Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
This is a background article on Zen. For psychological aspects see:
Zen (Japanese: 禅) from Dhyana (Sanskrit) via Chán (Chinese: 禅|禅) and Sŏn (Korean: 선|선) is a school of Mahāyāna Buddhism notable for its emphasis on mindful acceptance of the present moment, spontaneous action, and letting go of self-conscious, judgmental thinking
It emphasizes dharma practice and experiential wisdom—particularly as realized in the form of meditation known as zazen—in the attainment of awakening. As such, it de-emphasizes both theoretical knowledge and the study of religious texts in favor of direct individual experience of one's own true nature.
A broader term is the Sanskrit word "dhyana", which exists also in other religions in India.
The emergence of Chán (Zen) as a distinct school of Buddhism was first documented in China in the 7th century CE. It is thought to have developed as an amalgam of various currents in Mahāyāna Buddhist thought—among them the Yogācāra and Madhyamaka philosophies and the Prajñāpāramitā literature—and of local traditions in China, particularly Taoism and Huáyán Buddhism. From China, Chán subsequently spread southwards to Vietnam and eastwards to Korea and Japan. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Zen also began to establish a notable presence in North America and Europe.
The Five Houses of Zen
Developing primarily in the Tang dynasty in China, Classic Zen is traditionally divided historically into the Five Houses of Zen or five "schools". These were not originally regarded as "schools," or "sects," but historically, they have come to be understood that way. In their early history, the schools were not institutionalized, they were without dogma, and the teachers which founded them were not idolized.
The Five Houses of Zen are :
- Kuei-Yang, named after masters Kuei-shan Ling-yu (771-854) and Yang-Shen Hui-chi (813-890)
- Lin-chi, from which the modern Rinzai, Obaku, and (now defunct) Fuke schools were formed, named after master Lin-chi I-hsuan (d. 866)
- Tsao-tung, from which the modern Soto school was formed, named after masters Tung-shan Liang-chieh (807-869) and Ts'ao-shan Pen-chi (840-901)
- Yun-men, named after master Yun-men Wen-yen (d. 949)
- Fa-yen, named after master Fa-yen Wen-i (885-958)
Most Zen lineages throughout Asia and the rest of the world originally grew from or were heavily influenced by the original five houses of Zen.
Zen teachings and practices
Zen asserts, as do other schools in Mahayana Buddhism, that all sentient beings have Buddha-nature, the universal nature of inherent wisdom (Sanskrit prajna) and virtue, and emphasizes that Buddha-nature is nothing other than the nature of mind itself. The aim of Zen practice is to discover this Buddha-nature within each person, through meditation and mindfulness of daily experiences. Zen practitioners believe that this provides new perspectives and insights on existence, which ultimately lead to enlightenment.
In distinction to many other Buddhist sects, Zen dis-emphasizes reliance on religious texts and verbal discourse on metaphysical questions. Zen holds that these things lead the practitioner to seek external answers, rather than searching within their own minds for the direct intuitive apperception of Buddha-nature. This search within goes under various terms such as “introspection,” “a backward step,” “turning-about,” or “turning the eye inward.”
In this sense, Zen, as a means to deepen the practice and in contrast to many other religions, could be seen as fiercely anti-philosophical, iconoclastic, anti-prescriptive and anti-theoretical. The importance of Zen's non-reliance on written words is often misunderstood as being against the use of words. However, Zen is deeply rooted in both the scriptural teachings of the Buddha Siddhārtha Gautama and in Mahāyāna Buddhist thought and philosophy. What Zen emphasizes is that the awakening taught by the Buddha came through his meditation practice, not from any words that he read or discovered, and so it is primarily through meditation that others too may awaken to the same insights as the Buddha.
The teachings on the technique and practice of turning the eye inward are found in many suttas and sutras of Buddhist canons, but in its beginnings in China, Zen primarily referred to the Mahayana Sutras and especially to the Lankavatara Sutra. Ironically, since Bodhidharma taught the turning-about techniques of dhyana with reference to the Lankavatara Sutra, the Zen school was initially identified with that sutra. It was in part through reaction to such limiting identification with one text that Chinese Zen cultivated its famous non-reliance on written words and independence of any one scripture. However, a review of the teachings of the early Zen masters clearly reveals that they were all well versed in various scriptures. For example, in The Platform Sutra of the Sixth ancestor and founder Huineng, this famously "illiterate" Zen master cites and explains the Diamond Sutra, the Lotus Sutra, the Vimalakirti Sutra, the Shurangama Sutra, and the Lankavatara Sutra.
When Buddhism came to China the doctrine of the three core practices or trainings, the training in virtue and discipline in the precepts (Sanskrit Śīla), the training in mind through meditation (dhyana or jhana) sometimes called concentration (samadhi), and the training in discernment and wisdom (prajna), was already established in the Pali canon.(http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an03/an03.088.than.html#trainings) In this context, as Buddhism became adapted to Chinese culture, three types of teachers with expertise in each training practice developed. Vinaya masters were versed in all the rules of discipline for monks and nuns. Dhyana masters were versed in the practice of meditation. And Dharma, i.e., teaching or sutra, masters were versed in the Buddhist texts. Monastaries and practice centers were created that tended to focus on either the vinaya and training of monks or the teachings focused on one scripture or a small group of texts. Dhyana or Chan masters tended to practice in solitary hermitages or to be associated with the Vinaya training monasteries or sutra teaching centers.
After Bodhidharma's arrival in the late fifth century, the subsequent dhyana-chan masters who were associated with his teaching line consolidated around the practice of meditation and the feeling that mere observance of the rules of discipline or the intellectual teachings of the scriptures did not emphasize enough the actual practice and personal experience of the Buddha's meditation that led to the Buddha's awakening. Awakening like the Buddha, and not merely following rules or memorizing texts became the watchword of the dhyana-chan practitioners. Within 200 years after Bodhidharma at the beginning of the Tang Dynasty, by the time of the fifth generation Chan ancestor and founder Daman Hongren (601-674), the Zen of Bodhidharma's successors had become well established as a separate school of Buddhism and the true Zen school.
The core of Zen practice is seated meditation, widely known by its Japanese name Zazen, and recalls both the posture in which the Buddha is said to have achieved enlightenment under the Bodhi tree at Bodh Gaya, and the elements of mindfulness and concentration which are part of the Eightfold Path as taught by the Buddha. All of the Buddha's fundamental teachings—among them the Eightfold Path, the Four Noble Truths, the idea of dependent origination, the five precepts, the five aggregates, and the three marks of existence—also make up important elements of the perspective that Zen takes for its practice. While Buddhists generally revere certain places as a Bodhimandala (circle or place of enlightenment) in Zen wherever one sits in true meditation is said to be a Bodhimandala.
Additionally, as a development of Mahāyāna Buddhism, Zen draws many of its basic driving concepts, particularly the bodhisattva ideal, from that school. Uniquely Mahāyāna figures such as Guānyīn, Mañjuśrī, Samantabhadra, and Amitābha are venerated alongside the historical Buddha. Despite Zen's emphasis on transmission independent of scriptures, it has drawn heavily on the Mahāyāna sūtras, particularly the Heart of Perfect Wisdom Sūtra, Hredaya Pranyaparamita the Sūtra of the Perfection of Wisdom of the Diamond that Cuts through Illusion, The Vajrachedika Pranyaparamita the Lankavatara Sūtra, and the "Samantamukha Parivarta" section of the Lotus Sūtra.
Zen has also itself paradoxically produced a rich corpus of written literature which has become a part of its practice and teaching. Among the earliest and most widely studied of the specifically Zen texts, dating back to at least the 9th century CE, is the Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch, sometimes attributed to Huìnéng. Others include the various collections of kōans and the Shōbōgenzō of Dōgen Zenji.
