and in red blood cells in patients suffering from delirium tremens: Psychiatria Polska Vol 28(1) Jan-Feb 1994, 61-68.
- Basha, M. R., Wei, W., Brydie, M., Razmiafshari, M., & Zawia, N. H. (2003). Lead-induced developmental perturbations in hippocampal Sp1 DNA-binding are prevented by zinc supplementation: In vivo evidence for Pb and Zn competition: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience Vol 21(1) Feb 2003, 1-12.
- Bekaroglu, M., Aslan, Y., Gedik, Y., Deger, O., & et al. (1996). Relationships between serum free fatty acids and zinc, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A research note: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry Vol 37(2) Feb 1996, 225-227.
- Bettger, W. J., Wong, L. H., & Paterson, P. G. (1986). Effect of environmental temperature on food intake and deficiency signs in rats fed zinc-deficient diets: Nutrition & Behavior Vol 3(3) 1986, 241-249.
- Bilici, M., Yildirim, F., Kandil, S., Bekaroglu, M., Yildirmis, S., Deger, O., et al. (2004). Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of zinc sulfate in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 28(1) Jan 2004, 181-190.
- Blair-West, J. R., Denton, D. A., Gibson, A. P., & McKinley, M. J. (1990). Opening the blood-brain barrier to zinc: Brain Research Vol 507(1) Jan 1990, 6-10.
- Bly, M. (2006). Examination of the zinc transporter gene, SLC39A12: Schizophrenia Research Vol 81(2-3) Jan 2006, 321-322.
- Bray, T. M., & Levy, M. A. (2005). Dietary Zinc in Brain Development, Behavior, and Neuropathology. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis.
- Brophy, M. H. (1986). Zinc and childhood hyperactivity: Biological Psychiatry Vol 21(7) Jun 1986, 704-705.
- Brosvic, G. M. (1987). Taste dysfunction in zinc-depleted rats: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Brosvic, G. M., Slotnick, B. M., & Henkin, R. I. (1992). Decreased NaCl sensitivity in zinc-deprived rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 52(3) Sep 1992, 527-533.
- Buckley, S. (2004). Editorial: Down Syndrome: Research & Practice Vol 9(2) Jul 2004, v-vi.
- Budzynski, C. A., Strasser, R., & Bingman, V. P. (1998). The effects of zinc sulphate anosmia on homing pigeons, Columba livia, in a homing and a non-homing experiment: Ethology Vol 104(2) Feb 1998, 111-118.
- Cannon, D. S., Crawford, I. L., & Carrell, L. E. (1988). Zinc deficiency conditions food aversions in rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 42(3) 1988, 245-247.
- Capasso, M., Jeng, J.-M., Malavolta, M., Mocchegiani, E., & Sensi, S. L. (2005). Zinc dyshomeostasis: A key modulator of neuronal injury: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Vol 8(2) 2005, 93-108.
- Caporali, M. G., Bronzetti, E., Ciriaco, E., Niglio, T., & et al. (1991). Changes in the intensity of sulfide staining in fronto-parietal cortex of the rat following nucleus basalis magnocellularis lesions: Possible relevance to Alzheimer's disease: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics Vol 13(2) Sep-Oct 1991, 179-185.
- Carcamo, C., Hooton, T., Weiss, N. S., Gilman, R., Wener, M. H., Chavez, V., et al. (2006). Randomized Controlled Trial of Zinc Supplementation for Persistent Diarrhea in Adults with HIV-1 Infection: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes Vol 43(2) Oct 2006, 197-201.
- Cavnaugh, R. H. (1991). Histamine, copper and zinc in relation to psychopathology and depression in schizophrenia: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Chafetz, M. D. (1984). Anorexia: A micronutrient model: Southern Psychologist Vol 2(1) Win 1984, 39-47.
- Chafetz, M. D., & Barbay, S. (1985). Zinc deprivation and mental chelation effects on reactivity and eight-arm maze behavior: Nutrition & Behavior Vol 2(4) 1985, 213-224.
- Chafetz, M. D., & Duhon, J. (1987). Evidence for behavioral regulation of dietary zinc intake: Nutrition & Behavior Vol 3(4) 1987, 279-289.
- Chateau, D., & Aron, C. (1990). Peripheral anosmia and display of lordosis behaviour in the male rat: Behavioural Processes Vol 22(1-2) Dec 1990, 33-40.
- Chen, C.-J., & Liao, S.-L. (2003). Neurotrophic and neurotoxic effects of zinc on neonatal cortical neurons: Neurochemistry International Vol 42(6) May 2003, 471-479.
- Chen, Q., Qiu, L., Tian, S., Gu, L., & et al. (1993). A study of zinc on learning memory in rats: Acta Psychologica Sinica Vol 25(2) Sum 1993, 211-215.
- Cho, C. H., Fong, L. Y., Ma, P. C., & Ogle, C. W. (1987). Zinc deficiency: Its role in gastric secretion and stress-induced gastric ulceration in rats: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 26(2) Feb 1987, 293-297.
- Choi, J.-S., Kim, K.-A., Yoon, Y.-J., Fujikado, T., & Joo, C.-K. (2006). Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 expression by zinc-chelator in retinal ischemia: Vision Research Vol 46(17) Sep 2006, 2721-2727.
- Chu, Y., Mouat, M. F., Harris, R. B. S., Coffield, J. A., & Grider, A. (2003). Water maze performance and changes in serum corticosterone levels in zinc-deprived and pair-fed rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 78(4-5) Apr 2003, 569-578.
- Coleman, G. J., & Hay, M. (1990). Anticipatory wheel-running in behaviorally anosmic rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 47(6) Jun 1990, 1145-1151.
- Collipp, P. J., & et al. (1984). The effects of dietary zinc deficiency on voluntary alcohol drinking in rats: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research Vol 8(6) Nov-Dec 1984, 556-559.
- Constantinidis, J. (1990). Alzheimer's disease and zinc: Schweizer Archiv fur Neurologie und Psychiatrie Vol 141(6) 1990, 523-556.
- Constantinidis, J. (1991). Hypothesis regarding amyloid and zinc in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease: Potential for preventive intervention: Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders Vol 5(1) Spr 1991, 31-35.
- Czupryn, A., & Skangiel-Kramska, J. (2003). Switch time-point for rapid experience-dependent changes in zinc-containing circuits in the mouse barrel cortex: Brain Research Bulletin Vol 61(4) Aug 2003, 385-391.
- De Castro-e-Silva, E., Ferreira, H. S., Magrani, J., Santamaria, G. F., & Fregoneze, J. B. (2002). Central administration of zinc reduces salt intake in rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 75(4) Apr 2002, 531-539.
- de Oliveira, F. S., Viana, M. R., Antoniolli, A. R., & Marchioro, M. (2001). Differential effects of lead and zinc on inhibitory avoidance learning in mice: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research Vol 34(1) Jan 2001, 117-120.
- Dyck, R. H., Chaudhuri, A., & Cynader, M. S. (2003). Experience-dependent Regulation of the Zincergic Innervation of Visual Cortex in Adult Monkeys: Cerebral Cortex Vol 13(10) Oct 2003, 1091-1109.
- Eberhardt, M. J., & Halas, E. S. (1987). Developmental delays in offspring of rats undernourished or zinc deprived during lactation: Physiology & Behavior Vol 41(4) 1987, 309-314.
- Erickson, J. C., Hollopeter, G., Thomas, S. A., Froelick, G. J., & et al. (1997). Disruption of the metallothionein-III gene in mice: Analysis of brain zinc, behavior, and neuron vulnerability to metals, aging, and seizures: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 17(4) Feb 1997, 1271-1281.
- Essa, M., Gibbs, H., & Chojnacki, M. (1984). Zinc and copper in dementia: Clinical Gerontologist Vol 3(2) Win 1984, 43-45.
- Essatara, M. B., & et al. (1984). The role of the endogenous opiates in zinc deficiency anorexia: Physiology & Behavior Vol 32(3) Mar 1984, 475-478.
- Essatara, M. B., Levine, A. S., Morley, J. E., & McClain, C. J. (1984). Zinc deficiency and anorexia in rats: Normal feeding patterns and stress induced feeding: Physiology & Behavior Vol 32(3) Mar 1984, 469-474.
- Essatara, M. B., McClain, C. J., Levine, A. S., & Morley, J. E. (1984). Zinc deficiency and anorexia in rats: The effect of central administration of norepinephrine, muscimol and bromerogocryptine: Physiology & Behavior Vol 32(3) Mar 1984, 479-482.
- Exley, C. (2006). Aluminium and iron, but neither copper nor zinc, are key to the precipitation of beta -sheets of Abeta -sub-4-sub-2 in senile plaque cores in Alzheimer's disease: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Vol 10(2-3) 2006, 173-177.
- Flinn, J. M., Hunter, D., Linkous, D. H., Lanzirotti, A., Smith, L. N., Brightwell, J., et al. (2005). Enhanced zinc consumption causes memory deficits and increased brain levels of zinc: Physiology & Behavior Vol 83(5) Jan 2005, 793-803.