Zen training emphasizes daily practice, along with intensive periods of meditation. Practicing with others is an integral part of Zen practice. D.T. Suzuki wrote that aspects of this life are: a life of humility; a life of labor; a life of service; a life of prayer and gratitude; and a life of meditation. The Chinese Chan master Baizhang (720–814 CE) left behind a famous saying which had been the guiding principle of his life, "A day without work is a day without food."
- Main article: Zazen
As the name Zen implies, Zen sitting meditation is the core of Zen practice and is called zazen in Japanese (坐禅; Chinese tso-chan [Wade-Giles] or zuòchán [Pinyin]). During zazen, practitioners usually assume a sitting position such as the lotus, half-lotus, Burmese, or seiza postures. To regulate the mind, awareness is directed towards counting or watching the breath or put in the energy center below the navel (Chinese dan tian, Japanese tanden or hara).  Often, a square or round cushion (zafu, 座蒲) placed on a padded mat (zabuton, 座布団) is used to sit on; in some cases, a chair may be used. In Japanese Rinzai Zen tradition practitioners typically sit facing the center of the room; while Japanese Soto practitioners traditionally sit facing a wall.
In Soto Zen, shikantaza meditation ("just-sitting", 只管打坐) that is, a meditation with no objects, anchors, or content, is the primary form of practice. The meditator strives to be aware of the stream of thoughts, allowing them to arise and pass away without interference. Considerable textual, philosophical, and phenomenological justification of this practice can be found throughout Dōgen's Shōbōgenzō, as for example in the "Principles of Zazen" and the "Universally Recommended Instructions for Zazen". Rinzai Zen, instead, emphasizes attention to the breath and koan practice (q.v.).
The amount of time spent daily in zazen by practitioners varies. Dōgen recommends that five minutes or more daily is beneficial for householders. The key is daily regularity, as Zen teaches that the ego will naturally resist, and the discipline of regularity is essential. Practicing Zen monks may perform four to six periods of zazen during a normal day, with each period lasting 30 to 40 minutes. Normally, a monastery will hold a monthly retreat period (sesshin), lasting between one and seven days. During this time, zazen is practiced more intensively: monks may spend four to eight hours in meditation each day, sometimes supplemented by further rounds of zazen late at night.
Meditation as a practice can be applied to any posture. Walking meditation is called kinhin. Successive periods of zazen are usually interwoven with brief periods of walking meditation to relieve the legs.
- Main article: Sesshin
Zazen practice in monasteries is known as sesshin. One distinctive aspect of Zen meditation in groups is the use of the keisaku, a flat wooden stick or slat used to keep meditators focused and awake.
The Zen teacher
- Main article: Zen teacher
Because the Zen tradition emphasizes direct communication over scriptural study, the Zen teacher has traditionally played a central role. Generally speaking, a Zen teacher is a person ordained in any tradition of Zen to teach the Dharma, guide students of meditation, and perform rituals. An important concept for all Zen sects is the notion of dharma transmission: the claim of a line of authority that goes back to Śākyamuni Buddha via the teachings of each successive master to each successive student. This concept relates to the ideas expressed in a description of Zen attributed to Bodhidharma:
- A special transmission outside the scriptures; (教外別傳)
- No dependence upon words and letters; (不立文字)
- Direct pointing to the human mind; (直指人心)
- Seeing into one's own nature and attaining Buddhahood. (見性成佛)
The idea of a line of descent from Śākyamuni Buddha is a distinctive institution of Zen which Suzuki (1949:168) contends was invented by hagiographers to grant Zen legitimacy and prestige.
John McRae’s study “Seeing Through Zen” explores this assertion of lineage as a distinctive and central aspect of Zen Buddhism. He writes of this “genealogical” approach so central to Zen’s self-understanding, that while not without precedent, has unique features. It is “relational (involving interaction between individuals rather than being based solely on individual effort), generational (in that it is organized according to parent-child, or rather teacher-student, generations) and reiterative (i.e., intended for emulation and repetition in the lives of present and future teachers and students.”
McRae offers a detailed criticism of lineage, but he also notes it is central to Zen. So much so that it is hard to envision any claim to Zen that discards claims of lineage. Therefore, for example, in Japanese Soto, lineage charts become a central part of the Sanmatsu, the documents of Dharma transmission. And it is common for daily chanting in Zen temples and monasteries to include the lineage of the school.
In Japan during the Tokugawa period (1600–1868), some came to question the lineage system and its legitimacy. The Zen master Dokuan Genko (1630–1698), for example, openly questioned the necessity of written acknowledgment from a teacher, which he dismissed as "paper Zen." Quite a number of teachers in Japan during the Tokugawa period did not adhere to the lineage system; these were termed mushi dokugo (無師獨悟, "independently enlightened without a teacher") or jigo jisho (自悟自証, "self-enlightened and self-certified"). Modern Zen Buddhists also consider questions about the dynamics of the lineage system, inspired in part by academic research into the history of Zen.
Honorific titles associated with teachers typically include, in Chinese, Fashi (法師) or Chanshi (禪師); in Korean, Sunim (an honorofic for a monk or nun) and Seon Sa (선사); in Japanese, Osho (和尚), Roshi (老師), or Sensei (先生); and in Vietnamese, Thầy. Note that many of these titles are not specific to Zen but are used generally for Buddhist priests; some, such as sensei are not even specific to Buddhism.
The English term Zen master is often used to refer to important teachers, especially ancient and medieval ones. However, there is no specific criterion by which one may be called a Zen master. The term is less common in reference to modern teachers. In the Open Mind Zen School, English terms have been substituted for the Japanese ones to avoid confusion of this issue. "Assistant Zen Teacher" is a person authorized to begin to teach, but still under the supervision of his teacher. "Zen Teacher" applies to one authorized to teach without further direction, and "Zen Master" refers to one who is a Zen Teacher and has founded his or her own teaching center.
- Main article: Koan
Zen Buddhists may practice koan inquiry during sitting meditation (zazen), walking meditation, and throughout all the activities of daily life. A koan (literally "public case") is a story or dialogue, generally related to Zen or other Buddhist history; the most typical form is an anecdote involving early Chinese Zen masters. Koan practice is particularly emphasized by the Japanese Rinzai school, but it also occurs in other schools or branches of Zen depending on the teaching line.
These anecdotes involving famous Zen teachers are a practical demonstration of their wisdom, and can be used to test a student's progress in Zen practice. Koans often appear to be paradoxical or linguistically meaningless dialogues or questions. But to Zen Buddhists the koan is "the place and the time and the event where truth reveals itself" unobstructed by the oppositions and differientiations of language. Answering a koan requires a student to let go of conceptual thinking and of the logical way we order the world, so that like creativity in art, the appropriate insight and response arises naturally and spontaneously in the mind.
Koans and their study developed in China within the context of the open questions and answers of teaching sessions conducted by the Chinese Zen masters. Today, the Zen student's mastery of a given koan is presented to the teacher in a private interview (referred to in Japanese as dokusan (独参), daisan (代参), or sanzen (参禅)). Zen teachers advise that the problem posed by a koan is to be taken quite seriously, and to be approached as literally a matter of life and death. While there is no unique answer to a koan, practitioners are expected to demonstrate their understanding of the koan and of Zen through their responses. The teacher may approve or disapprove of the answer and guide the student in the right direction. There are also various commentaries on koans, written by experienced teachers, that can serve as a guide. These commentaries are also of great value to modern scholarship on the subject.
Chanting and liturgy
| This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards.|
Please improve this article if you can. (March 2008)
- See also: Buddhist chant
A practice in many Zen monasteries and centers is a daily liturgy service. Practitioners chant major sutras such as the Heart Sutra, chapter 25 of the Lotus Sutra (often called the "Avalokiteshvara Sutra"), the Song of the Jewel Mirror Awareness, the Great Compassionate Heart Dharani (Daihishin Dharani), and other minor mantras.