- Franco, J. L., Posser, T., Brocardo, P. S., Trevisan, R., Uliano-Silva, M., Gabilan, N. H., et al. (2008). Involvement of glutathione, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and BDNF expression in the antidepressant-like effect of zinc in rats: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 188(2) Apr 2008, 316-323.
- Frederickson, C. J., Koh, J.-Y., & Bush, A. I. (2005). The neurobiology of zinc in health and disease: Nature Reviews Neuroscience Vol 6(6) Jun 2005, 449-462.
- Frederickson, R. E., Frederickson, C. J., & Danscher, G. (1990). In situ binding of bouton zinc reversibly disrupts performance on a spatial memory task: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 38(1) Apr 1990, 25-33.
- Golub, M. S., Keen, C. L., Gershwin, M. E., & Vijayan, V. K. (1986). Growth, development, and brain zinc levels in mice marginally or severely deprived of zinc during postembryonic brain development: Nutrition & Behavior Vol 3(2) 1986, 169-180.
- Golub, M. S., Keen, C. L., Hendrickx, A. G., & Gershwin, M. E. (1991). Food preference of young rhesus monkeys fed marginally zinc deficient diets: Primates Vol 32(1) Jan 1991, 49-59.
- Goulart, E. C., Pereira, C. A. T., Garcia, R. C., Giacomelli, M. B. O., & Rodrigues, A. L. S. (2001). Effects of lead and/or zinc exposure during the second stage of rapid postnatal brain growth on delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase and negative geotaxis of suckling rats: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research Vol 34(6) Jun 2001, 785-790.
- Grant, E. C. G. (2004). Developmental dyslexia and zinc deficiency: Lancet Vol 364(9430) Jul 2004, 247-248.
- Gronec, J., & Kolomaznik, M. (1989). Blood serum zinc levels in some mental disorders: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii imeni S S Korsakova Vol 89(10) 1989, 126-127.
- Guidolin, D., Polato, P., Venturin, G., Zanotti, A., Mocchegiani, E., Fabris, N., et al. (1992). Correlation between zinc level in hippocampal mossy fibers and spatial memory in aged rats. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences.
- Halas, E. S., Hunt, C. D., & Eberhardt, M. J. (1986). Learning and memory disabilities in young adult rats from mildly zinc deficient dams: Physiology & Behavior Vol 37(3) 1986, 451-458.
- Hamadani, J. D., Fuchs, G. J., Osendarp, S. J. M., Huda, S. N., & Grantham-McGregor, S. M. (2002). Zinc supplementation during pregnancy and effects on mental development and behaviour of infants: A follow-up study: Lancet Vol 360(9329) Jul 2002, 290-294.
- Hao, Q., & Maret, W. (2005). Imbalance between pro-oxidant and pro-antioxidant functions of zinc in disease: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Vol 8(2) 2005, 161-170.
- Heinitz, M. F. (2005). Alzheimer's Disease and Trace Elements: Chromium and Zinc: Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine Vol 20(2) 2005, 89-92.
- Herran, A., Garcia-Unzueta, M. T., Fernandez-Gonzalez, M. D., Vazquez-Barquero, J. L., Alvarez, C., & Amada, J. A. (2000). Higher levels of serum copper in schizophrenic patients treated with depot neuroleptics: Psychiatry Research Vol 94(1) Apr 2000, 51-58.
- Honkaniemi, J., Zhang, J. S., Longo, F. M., & Sharp, F. R. (2000). Stress induces zinc finger immediate early genes in the rat adrenal gland: Brain Research Vol 877(2) Sep 2000, 203-208.
- Hronek, J., Holecek, V., & Kolomaznik, M. (1989). Zinc-serum levels in dementia: Activitas Nervosa Superior Vol 31(2) Jun 1989, 125-126.
- Humphrey, P. A., Ashraf, M., & Lee, C. M. (1997). Growth of trypanosomes in vivo, host body weight gains, and food consumption in zinc-deficient mice: Journal of the National Medical Association Vol 89(1) Jan 1997, 48-56.
- Humphries, L., Vivian, B., Stuart, M., & McClain, C. J. (1989). Zinc deficiency and eating disorders: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 50(12) Dec 1989, 456-459.
- Iannotti, L. (2007). Maternal zinc supplementation: Growth, body composition, and morbidity outcomes through infancy. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Islam, S., Carter, K., Ni Mhurchu, C., & Anderson, C. S. (2007). Selenium and Zinc in hair and toenails in relation to the physical and mental health status of older adults: The Freemasons Health study in New Zealand: Australasian Journal on Ageing Vol 26(4) Dec 2007, 180-186.
- Itoh, T., Saito, T., Fujimura, M., Watanabe, S., & et al. (1993). Restraint stress-induced changes in endogenous zinc release from the rat hippocampus: Brain Research Vol 618(2) Aug 1993, 318-322.
- Jensen, H. S., Callo, K., Jespersen, T., Jensen, B. S., & Olesen, S.-P. (2005). The KCNQ5 potassium channel from mouse: A broadly expressed M-current like potassium channel modulated by zinc, pH, and volume changes: Molecular Brain Research Vol 139(1) Sep 2005, 52-62.
- Kawamoto, J. C., Castonguay, T. W., Keen, C. L., Stern, J. S., & et al. (1986). Age, sex and reproductive status alter the severity of anorexia in zinc deficient rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 38(4) Oct 1986, 485-493.
- Kay, A. R., & Toth, K. (2006). Influence of Location of a Fluorescent Zinc Probe in Brain Slices on Its Response to Synaptic Activation: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 95(3) Mar 2006, 1949-1956.
- Keast, R. S. J., Canty, T. M., & Breslin, P. A. S. (2004). Oral Zinc Sulfate Solutions Inhibit Sweet Taste Perception: Chemical Senses Vol 29(6) Jul 2004, 513-521.
- Keller, K. A., Grider, A., & Coffield, J. A. (2001). Age-dependent influence of dietary zinc restriction on short-term memory in male rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 72(3) Feb 2001, 339-348.
- Keller, K. L. (2000). Influence of dietary zinc depletion and repletion on memory in rats of various ages. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Keller, M., Douhard, Q., Baum, M. J., & Bakker, J. (2006). Destruction of the Main Olfactory Epithelium Reduces Female Sexual Behavior and Olfactory Investigation in Female Mice: Chemical Senses Vol 31(4) May 2006, 315-323.
- Keller, M., Douhard, Q., Baum, M. J., & Bakker, J. (2006). Sexual Experience Does Not Compensate for the Disruptive Effects of Zinc Sulfate-Lesioning of the Main Olfactory Epithelium on Sexual Behavior in Male Mice: Chemical Senses Vol 31(8) Oct 2006, 753-762.
- Kenn, C., & Gibb, E. (1986). The role of zinc in senile dementia: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 149 Aug 1986, 221-223.
- Kodirov, S. A., Takizawa, S., Joseph, J., Kandel, E. R., Shumyatsky, G. P., & Bolshakov, V. Y. (2006). Synaptically released zinc gates long-term potentiation in fear conditioning pathways: PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Vol 103(41) Oct 2006, 15218-15223.
- Kopala, L. C., Good, K., Goldner, E. M., & Birmingham, C. L. (1995). Olfactory identification ability in anorexia nervosa: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience Vol 20(4) Jul 1995, 283-286.
- Kroczka, B., Branski, P., Palucha, A., Pilc, A., & Nowak, G. (2001). Antidepressant-like properties of zinc in rodent forced swim test: Brain Research Bulletin Vol 55(2) May 2001, 297-300.
- Krueger, R. G. (1931). An improved system of kymographic recording: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 14(2) Apr 1931, 176-179.
- Kun, Y., Guang-rong, X., & Chang-hong, W. (2005). Changes of Level and Clinical Significance of Serum Cytokine, C-reactive Protein and Zinc in Patients with Depression: Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 13(4) Nov 2005, 474-476.
- Land, P. W., & Akhtar, N. D. (1999). Experience-dependent alteration of synaptic zinc in rat somatosensory barrel cortex: Somatosensory & Motor Research Vol 16(2) 1999, 139-150.
- Larson, A. A., & Kitto, K. F. (1997). Manipulations of zinc in the spinal cord, by intrathecal injection of zinc chloride, disodium-calcium-EDTA, or dipicolinic acid, alter nociceptive activity in mice: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Vol 282(3) Sep 1997, 1319-1325.
- Lask, B., Fosson, A., Rolfe, U., & Thomas, S. (1993). Zinc deficiency and childhood-onset anorexia nervosa: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 54(2) Feb 1993, 63-66.
- Lerman-Sagie, T., Statter, M., & Lerman, P. (1987). Low erythrocyte zinc content in acquired aphasia with convulsive disorder (Landau-Kleffner syndrome): Journal of Child Neurology Vol 2(1) Jan 1987, 28-30.
- Lester, M. L., Horst, R. L., & Thatcher, R. W. (1986). Protective effects of zinc and calcium against heavy metal impairment of children's cognitive function: Nutrition & Behavior Vol 3(2) 1986, 145-161.