The Butsudan is the altar in a monastery where offerings are made to the images of the Buddha or Bodhisattvas. The same term is also used in Japanese homes for the altar where one prays to and communicates with deceased family members. As such, reciting liturgy in Zen can be seen as a means to connect with the Bodhisattvas of the past. Liturgy is often used during funerals, memorials, and other special events as means to invoke the aid of supernatural powers.
Chanting usually centers on major Bodhisattvas like Avalokiteshvara (see also Guan Yin) and Manjusri. According to Mahayana Buddhism, Bodhisattvas are celestial beings which have taken extraordinary vows to liberate all beings from Samsara (the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth), while remaining in Samsara themselves. Since the Zen practitioner’s aim is to walk the Bodhisattva path, chanting can be used as a means to connect with these beings and realize this ideal within oneself. By repeatedly chanting the Avalokiteshvara sutra (観世音菩薩普門品 Kanzeon Bosatsu Fumonbon?), for example, one instills the Bodhisattva's ideals into ones mind. The ultimate goal is given in the end of the sutra, which states, "In the morning, be one with Avalokiteshvara, In the evening, be one with Avalokiteshvara,", Through the realization of the Emptiness of oneself, and the Mahayanist ideal of Buddha-nature in all things, one understands that there is no difference between the cosmic bodhisattva and oneself. The wisdom and compassion of the Boddhisattva one is chanting to is seen to equal the inner wisdom and compassion of the practitioner. Thus, the duality between subject and object, practitioner and Bodhisattva, chanter and sutra is ended.
One modern day Roshi justifies the use of chanting sutras by referring to Zen master Dōgen., Dōgen is known to have refuted the statement "Painted rice cakes will not satisfy hunger". This means that sutras, which are just symbols like painted rice cakes, cannot truly satisfy one's spiritual hunger. Dōgen, however, saw that there is no separation between metaphor and reality. "There is no difference between paintings, rice cakes, or any thing at all". The symbol and the symbolized were inherently the same, and thus only the sutras could truly satisfy one's spiritual needs.
To understand this non-dual relationship experientially, one is told to practice liturgy intimately.  In distinguishing between ceremony and liturgy, Dōgen states, "In ceremony there are forms and there are sounds, there is understanding and there is believing. In liturgy there is only intimacy." The practitioner is instructed to listen to and speak liturgy not just with one sense, but with one's "whole body-and-mind". By listening with one's entire being, one eliminates the space between the self and the liturgy. Thus, Dōgen's instructions are to "listen with the eye and see with the ear". By focusing all of one's being on one specific practice, duality is transcended. Dōgen says, "Let go of the eye, and the whole body-and-mind are nothing but the eye; let go of the ear, and the whole universe is nothing but the ear." Chanting intimately thus allows one to experience a non-dual reality. The liturgy used is a tool to allow the practitioner to transcend the old conceptions of self and other. In this way, intimate liturgy practice allows one to realize Sunyata, or emptiness, which is at the heart of Buddhist teachings.
There are other techniques common in the Zen tradition which seem unconventional and whose purpose is said to be to shock a student in order to help him or her let go of habitual activities of the mind. Some of these are common today, while others are found mostly in anecdotes. These include the loud belly shout known as katsu. It is common in many Zen traditions today for Zen teachers to have a stick with them during formal ceremonies which is a symbol of authority and which can be also used to strike on the table during a talk. The now defunct Fuke Zen sect was also well-known for practicing suizen, meditation with the shakuhachi, which some Zen Buddhists today also practice.
Within Zen, and thus from an emic perspective, the origins of Zen Buddhism are ascribed to what is called the Flower Sermon, in which Śākyamuni Buddha is supposed to have passed on special insight to the disciple Mahākāśyapa. The sermon itself was a wordless one in which Śākyamuni merely held up a flower before the assembled disciples, among whom there was no reaction apart from Mahākāśyapa, who smiled. The smile is said to have signified Mahākāśyapa's understanding, and Śākyamuni acknowledged this by saying:
I possess the true Dharma eye, the marvelous mind of Nirvana, the true form of the formless, the subtle dharma gate that does not rest on words or letters but is a special transmission outside of the scriptures. This I entrust to Mahākāśyapa.
Thus, a way within Buddhism developed which concentrated on direct experience rather than on rational creeds or revealed scriptures. Zen is a method of meditative religion which seeks to enlighten people in the manner that the Mahākāśyapa experienced.
In the Song of Enlightenment (證道歌 Zhèngdào gē) of Yǒngjiā Xuánjué (665-713)—one of the chief disciples of Huìnéng, the 6th patriarch of Chan Buddhism—it is written that Bodhidharma was the 28th patriarch in a line of descent from Mahākāśyapa, a disciple of Śākyamuni Buddha, and the first patriarch of Chan Buddhism:
- Mahākāśyapa was the first, leading the line of transmission;
- Twenty-eight Fathers followed him in the West;
- The Lamp was then brought over the sea to this country;
- And Bodhidharma became the First Father here:
- His mantle, as we all know, passed over six Fathers,
- And by them many minds came to see the Light.
The idea of a line of descent from Śākyamuni Buddha is a distinctive institution of Zen which Suzuki (1949:168) contends was invented by hagiographers to grant Zen legitimacy and prestige. The earliest source for the legend of the "Flower sermon" is from 11th century China..
- See also: Silk Road transmission of Buddhism
Chán developed as an amalgam of Mahāyāna Buddhism and Taoism. Dumoulin (2005) argues that Chán also has roots in yogic practices, specifically kammaṭṭhāna, the consideration of objects, and kasiṇa, total fixation of the mind.
The entry of Buddhism into China was marked by interaction and syncretism with Taoic faiths, Taoism in particular. Buddhism's scriptures were translated into Chinese with Taoist vocabulary, because it was originally seen as a kind of foreign Taoism. In the Tang period, Taoism incorporated such Buddhist elements as monasteries, vegetarianism, prohibition of alcohol, the doctrine of emptiness, and collecting scripture into tripartite organisation. During the same time, Chán Buddhism grew to become the largest sect in Chinese Buddhism.
The establishment of Chán is traditionally credited to the Indian prince turned monk Bodhidharma (formerly dated ca 500 CE, but now ca early fifth century), who is recorded as having come to China to teach a "special transmission outside scriptures" which "did not stand upon words". Bodhidharma settled in the kingdom of Wei where he took among his disciples Daoyu and Huike. Early on in China Bodhidharma's teaching was referred to as the "One Vehicle sect of India." The One Vehicle (Sanskrit Ekayāna), also known as the Supreme Vehicle or the Buddha Vehicle, was taught in the Lankavatara Sutra which was closely associated with Bodhidharma. However the label "One Vehicle sect" did not become widely used, and Bodhidharma's teaching became known as the Chan sect for its primary focus on chan training and practice. Shortly before his death, Bodhidharma appointed Huike to succeed him, making Huike the first Chinese born patriarch and the second patriarch of Chán in China. Bodhidharma is said to have passed three items to Huike as a sign of transmission of the Dharma: a robe, a bowl, and a copy of the Lankavatara Sutra. The transmission then passed to the second patriarch (Huike), the third (Sengcan), the fourth patriarch (Dao Xin) and the fifth patriarch (Hongren).
The sixth and last patriarch, Huineng (638–713), was one of the giants of Chán history, and all surviving schools regard him as their ancestor. However, the dramatic story of Huineng's life tells that there was a controversy over his claim to the title of patriarch. After being chosen by Hongren, the fifth patriarch, Huineng had to flee by night to Nanhua Temple in the south to avoid the wrath of Hongren's jealous senior disciples. Later, in the middle of the 8th century, monks claiming to be among the successors to Huineng, calling themselves the Southern school, cast themselves in opposition to those claiming to succeed Hongren's then publicly recognized student Shenxiu (神秀). It is commonly held that at this point—the debates between these rival factions—that Chán enters the realm of fully documented history. The Southern school eventually became predominant and their rivals died out. Modern scholarship, however, has questioned this narrative.