- Licastro, F., Chiricolo, M., Mocchegiani, E., Fabris, N., & et al. (1994). Oral zinc supplementation in Down's syndrome subjects decreased infections and normalized some humoral and cellular immune parameters: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research Vol 38(2) Apr 1994, 149-162.
- Licastro, F., Mariani, R. A., Faldella, G., Carpene, E., Guidicini, G., Rangoni, A., et al. (2001). Immune-endocrine status and coeliac disease in children with Down's syndrome: Relationships with zinc and cognitive efficiency: Brain Research Bulletin Vol 55(2) May 2001, 313-317.
- Licastro, F., Savorani, G., Sarti, G., Salsi, A., & et al. (1990). Zinc and thymic hormone-dependent immunity in normal ageing and in patients with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type: Journal of Neuroimmunology Vol 27(2-3) May 1990, 201-208.
- Little, K. Y., Castellanos, X., Humphries, L. L., & Austin, J. (1989). Altered zinc metabolism in mood disorder patients: Biological Psychiatry Vol 26(6) Oct 1989, 646-648.
- Liu, T., Walker, J. S., & Tracey, D. J. (1999). Zinc alleviates thermal hyperalgesia due to partial nerve injury: Neuroreport: For Rapid Communication of Neuroscience Research Vol 10(7) May 1999, 1619-1623.
- Lofts, R. H., Schroeder, S. R., & Maier, R. H. (1990). Effects of serum zinc supplementation on pica behavior of persons with mental retardation: American Journal on Mental Retardation Vol 95(1) Jul 1990, 103-109.
- Loonen, A. J. M., Schmeets, M. G. J., ter Braak, G. I. J. M., & van Bavel, L. P. (2003). The influence of zinc on the uptake of vitamin B12 by the cerebrospinal fluid: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Vol 18(6) Jun 2003, 540-541.
- Maes, M., De Vos, N., Demedts, P., Wauters, A., & Neels, H. (1999). Lower serum zinc in major depression in relation to changes in serum acute phase proteins: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 56(2-3) Dec 1999, 189-194.
- Maes, M., D'Haese, P. C., Scharpe, S., D'Hondt, P., & et al. (1994). Hypozincemia in depression: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 31(2) Jun 1994, 135-140.
- Maes, M., Mihaylova, I., & De Ruyter, M. (2006). Lower serum zinc in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Relationships to immune dysfunctions and relevance for the oxidative stress status in CFS: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 90(2-3) Feb 2006, 141-147.
- Maes, M., Vandoolaeghe, E., Neels, H., Demedts, P., & et al. (1997). Lower serum zinc in major depression is a sensitive marker of treatment resistance and of the immune/inflammatory response in that illness: Biological Psychiatry Vol 42(5) Sep 1997, 349-358.
- Marcellini, F., Giuli, C., Papa, R., Gagliardi, C., Malavolta, M., & Mocchegiani, E. (2007). Psychosocial and biochemical interactions in aging: Preliminary results from an Italian old sample of "Zincage" project: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics Vol 44(Suppl 1) 2007, 259-269.
- Markovits, P. M., Sankey, A. W., James, D. K., McCabe, R., & et al. (1990). Zinc taste test and postnatal depression: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 156 Mar 1990, 451-452.
- Martin-Lopez, M., Cano, A., & Navarro, J. F. (1996). Effects of high doses of sulpiride on agonistic behavior in male rats: Psicothema Vol 8(1) Feb 1996, 161-166.
- Mayer, A. D., & Rosenblatt, J. S. (1993). Peripheral olfactory deafferentation of the primary olfactory system in rats using ZnSO-sub-4 nasal spray with special reference to maternal behavior: Physiology & Behavior Vol 53(3) Mar 1993, 587-592.
- McClain, C. J., McClain, M. L., Boosalis, M. G., & Hennig, B. (1993). Zinc and the stress response: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health Vol 19(Suppl 1) 1993, 132-133.
- McDaid, O., Stewart-Knox, B., Parr, H., & Simpson, E. (2007). Dietary zinc intake and sex differences in taste acuity in healthy young adults: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics Vol 20(2) Apr 2007, 103-110.
- McGee, R., Williams, S., Anderson, J., McKenzie-Parnell, J. M., & et al. (1990). Hyperactivity and serum and hair zinc levels in 11-year-old children from the general population: Biological Psychiatry Vol 28(2) Jul 1990, 165-168.
- McLoughlin, I. J. (1987). Zinc in senile dementia: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 150 Mar 1987, 409.
- McLoughlin, I. J., & Hodge, J. S. (1990). Zinc in depressive disorder: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 82(6) Dec 1990, 451-453.