The following are the six Patriarchs of Chán in China as listed in traditional sources:
- Bodhidharma (बोधिधर्म) about 440 - about 528
- Huike (慧可) 487 - 593
- Sengcan (僧燦) ? - 606
- Daoxin (道信) 580 - 651
- Hongren (弘忍) 601 - 674
- Huineng (慧能) 638 - 713
Zen in China (Chán)
- See also: Buddhism in China
In the following centuries, Chán grew to become the largest sect in Chinese Buddhism and, despite its "transmission beyond the scriptures", produced the largest body of literature in Chinese history of any sect or tradition. The teachers claiming Huineng's posterity began to branch off into numerous different schools, each with their own special emphasis, but all of which kept the same basic focus on meditational practice, personal instruction and personal experience.
During the late Tang and the Song periods, the tradition continued, as a wide number of eminent teachers, such as Mazu (Wade-Giles: Ma-tsu; Japanese: Baso), Shitou (Shih-t'ou; Japanese: Sekito), Baizhang (Pai-chang; Japanese: Hyakujo), Huangbo (Huang-po; Jap.: Obaku), Linji (Lin-chi; Jap.: Rinzai), and Yunmen (Jap.: Ummon) developed specialized teaching methods, which would variously become characteristic of the five houses (五家) of Chán. The traditional five houses were Caodong (曹洞宗), Linji (臨濟宗), Guiyang (潙仰宗), Fayan (法眼宗), and Yunmen (雲門宗). This list does not include earlier schools such as the Hongzhou (洪州宗) of Mazu.
Over the course of Song Dynasty (960–1279), the Guiyang, Fayan, and Yunmen schools were gradually absorbed into the Linji. During the same period, the various developments of Chán teaching methods crystallized into the gong-an (koan) practice which is unique to this school of Buddhism. According to Miura and Sasaki, "it was during the lifetime of Yüan-wu's successor, Ta-hui Tsung-kao 大慧宗杲 (Daie Sōkō, 1089-1163) that Koan Zen entered its determinative stage." Gong-an practice was prevalent in the Linji school, to which Yuanwu and Ta-hui (pinyin: Dahui) belonged, but it was also employed on a more limited basis by the Caodong school. The teaching styles and words of the classical masters were collected in such important texts as the Blue Cliff Record (1125) of Yuanwu, The Gateless Gate (1228) of Wumen, both of the Linji lineage, and the Book of Equanimity (1223) of Wansong, of the Caodong lineage. These texts record classic gong-an cases, together with verse and prose commentaries, which would be studied by later generations of students down to the present.
Chán continued to be influential as a religious force in China, and thrived in the post-Song period; with a vast body of texts being produced up and through the modern period. While traditionally distinct, Chán was taught alongside Pure Land Buddhism in many Chinese Buddhist monasteries. In time much of the distinction between them was lost, and many masters taught both Chán and Pure Land. Chán Buddhism enjoyed something of a revival in the Ming Dynasty with teachers such as Hanshan Deqing (憨山德清), who wrote and taught extensively on both Chán and Pure Land Buddhism; Miyun Yuanwu (密雲圓悟), who came to be seen posthumously as the first patriarch of the Obaku Zen school; as well as Yunqi Zhuhong (雲棲株宏) and Ouyi Zhixu (藕溢智旭).
After further centuries of decline, Chán was revived again in the early 20th century by Hsu Yun, a well-known figure of 20th century Chinese Buddhism. Many Chán teachers today trace their lineage back to Hsu Yun, including Sheng-yen and Hsuan Hua, who have propagated Chán in the West where it has grown steadily through the 20th and 21st century.
It was severely repressed in China during the recent modern era with the appearance of the People's Republic, but has more recently been re-asserting itself on the mainland, and has a significant following in Taiwan and Hong Kong as well as among Overseas Chinese. 
Zen in Japan
The schools of Zen that currently exist in Japan are the Sōtō (曹洞), Rinzai (臨済), and Obaku (黃檗). Of these, Sōtō is the largest and Obaku the smallest. Rinzai is itself divided into several subschools based on temple affiliation, including Myoshin-ji, Nanzen-ji, Tenryū-ji, Daitoku-ji, and Tofuku-ji.
Although the Japanese had known Zen-like practices for centuries (Taoism and Shinto), it was not introduced as a separate school until the 12th century, when Myōan Eisai traveled to China and returned to establish a Linji lineage, which is known in Japan as Rinzai. Decades later, Nanpo Jomyo (南浦紹明) also studied Linji teachings in China before founding the Japanese Otokan lineage, the most influential branch of Rinzai. In 1215, Dōgen, a younger contemporary of Eisai's, journeyed to China himself, where he became a disciple of the Caodong master Tiantong Rujing. After his return, Dōgen established the Sōtō school, the Japanese branch of Caodong. The Obaku lineage was introduced in the 17th century by Ingen, a Chinese monk. Ingen had been a member of the Linji school, the Chinese equivalent of Rinzai, which had developed separately from the Japanese branch for hundreds of years. Thus, when Ingen journeyed to Japan following the fall of the Ming Dynasty to the Manchus, his teachings were seen as a separate school. The Obaku school was named for Mount Obaku (Chinese: Huangboshan), which had been Ingen's home in China.
Some contemporary Japanese Zen teachers, such as Daiun Harada and Shunryu Suzuki, have criticized Japanese Zen as being a formalized system of empty rituals in which very few Zen practitioners ever actually attain realization. They assert that almost all Japanese temples have become family businesses handed down from father to son, and the Zen priest's function has largely been reduced to officiating at funerals[How to reference and link to summary or text].
The Japanese Zen establishment—including the Sōtō sect, the major branches of Rinzai, and several renowned teachers— has been criticized for its involvement in Japanese militarism and nationalism during World War II and the preceding period. A notable work on this subject was Zen at War (1998) by Brian Victoria, an American-born Sōtō priest. At the same time, however, one must be aware that this involvement was by no means limited to the Zen school: all orthodox Japanese schools of Buddhism supported the militarist state. What may be most striking, though, as Victoria has argued, is that many Zen masters known for their post-war internationalism and promotion of "world peace" were open nationalists in the inter-war years . And some of them, like Haku'un Yasutani, the founder of the Sanbo Kyodan School, even voiced their anti-semitic and nationalistic opinions after World War II. , 
This openness has allowed non-Buddhists to practice Zen, especially outside of Asia, and even for the curious phenomenon of an emerging Christian Zen lineage, as well as one or two lines that call themselves "nonsectarian." With no official governing body, it's perhaps impossible to declare any authentic lineage "heretical." Some schools emphasize lineage and trace their line of teachers back to China, Japan, Korea, or Vietnam; other schools do not[How to reference and link to summary or text].
Zen in Vietnam (Thiền)
- See also: Buddhism in Vietnam
According to traditional accounts of Vietnam, in 580, an Indian monk named Vinitaruci (Vietnamese: Tì-ni-đa-lưu-chi) travelled to Vietnam after completing his studies with Sengcan, the third patriarch of Chinese Zen. This, then, would be the first appearance of Vietnamese Zen, or Thien (thiền) Buddhism. The sect that Vinitaruci and his lone Vietnamese disciple founded would become known as the oldest branch of Thien. After a period of obscurity, the Vinitaruci School became one of the most influential Buddhist groups in Vietnam by the 10th century, particularly so under the patriarch Vạn-Hạnh (died 1018). Other early Vietnamese Zen schools included the Vo Ngon Thong (Vô Ngôn Thông), which was associated with the teaching of Mazu, and the Thao Duong (Thảo Đường), which incorporated nianfo chanting techniques; both were founded by Chinese monks. A new school was founded by one of Vietnam's religious kings; this was the Truc Lam (Trúc Lâm) school, which evinced a deep influence from Confucian and Taoist philosophy. Nevertheless, Truc Lam's prestige waned over the following centuries as Confucianism became dominant in the royal court. In the 17th century, a group of Chinese monks led by Nguyen Thieu (Nguyên Thiều) established a vigorous new school, the Lam Te (Lâm Tế), which is the Vietnamese pronunciation of Linji. A more domesticated offshoot of Lam Te, the Lieu Quan (Liễu Quán) school, was founded in the 18th century and has since been the predominant branch of Vietnamese Zen.
The most famous practitioner of synchronized Thiền Buddhism in the West is Thích Nhất Hạnh who has authored dozens of books and founded Dharma center Plum Village in France together with his colleague -Bhikkhuni and Zen Master- Chan Khong.
Zen in Korea (Seon)
- See also: Korean Buddhism
Seon was gradually transmitted into Korea during the late Silla period (7th through 9th centuries) as Korean monks of predominantly Hwaeom (華嚴) and Consciousness-only (唯識) background began to travel to China to learn the newly developing tradition. During his lifetime, Mazu had begun to attract students from Korea; by tradition, the first Korean to study Seon was named Peomnang (法朗). Mazu's successors had numerous Korean students, some of whom returned to Korea and established the nine mountain (九山) schools. This was the beginning of Chan in Korea which is called Seon.
Seon received its most significant impetus and consolidation from the Goryeo monk Jinul (知訥) (1158–1210), who established a reform movement and introduced koan practice to Korea. Jinul established the Songgwangsa (松廣寺) as a new center of pure practice. It was during the time of Jinul the Jogye Order, a primarily Seon sect, became the predominant form of Korean Buddhism, a status it still holds. which survives down to the present in basically the same status. Toward the end of the Goryeo and during the Joseon period the Jogye Order would first be combined with the scholarly 教 schools, and then be relegated to lesser influence in ruling clas circles by Confucian influenced polity, even as it retained strength outside the cities, among the rural populations and ascetic monks in mountain refuges.
Nevertheless, there would be a series of important Seon teachers during the next several centuries, such as Hyegeun (慧勤), Taego (太古), Gihwa (己和) and Hyujeong (休靜), who continued to develop the basic mold of Korean meditational Buddhism established by Jinul. Seon continues to be practiced in Korea today at a number of major monastic centers, as well as being taught at Dongguk University, which has a major of studies in this religion. Taego Bou (1301–1382) studied in China with Linji teacher and returned to unite the Nine Mountain Schools. In modern Korea, by far the largest Buddhist denomination is the Jogye Order, which is essentially a Zen sect; the name Jogye is the Korean equivalent of Caoxi (曹溪), another name for Huineng.
Seon is known for its stress on meditation, monasticism, and asceticism. Many Korean monks have few personal possessions and sometimes cut off all relations with the outside world. Several are near mendicants traveling from temple to temple practicing meditation. The hermit-recluse life is prevalent among monks to whom meditation practice is considered of paramount importance.
Currently, Korean Buddhism is in a state of slow transition. While the reigning theory behind Korean Buddhism was based on Jinul's "sudden enlightenment, gradual cultivation," the modern Korean Seon master, Seongcheol's revival of Hui Neng's "sudden enlightenment, sudden cultivation" has had a strong impact on Korean Buddhism. Although there is resistance to change within the ranks of the Jogye order, with the last three Supreme Patriarchs' stance that is in accordance with Seongcheol, there has been a gradual change in the atmosphere of Korean Buddhism.
Also, the Kwan Um School of Zen, one of the largest Zen schools in the West, teaches a form of Seon Buddhism. Soeng Hyang Soen Sa Nim (b. 1948), birth name Barbara Trexler (later Barbara Rhodes), is Guiding Dharma Teacher of the international Kwan Um School of Zen and successor of the late Seung Sahn Soen Sa Nim.
Zen in the Western world
- See also: Buddhism in the West
Although it is difficult to trace when the West first became aware of Zen as a distinct form of Buddhism, the visit of Soyen Shaku, a Japanese Zen monk, to Chicago during the World Parliament of Religions in 1893 is often pointed to as an event that enhanced its profile in the Western world. It was during the late 1950s and the early 1960s that the number of Westerners, other than the descendants of Asian immigrants, pursuing a serious interest in Zen reached a significant level.
Zen and Western culture
In Europe, the Expressionist and Dada movements in art tend to have much in common thematically with the study of koans and actual Zen. The early French surrealist René Daumal translated D.T. Suzuki as well as Sanskrit Buddhist texts.
Eugen Herrigel's book Zen in the Art of Archery (1953), describing his training in the Zen-influenced martial art of Kyūdō, inspired many of the Western world's early Zen practitioners. However, many scholars are quick to criticize this book. (eg see Yamada Shoji)
The British-American philosopher Alan Watts took a close interest in Zen Buddhism and wrote and lectured extensively on it during the 1950s. He understood it as a vehicle for a mystical transformation of consciousness, and also as a historical example of a non-Western, non-Christian way of life that had fostered both the practical and fine arts.
The Dharma Bums, a novel written by Jack Kerouac and published in 1959, gave its readers a look at how a fascination with Buddhism and Zen was being absorbed into the bohemian lifestyles of a small group of American youths, primarily on the West Coast. Beside the narrator, the main character in this novel was "Japhy Ryder", a thinly-veiled depiction of Gary Snyder. The story was based on actual events taking place while Snyder prepared, in California, for the formal Zen studies that he would pursue in Japanese monasteries between 1956 and 1968.
Thomas Merton (1915–1968) the Trappist monk and priest  was internationally recognized as having one of those rare Western minds that was entirely at home in Asian experience. Like his friend, the late D.T. Suzuki, Merton believed that there must be a little of Zen in all authentic creative and spiritual experience. The dialogue between Merton and Suzuki ("Wisdom in Emptiness" in: Zen and the Birds of Appetite, 1968) explores the many congruencies of Christian mysticism and Zen. (Main publications: The Way of Chuang Tzu, 1965; Mystics and Zen Masters, 1967; Zen and the Birds of Appetite, 1968).
Reginald Horace Blyth (1898-1964) was an Englishman who went to Japan in 1940 to further his study of Zen. He was interned during the II World War and started writing in prison. He was tutor to the Crown Prince after the war. His greatest work is the 5-volume "Zen and Zen Classics", published in the 1960s. In it, he discusses Zen themes from a philosophical standpoint, often in conjunction with Christian elements in a comparative spirit. His essays include titles such as "God, Buddha, and Buddhahood" or "Zen Sin, and Death". He is an enthusiast of Zen, but not altogether uncritical of it. His writings can be characterized as unorthodox and quirky.
While Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance, by Robert M. Pirsig, was a 1974 bestseller, it in fact has little to do with Zen as a religious practice. Rather it deals with the notion of the metaphysics of "quality" from the point of view of the main character. Pirsig was attending the Minnesota Zen Center at the time of writing the book. He has stated that, despite its title, the book "should in no way be associated with that great body of factual information relating to orthodox Zen Buddhist practice." Though it may not deal with orthodox Zen Buddhist practice, Pirsig's book in fact deals with many of the more subtle facets of Zen living and Zen mentality without drawing attention to any religion or religious organization.
A number of contemporary authors have explored the relationship between Zen and a number of other disciplines, including parenting, teaching, and leadership. Leadership expert Timothy H. Warneka uses a number of Zen stories, such as "Understanding Harmony" to explain leadership strategies:
Once upon a time in ancient Japan, a young man was studying martial arts under a famous teacher. Every day the young man would practice in a courtyard along with the other students. One day, as the master watched, he could see that the other students were consistently interfering with the young man’s technique. Sensing the student’s frustration, the master approached the student and tapped him on the shoulder. “What is wrong?” inquired the teacher. “I cannot execute my technique and I do not understand why,” replied the student. “This is because you do not understand harmony. Please follow me,” said the master. Leaving the practice hall, the master and student walked a short distance into the woods until they came upon a stream. After standing silently beside the streambed for a few minutes, the master spoke. “Look at the water,” he instructed. “It does not slam into the rocks and stop out of frustration, but instead flows around them and continues down the stream. Become like the water and you will understand harmony.” Soon, the student learned to move and flow like the stream, and none of the other students could keep him from executing his techniques.