- Menzano, E., & Carlen, P. L. (1994). Zinc deficiency and corticosteroids in the pathogenesis of alcoholic brain dysfunction: A review: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research Vol 18(4) Aug 1994, 895-901.
- Miyachi, Y. (1996). Head-up behavior induced by low-doses of X-irradiation in the mouse and its disappearance by zinc sulfate perfusion in the nasal passage: Behavioural Processes Vol 36(3) Jun 1996, 297-301.
- Mocchegiani, E., & Malavolta, M. (2007). Zinc dyshomeostasis, ageing and neurodegeneration: Implications of A2M and inflammatory gene polymorphisms: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Vol 12(1) 2007, 101-109.
- Moulton, P. L. (2003). Impact of corticosterone and zinc deprivation on memory and hippocampal functioning. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Nowak, G., Szewczyk, B., Wieronska, J. M., Branski, P., Palucha, A., Pilc, A., et al. (2003). Antidepressant-like effects of acute and chronic treatment with zinc in forced swim test and olfactory bulbectomy model in rats: Brain Research Bulletin Vol 61(2) Jul 2003, 159-164.
- Nowak, G., Zieba, A., Dudek, D., Krosniak, M., Szymaczek, M., & Schlegel-Zawadzka, M. (1999). Serum trace elements in animal models and human depression: Part I. Zinc: Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental Vol 14(2) Mar 1999, 83-86.
- Ohara, I., Tabuchi, R., Kimura, M., & Itokawa, Y. (1995). Decline of taste sensitivity in protein deficient adult rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 57(5) May 1995, 921-926.
- Pepersack, T., Rotsaert, P., Benoit, f., Willems, D., Fuss, M., Bourdoux, P., et al. (2001). Prevalence of zinc deficiency and its clinical relevance among hospitalized elderly: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics Vol 33(3) Nov-Dec 2001, 243-253.
- Pick, C. G., Statter, M., Shachar, D. B., Youdim, M. B., & et al. (1987). Normal zinc and iron concentrations in mice after early exposure to phenobarbital: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience Vol 5(5-6) 1987, 391-398.
- Pilaczynska, E., Rybakowski, J., Zachara, B., Borowska, K., & et al. (1988). Trace elements (zinc, selenium) in alcohol dependence: Psychiatria Polska Vol 22(3) May-Jun 1988, 216-222.
- Poletaeva, I. I. (1986). Food search by mice during extrapolation problem solving after zinc-induced anosmia: Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'nosti Vol 36(4) Jul-Aug 1986, 680-685.
- Porter, R. H., Sentell, S. W., & Makin, J. W. (1987). Effects of intranasal ZnSO-sub-4 irrigation are mitigated by the presence of untreated littermates: Physiology & Behavior Vol 40(1) 1987, 97-102.
- Quaye, V. L., Shamalla-Hannah, L., & Land, P. W. (1999). Experience-dependent alteration of zinc-containing circuits in somatosensory cortex of the mouse: Developmental Brain Research Vol 114(2) May 1999, 283-287.
- Rai, G. S. (1986). Chelation therapy in dementia: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Vol 34(5) May 1986, 413.
- Rains, T. M., Hedrick, S., Randall, A. C., Lee, R. G., Kennedy, K. J., & Shay, N. F. (1998). Food intake patterns are altered during long-term zinc deficiency in rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 65(3) Dec 1998, 473-478.
- Redenti, S., & Chappell, R. L. (2004). Localization of zinc transporter-3 (ZnT-3) in mouse retina: Vision Research Vol 44(28) Dec 2004, 3317-3321.
- Religa, D., Strozyk, D., Cherny, R. A., Volitakis, I., Haroutunian, V., Winblad, B., et al. (2006). Elevated cortical zinc in Alzheimer disease: Neurology Vol 67(1) Jul 2006, 69-75.
- Ripamonti, C., & Fulfaro, F. (1998). Taste alterations in cancer patients: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management Vol 16(6) Dec 1998, 349-351.
- Roberts, B. R. (2007). Structural studies of the antioxidant defense enzymes: Copper, zinc superoxide dismutase and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase flavoprotein. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Romano, C., Pettinato, R., Ragusa, L., Barone, C., Alberti, A., & Failla, P. (2002). Is there a relationship between zinc and the peculiar comorbidities of Down syndrome? : Down Syndrome: Research & Practice Vol 8(1) Mar 2002, 25-28.
- Ronzoni, S., Gaber, S., Vetta, F., Bruno, A., Lupattelli, M. R., Di Massimo, M., et al. (2001). Serum zinc levels in demented institutionalized patients: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics Suppl 7 2001, 341-346.