Western Zen lineages
Over the last fifty years mainstream forms of Zen, led by teachers who trained in East Asia and their successors, have begun to take root in the West.
In North America, the Zen lineages derived from the Japanese Soto school are the most numerous. Among these are the lineages of the San Francisco Zen Center, established by Shunryu Suzuki and the White Plum Asanga, founded by Hakuyu Taizan Maezumi. Suzuki's San Francisco Zen Center established the first Zen Monastery in America in 1967, called Tassajara in the mountains near Big Sur. Maezumi's successors have created schools including Great Plains Zen Center, founded by Susan Myoyu Andersen, Roshi, the Mountains and Rivers Order, founded by John Daido Loori, the Zen Peacemaker Order, founded by Bernard Tetsugen Glassman and the Ordinary Mind school, founded by Charlotte Joko Beck. The Katagiri lineage, founded by Dainin Katagiri, has a significant presence in the Midwest. Note that both Taizan Maezumi and Dainin Katagiri served as priests at Zenshuji Soto Mission in the 1960s.
Taisen Deshimaru, a student of Kodo Sawaki, was a Soto Zen priest from Japan who taught in France. The International Zen Association, which he founded, remains influential. The American Zen Association, headquartered at the New Orleans Zen Temple, is one of the North American organizations practicing in the Deshimaru tradition.
Soyu Matsuoka, served as superintendent and abbot of the Long Beach Zen Buddhist Temple and Zen Center. The Temple was headquarters to Zen Centers in Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, Seattle, and Everett, Washington. He established the Temple at Long Beach in 1971 where he resided until his passing in 1998.
The Sanbo Kyodan is a Japan-based reformist Zen group, founded in 1954 by Yasutani Hakuun, which has had a significant influence on Zen in the West. Sanbo Kyodan Zen is based primarily on the Soto tradition, but also incorporates Rinzai-style koan practice. Yasutani's approach to Zen first became prominent in the English-speaking world through Philip Kapleau's book The Three Pillars of Zen (1965), which was one of the first books to introduce Western audiences to Zen as a practice rather than simply a philosophy. Among the Zen groups in North America, Hawaii, Europe, and New Zealand which derive from Sanbo Kyodan are those associated with Kapleau, Robert Aitken, and John Tarrant.
In the UK, Throssel Hole Abbey was founded as a sister monastery to Shasta Abbey in California by Master Reverend Jiyu Kennett Roshi and has a number of dispersed Priories and centres. Jiyu Kennett, an English woman, was ordained as a priest and Zen master in Shoji-ji, one of the two main Soto Zen temples in Japan (her book The Wild White Goose describes her experiences in Japan). The Order is called the Order of Buddhist Contemplatives. The lineage of Hakuyu Taizan Maezumi Roshi is represented by the White Plum Sangha UK, while Taisen Deshimaru Roshi's lineage is known in the UK as IZAUK (Intl Zen Assoc. UK). The Zen Centre in London is connected to the Buddhist Society. The Western Chan Fellowship is an association of lay Chan practitioners based in the UK. They are registered as a charity in England and Wales, but also have contacts in Europe, principally in Norway, Poland, Germany, Croatia, Switzerland and the USA.
There are also a number of Rinzai Zen centers in the West. In North America, some of the more prominent include Rinzai-ji founded by Kyozan Joshu Sasaki, Dai Bosatsu Zendo Kongo-ji established by Eido Shimano and Kyudo Nakagawi Roshi, Chozen-ji founded by Omori Sogen Roshi and Chobo-Ji founded by Genki Takabayshi. In Europe there is Egely Monastery established by a Dharma Heir of Eido Shimano, Denko Mortensen.
Not all the successful Zen teachers in the West have been from Japanese traditions. There have also been teachers of Chan, Seon, and Thien Buddhism. In addition, there are a number of Zen teachers who studied in Asian traditions that because of corruption or political issues decided to strike out on their own. One organization of this type is Open Mind Zen in Melbourne, Florida.
The first Chinese master to teach Westerners in North America was Hsuan Hua, who taught Zen, Chinese Pure Land, Tiantai, Vinaya, and Vajrayana Buddhism in San Francisco during the early 1960s. He went on to found the City Of Ten Thousand Buddhas, a monastery and retreat center located on a 237 acre (959,000 m²) property near Ukiah, California. Another Chinese Zen teacher with a Western following is Sheng-yen, a master trained in both the Caodong and Linji schools (equivalent to the Japanese Soto and Rinzai, respectively). He first visited the United States in 1978 under the sponsorship of the Buddhist Association of the United States, and, in 1980, founded the Chan Meditation Center in Queens, New York..
The most prominent Korean Zen teacher in the West was Seung Sahn. Seung Sahn founded the Providence Zen Center in Providence, Rhode Island; this was to become the headquarters of the Kwan Um School of Zen, a large international network of affiliated Zen centers.
Two notable Vietnamese Zen teachers have been influential in Western countries: Thich Thien-An and Thich Nhat Hanh. Thich Thien-An came to America in 1966 as a visiting professor at UCLA and taught traditional Thien meditation. Thich Nhat Hanh was a monk in Vietnam during the Vietnam War, during which he was a peace activist. In response to these activities, he was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1967 by Martin Luther King, Jr. In 1966, he left Vietnam in exile and now resides at Plum Village, a monastery in France. He has written more than one hundred books about Buddhism, which have made him one of the very few most prominent Buddhist authors among the general readership in the West. In his books and talks, Thich Nhat Hanh emphasizes mindfulness (sati) as the most important practice in daily life.
Template:Globalise In the United States, two pan-lineage organizations have formed in the last few years. The oldest is the American Zen Teachers Association which sponsors an annual conference. North American Soto teachers in North America, led by several of the heirs of Taizan Maezumi and Shunryu Suzuki, have also formed the Soto Zen Buddhist Association.
- ↑ The Complete Idiot's Guide to Zen Living, pg. 174
- ↑ The complete Idiot's Guide to Zen Living, p. 7
- ↑ Thomas Cleary. Classics of Buddhism and Zen: Volume One, 250, Boston, MA: Shambhala publications.
- ↑ Zen's Chinese Heritage (http://www.southmountaintours.com/pages/ZCH/zch.htm) by Andy Ferguson, 2000, Wisdom Publications, Boston, page 17.
- ↑ Suzuki, Daisetz T. (2004). The Training of the Zen Budhist Monk, Tokyo: Cosimo, inc.. ISBN 1-5960-5041-1.
- ↑ "Baizhang Huaihai", in Digital Dictionary of Buddhism
- ↑ "Principles of Zazen" (Zazen gi); tr. The Soto Zen Text Project
- ↑ "Universally Recommended Instructions for Zazen" (Fukan zazengi); tr. The Soto Zen Text Project
- ↑ Welter, Albert The Disputed Place of "A Special Transmission" Outside the Scriptures in Ch'an. URL accessed on 2006-06-23.
- ↑ For example see the essay "Keizan, Koans, and Succession in the Soto School" by Francis Dojun Cook in "Sitting with Koans -Essential Writings on Zen Koan Introspection", edited by John Daido Loori, 2006, Wisdom Publications, Boston, ISBN 0-86171-369-9
- ↑ "Points of Departure - Zen Buddhism with a Rinzai View" by Eido T. Shimano, 1991, The Zen Studies Society Press, Livingston Manor, NY ISBN 0-962946-0-1, page 152
- ↑ "", in Upaya Zen Center Liturgy
- ↑ "", in Upaya Zen Center Liturgy
- ↑ "", in Loori, John Daido. "Symbol and Symbolized." Mountain Record: The Zen Practitioner's Journal, XXV, No. 2 (2007):
- ↑ "", in Translation of Dogen's Gabyo, by Yasuda Joshu roshi and Anzan Hoshin roshi"
- ↑ "", in Zen Mountain Monastery Dharma Talk by John Daido Loori, Roshi
- ↑ Template:Harvcolnb
- ↑ PDF (1.03 MiB)
- ↑ Chang, Chung-Yuan (1967), "Ch'an Buddhism: Logical and Illogical", Philosophy East and West 17: 37-49, http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-PHIL/ew27057.htm .
- ↑ Suzuki, D.T. (1948), Manual of Zen Buddhism, pp. 50, http://consciouslivingfoundation.org/ebooks/new2/ManualOfZenBuddhism-manzen.pdf PDF (211 KiB)
- ↑ Template:Harvcolnb
- ↑ Template:Harvcolnb "the Taoist influence on Buddhism was later to culminate in the teachings of the Zen school."
- ↑ Maspero, Henri. Translated by Frank A. Kierman, Jr. Taoism and Chinese Religion. pg 46. University of Massachusetts, 1981.
- ↑ Prebish, Charles. Buddhism: A Modern Perspective. Pg 192. Penn State Press, 1975. ISBN 0271011955.
- ↑ Template:Harvcolnb
- ↑ Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism (Volume One), pages 57, 130
- ↑ The Platform Sutra of he Sixth Patriarch, translated with notes by by Philip B. Yampolsky, 1967, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-08361-0, page 29, note 87
- ↑ Template:Harvcolnb
- ↑ WOMEN IN ZEN BUDDHISM: Chinese Bhiksunis in the Ch'an Tradition by Heng-Ching Shih
- ↑ Jogye order of Korean Buddhism
- ↑ Zen in the Art of Archery, (ISBN 0-375-70509-0)
- ↑ Shoji, Yamada The Myth of Zen in the Art of Archery. URL accessed on 2007-01-03.
- ↑ Heller, Christine Jack Kerouac and Gary Snyder: Chasing Zen Clouds. URL accessed on 2007-01-07.
- ↑ Warneka, T. H. (2005). Leading People the Black Belt Way: Conquering the Five Core Problems Facing Leaders Today.
- Dumoulin, Heinrich (2005), Zen Buddhism: A History, 1: India and China, Bloomington, IN: World Wisdom, ISBN 0-941532-89-5 .
- Hori, Victor Sogen, Zen Sand
- Miura, Isshū; Sasaki, Ruth Fuller (1993), The Zen Koan, New York: Harcourt Brace & Company, ISBN 0-15-699981-1
- Suzuki, D.T. (1949), Essays in Zen Buddhism, New York: Grove Press, ISBN 0-8021-5118-3 .
- An Introduction to Zen Buddhism by D.T. Suzuki
- Nagatomo, Shigenori (2006-06-28), "Japanese Zen Buddhist Philosophy", Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy .
- Blackman, Sushila (1997). Graceful Exits: How Great Beings Die: Death Stories of Tibetan, Hindu & Zen Masters. Weatherhill, Inc.: USA, New York, New York. ISBN 0-8348-0391-7
- Brian Daizen Victoria: Zen at War, (War and Peace Library), Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2nd edition, (August 2006), ISBN 0742539261(10), ISBN 978-0742539266(13)
Abe, M. (1998). The self in Jung and Zen. New York, NY: North Point Press.
- Aitken, R. (1982). Zen practice and psychotherapy: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology Vol 14(2) 1982, 161-170.
- Akishige, Y. (1977). Psychological studies on Zen: II. Oxford, England: Komazawa U.
- Anbeek, C. W., & de Groot, P. A. (2002). Buddhism and psychotherapy in the West: Nishitani and dialectical behavior therapy. New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.
- Anzai, J. (1970). Two cases of Zen awakening (Kensho) experiences: I. Master Shibayama's case: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 13(2-3) Sep 1970, 140-144.
- Austin, J. H. (1998). Zen and the brain: Toward an understanding of meditation and consciousness. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
- Austin, J. H. (2006). Zen-Brain reflections. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
- Ausubel, D. P., Stager, M., & Gaite, A. J. (1968). Retroactive Facilitation in Meaningful Verbal Learning: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 59(4) Aug 1968, 250-255.
- Ausubel, D. P., Stager, M., & Gaite, A. J. (1969). Proactive effects in meaningful verbal learning and retention: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 60(1) Feb 1969, 59-64.
- Ausubel, D. P., & Youssef, M. (1963). Role of discriminability in meaningful paralleled learning: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 54(6) Dec 1963, 331-336.
- Bankart, C. P., Dockett, K. H., & Dudley-Grant, G. R. (2003). On the path of the Buddha: A psychologists' guide to the history of Buddhism. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
- Barreira, C. R. A., & Massimi, M. (2003). The Karate-Do Psychopedagogic Ideas and Spirituality According to Gichin Funakoshi's Work: Psicologia: Reflexao e Critica Vol 16(2) 2003, 379-388.
- Barrett, D. J. (1995). A zen approach to the psychological and pastoral care of dying persons. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Battista, J. R. (1996). Contemporary physics and transpersonal psychiatry. New York, NY: Basic Books.
- Becker, C. B. (1986). Reasons for the lack of argumentation and debate in the Far East: International Journal of Intercultural Relations Vol 10(1) 1986, 75-92.
- Becker, D. E., & Shapiro, D. (1981). Physiological responses to clicks during Zen, Yoga, and TM meditation: Psychophysiology Vol 18(6) Nov 1981, 694-699.
- Becker, S. K., & Forman, B. D. (1989). Zen Buddhism and the psychotherapy of Milton Erickson: A transcendence of theory and self: Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior Vol 26(2-3) 1989, 39-48.
- Berger, E. M. (1962). Zen Buddhism, general psychology, and counseling psychology: Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol 9(2) Sum 1962, 122-127.
- Bergin, A. E. (1986). Review of International Meditation Bibliography 1950-1982: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 31 (3), Mar, 1986.
- Berkman, R. (1972). Semantics and Zen: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 15(3) Sep 1972, 127-136.
- Berkow, D. (2003). A Psychology of No-thingness: Seeing Through the Projected Self. St. Paul, MN: Paragon House Publishers.
- Bingaman, K. A. (2007). Review of The mirror of God: Christian faith as spiritual practice--Lessons from Buddhism and psychotherapy: Pastoral Psychology Vol 55(5) May 2007, 665-666.
- Blaha, G., & Amstutz, G. (2006). White Collar Zen: Using Zen Principles to Overcome Obstacles and Achieve Your Career Goals: Academy of Management Review Vol 31(2) Apr 2006, 500-502.
- Bobrow, J. (1997). Coming to life: The creative intercourse of psychoanalysis and Zen Buddhism. Mahwah, NJ: Analytic Press.
- Bobrow, J. (2000). Reverie in Zen and psychoanalysis: Harvesting the ordinary: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology Vol 32(2) 2000, 165-175.
- Bowman, R. L., & Baylen, D. (1994). Buddhism as a second-order change psychotherapy: International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling Vol 17(2) Jun 1994, 101-108.
- Brandon, D. (1987). Selling water by the river. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
- Brazier, D. (1995). Zen therapy: Transcending the sorrows of the human mind. Oxford, England: John Wiley & Sons.
- Brazier, D. (2000). Buddhist psychotherapy or Buddhism as psychotherapy? York Beach, ME: Samuel Weiser.
- Brenner, M. J., & Homonoff, E. (2004). Zen and Clinical Social Work: A Spiritual Approach to Practice: Families in Society Vol 85(2) Apr-Jun 2004, 261-269.