- Rosa, A. O., Lin, J., Calixto, J. B., Santos, A. R. S., & Rodrigues, A. L. S. (2003). Involvement of NMDA receptors and L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in the antidepressant-like effects of zinc in mice: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 144(1-2) Sep 2003, 87-93.
- Ross, J. F., & Lawhorn, G. T. (1990). ZPT-related distal axonopathy: Behavioral and electrophysiologic correlates in rats: Neurotoxicology and Teratology Vol 12(2) Mar-Apr 1990, 153-159.
- Safai-Kutti, S. (1990). Oral zinc supplementation in anorexia nervosa: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 82(361, Suppl) Oct 1990, 14-17.
- Safai-Kutti, S., & Kutti, J. (1986). Zinc therapy in anorexia nervosa: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 143(8) Aug 1986, 1059.
- Safieh-Garabedian, B., Poole, S., Allchorne, A., Kanaan, S., & et al. (1996). Zinc reduces the hyperalgesia and upregulation of NGF and IL-1beta produced by peripheral inflammation in the rat: Neuropharmacology Vol 35(5) May 1996, 599-603.
- Sahu, R. N., Pandey, R. S., Subhash, M. N., Arya, B. Y., & et al. (1988). CSF zinc in Alzheimer's type dementia: Biological Psychiatry Vol 24(4) Aug 1988, 480-482.
- Savage, D. D., Montano, C. Y., Paxton, L. L., & Kasarskis, E. J. (1989). Prenatal ethanol exposure decreases hippocampal mossy fiber zinc in 45-day-old rats: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research Vol 13(4) Aug 1989, 588-593.
- Schauss, A. G., & Bryce-Smith, D. (1987). Evidence of zinc deficiency in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Basel, Switzerland: Karger.
- Sensi, S. L., & Van Rensburg, S. (2005). It's All in the Metals: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Vol 8(2) 2005, 207-208.
- Seven, A., Candan, G., Hacibekiroglu, M., Damci, D., & et al. (1993). The effects of lithium therapy on insulin, glycated protein and erythocyte zinc values in psychotic patients: Medical Science Research Vol 21(7) Apr 1993, 279-280.
- Shepherd, R., Farleigh, C. A., & Pryor, J. S. (1986). Changes in salt taste in dialysis and their relationship to blood constituents: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 62(2) Apr 1986, 343-347.
- Shetlar, C. L., Cogan, D. C., Sparkman, G. W., Wang, M. M., & et al. (1986). Zinc and ethanol: Dietary interrelationships in pregnant rats: Alcohol Vol 3(2) Mar-Apr 1986, 145-152.
- Shore, D., & et al. (1984). Hair and serum copper, zinc, calcium, and magnesium concentrations in Alzheimer-type dementia: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Vol 32(12) Dec 1984, 892-895.
- Siwek, M., Wrobel, A., Dudek, D., Nowak, G., & Zieba, A. (2005). The role of zinc in the pathogenesis and treatment of affective disorders: Psychiatria Polska Vol 39(5) Sep-Oct 2005, 899-909.
- Slotnick, B., Glover, P., & Bodyak, N. (2000). Does intranasal application of zinc sulfate produce anosmia in the rat? : Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 114(4) Aug 2000, 814-829.
- Smith, A. P., Tyrrell, D. A., Al-Nakib, W., Barrow, I., & et al. (1991). Effects of zinc gluconate and nedocromil sodium on performance deficits produced by the common cold: Journal of Psychopharmacology Vol 5(3) 1991, 251-254.
- Stoll, A. L., & Oepen, G. (1994). Zinc salts for the treatment of olfactory and gustatory symptoms in psychiatric patients: A case series: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 55(7) Jul 1994, 309-311.
- Su, J. C., & Birmingham, C. L. (2002). Zinc supplementation in the treatment of anorexia nervosa: Eating and Weight Disorders Vol 7(1) Mar 2002, 20-22.
- Suh, S. W., Jensen, K. B., Jensen, M. S., Silva, D. S., Kesslak, P. J., Danscher, G., et al. (2000). Histochemically-reactive zinc in amyloid plaques, angiopathy, and degenerating neurons of Alzheimer's diseased brains: Brain Research Vol 852(2) Jan 2000, 274-278.
- Summers, B. L., Henry, C. M. A., Rofe, A. M., & Coyle, P. (2008). Dietary zinc supplementation during pregnancy prevents spatial and object recognition memory impairments caused by early prenatal ethanol exposure: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 186(2) Jan 2008, 230-238.
- Takeda, A., Takefuta, S., Okada, S., & Oku, N. (2000). Relationship between brain zinc and transient learning impairment of adult rats fed zinc-deficient diet: Brain Research Vol 859(2) Mar 2000, 352-357.
- Takeda, A., Tamano, H., Kan, F., Itoh, H., & Oku, N. (2007). Anxiety-like behavior of young rats after 2-week zinc deprivation: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 177(1) Feb 2007, 1-6.
- Tan, U., Kutlu, N., Bakan, E., Bakan, N., & et al. (1992). Relationship of serum zinc levels to hand preference, skull length and serum gonadal hormone levels in right-handed young adults: International Journal of Neuroscience Vol 66(1-2) Sep 1992, 17-24.
- Tannhauser, P. P. (2002). Anorexia nervosa: A multifactorial disease of nutritional origin? : International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health Vol 14(3) Jul-Sep 2002, 185-191.
- Tannhauser, P. P., Latzer, Y., Rozen, G., Tamir, A., & Naveh, Y. (2001). Zinc status and meat avoidance in anorexia nervosa: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health Vol 13(4) Oct-Dec 2001, 317-326.
- Tinius, T. P., Beckwith, B. E., & Halas, E. S. (1986). Effects of mild perinatal zinc deficiency on passive avoidance: Nutrition & Behavior Vol 3(2) 1986, 163-168.
- Tomita, H., & Yoshikawa, T. (2002). Drug-related taste disturbances: Acta Oto-Laryngologica Vol 122(4,Suppl546) 2002, 116-121.
- Toren, P., Eldar, S., Sela, B.-A., Wolmer, L., & et al. (1996). Zinc deficiency in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Biological Psychiatry Vol 40(12) Dec 1996, 1308-1310.
- Tuormaa, T. E. (1995). Adverse effects of zinc deficiency: A review from the literature: Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine Vol 10(3-4) 1995, 149-164.
- Turner, T. Y., & Soliman, M. R. I. (2000). Effects of zinc on spatial reference memory and brain dopamine (D-sub-1) receptor binding kinetics in rats: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 24(7) Oct 2000, 1203-1217.
- Urakami, K., Sato, K., Okada, A., Mura, T., & et al. (1995). Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica Vol 91(3) Mar 1995, 165-168.
- Wang, X.-Y., Liu, G.-W., & Li, J.-S. (2006). Study on Effects and Mechanisms of Taurine--zinc at the Function of Cognition in Sleep Deprivation Rats: Chinese Mental Health Journal Vol 20(12) Dec 2006, 783-786.
- Wenk, G. L., Harrington, C. A., Tucker, D. A., Rance, N. E., & Walker, L. C. (1992). Basal forebrain neurons and memory: A biochemical, histological, and behavioral study of differential vulnerability to ibotenate and quisqualate: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 106(6) Dec 1992, 909-923.
- Williamson, P. S., Browning, J. D., & MacDonald, R. S. (2002). Megestrol acetate increases short-term food intake in zinc-deficient rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 75(3) Mar 2002, 323-330.
- Wisner, A., Dufour, E., Messaoudi, M., Nejdi, A., Marcel, A., Ungeheuer, M.-N., et al. (2006). Human Opiorphin, a natural antinociceptive modulator of opioid-dependent pathways: PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Vol 103(47) Nov 2006, 17979-17984.
- Wu, C.-t., Lee, J.-n., Shen, W. W., & Lee, S.-l. (1984). Serum zinc, copper, and ceruloplasmin levels in male alcoholics: Biological Psychiatry Vol 19(9) Sep 1984, 1333-1338.
- Yenigun, A., Ozkinay, F., Cogulu, O., Coker, C., Cetiner, N., Ozden, G., et al. (2004). Hair zinc level in Down syndrome: Down Syndrome: Research & Practice Vol 9(2) Jul 2004, 53-57.
- Yorbik, O., Olgun, A., Kirmizigul, P., & Akman, S. (2004). Plasma Zinc and Copper Levels in Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Klinik Psikiyatri Dergisi Vol 7(2) 2004, 80-84.
- Yorbik, O., Olgun, A., Kirmizigul, P., & Akman, S. (2004). Plasma Zinc and Copper Levels in Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder: Turk Psikiyatri Dergisi Vol 15(4) 2004, 276-281.
- Zuchner, T., Schliebe, N., & Schliebs, R. (2006). Zinc uptake is mediated by M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in differentiated SK-SH-SY5Y cells: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience Vol 24(1) Feb 2006, 23-27.
- Los Alamos National Laboratory - Zinc
- WebElements.com – Zinc
- Indian Contribution
- History & Etymology of Zinc
- Discovering the 8th metal
- Statistics and Information from the U.S. Geological Survey
- Reducing Agents > Zinc
- American Zinc Association Information about the uses and properties of zinc.
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|