- Brett, C. (2002). Psychotic and Mystical States of Being: Connections and Distinctions: Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology Vol 9(4) Dec 2002, 321-341.
- Bucca, M. (2007). The clinical thinking of Bion and the art of the Zen Garden (Ryoan-ji): The Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry Vol 35(4) Win 2007, 659-667.
- Cadge, W. (2004). Gendered religious organizations: The case of Theravada Buddhism in America: Gender & Society Vol 18(6) Dec 2004, 777-793.
- Cantor, A. J. (1973). How to turn on the power of your mind with alpha-theta UNITROL: Gateway to the unconscious for creativity, self-healing, enlightenment with the UNITROL of Yoga and Zen. Oxford, England: Hippocrates Press.
- Carey, J. T. (2006). An inquiry into the psychological, spiritual, and cultural conflicts experienced by some Western practitioners of Buddhism. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Cernovsky, Z. (1988). Psychoanalysis and Tibetan Buddhism as psychological techniques of liberation: The American Journal of Psychoanalysis Vol 48(1) Spr 1988, 56-71.
- Chan, E. (1999). The Six Paramitas: Antidotes to fear. (Buddhism, unwholesomeness). Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Chang, R., & Page, R. C. (1991). Characteristics of the self-actualized person: Visions from the East and West: Counseling and Values Vol 36(1) Oct 1991, 2-10.
- Chawla, N., & Marlatt, G. A. (2006). The Varieties of Buddhism. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.
- Chihara, T. (1989). Zen meditation and time-experience: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 32(4) Dec 1989, 211-220.
- Christensen, A., & Rudnick, S. (1999). A glimpse of Zen practice within the realm of countertransference: The American Journal of Psychoanalysis Vol 59(1) Mar 1999, 59-69.
- Christensen, L. W. (1999). Suffering and the dialectical self in Buddhism and relational psychoanalysis: The American Journal of Psychoanalysis Vol 59(1) Mar 1999, 37-57.
- Christopher, M. S. (2003). Albert Ellis and the Buddha: rational Soul Mates? A comparison of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) and Zen Buddhism: Mental Health, Religion & Culture Vol 6(3) Nov 2003, 283-293.
- Clancy, M., & Lauer, R. M. (1994). Zen telegrams: A warm-up technique for poetry therapy groups. St Louis, MO: MMB Music.
- Cleary, T. S., & Shapiro, S. I. (1996). Abraham Maslow and Asian psychology: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 39(4) Dec 1996, 213-222.
- Cole, A. (2006). Buddhism. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
- Compton, W. C. (1991). Self-report of attainment in experienced Zen meditators: A cautionary note on objective measurement: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 34(1) Mar 1991, 15-17.
- Compton, W. C., & Becker, G. M. (1983). Self-actualizations and experience with Zen meditation: Is a learning period necessary for meditation? : Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 39(6) Nov 1983, 925-929.
- Cooper, P. (2002). Between wonder and doubt: Psychoanalysis in the goal-free zone: The American Journal of Psychoanalysis Vol 62(2) Jun 2002, 95-118.
- Cooper, P. C. (1998). The disavowal of the spirit: Integration and wholeness in Buddhism and psychoanalysis. New York, NY: North Point Press.
- Cooper, P. C. (2005). The Formless Self in Buddhism and Psychotherapy. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.
- Cooper, P. C. (2007). Oscillations. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.
- Coper, P. C. (2001). The gap between: Being and knowing in Zen Buddhism and psychoanalysis: The American Journal of Psychoanalysis Vol 61(4) Dec 2001, 341-362.
- Costa, A. C. (2005). Lacan and the "Zen" art of the psychoanalyst: A reading of the "Opening" of Seminar # 1: Percurso Revista de Psicanalise Vol 18(34) 2005, 5-14.
- Croake, J. W., & Rusk, R. (1980). The theories of Adler and Zen: Journal of Individual Psychology Vol 36(2) Nov 1980, 219-226.
- Crocker, S. F., & Philippson, P. (2005). Phenomenology, existentialism, and Eastern thought in Gestalt therapy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
- Crook, J. (2000). Zen: The challenge to dependency. York Beach, ME: Samuel Weiser.
- Daly, M. (1997). Review of Traveller in space: In search of female identity in Tibetan Buddhism: Women's Studies International Forum Vol 20(1) Jan-Feb 1997, 179-181.
- Daniel, M. O. B. (2004). Awakening and Insight: Zen Buddhism and Psychotherapy: The Journal of Analytical Psychology Vol 49(2) Apr 2004, 274-275.
- Davidson, B., & Thomas, A. (2002). Buddhism and group analysis: Group Analysis Vol 35(1) Mar 2002, 57-71.
- de Bremont, R. M. (2001). Review of The Couch and the Tree: Dialogues in Psychoanalysis and Buddhism: Journal of European Psychoanalysis No 12-13 Win-Fal 2001, 179-182.
- de Martino, R. (1983). On Zen communication: Communication Vol 8(1) 1983, 13-28.
- de Silva, P. (1984). Buddhism and behaviour modification: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 22(6) 1984, 661-678.
- de Silva, P. (1993). Buddhism and counselling: British Journal of Guidance & Counselling Vol 21(1) Jan 1993, 30-34.
- de Silva, P. (2002). Buddhism and counselling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
- De Tonnac, C. B. (2007). Essay on a synthesis of Buddhism and Sophrology: International Journal of Psychotherapy Vol 11(3) Nov 2007, 47-55.
- DeMartino, R. J. (1991). Karen Horney, Daisetz T. Suzuki, and Zen Buddhism: The American Journal of Psychoanalysis Vol 51(3) Sep 1991, 267-283.
- Deo, J. M. (2003). Psychological outlines of early Buddhism: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 21(1) Jan 2003, 1-6.
- Dimen, M. (1998). Polyglot bodies: Thinking through the relational. Mahwah, NJ: Analytic Press.
- Dockett, K. H., Dudley-Grant, G. R., & Bankart, C. P. (2003). Psychology and Buddhism: From individual to global community. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
- Drummond, M. S. (2006). The Primacy of Bodily Feelings Early Buddhism and Modern Psychology: Constructivism in the Human Sciences Vol 11(1-2) 2006, 60-78.
- Dubs, G. (1987). Psycho-spiritual development in Zen Buddhism: A study of resistance in meditation: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology Vol 19(1) 1987, 19-86.
- Dubs, J. G. (1987). Acquisition of a novel view of reality: A study of psycho-spiritual development in Zen Buddhism: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Dudley-Grant, G. R., Bankart, C. P., & Dockett, K. H. (2003). On the path to peace and wholeness: Conclusion to Psychology and Buddhism. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
- Dupuis, J. (2007). Review of Encountering Buddhism: Western psychology and Buddhist teachings: Mental Health, Religion & Culture Vol 10(2) 2007, 199-201.
- Eaton, J. L. (2007). From Nowhere to Now-Here: Reflections on Buddhism and Psychotherapy. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.
- Edwards, J. K., & Chen, M.-W. (1999). Strength-based supervision: Frameworks, current practice and future directions: The Family Journal Vol 7(4) Oct 1999, 349-357.
- Edwards, L. M. (2003). Response to "Buddhism and group analysis" (Group Analysis, March 2002): Group Analysis Vol 36(1) Mar 2003, 157-160.
- Edwards, M. (1997). Being present: Experiential connections between Zen Buddhist practices and the grieving process: Disability and Rehabilitation: An International, Multidisciplinary Journal Vol 19(10) Oct 1997, 442-451.
- Emed, Y. (1996). The Zen connection: Journal of Reality Therapy Vol 15(2) Spr 1996, 14-17.
- Engler, J. H. (1983). Vicissitudes of the self according to psychoanalysis and Buddhism: A spectrum model of object relations development: Psychoanalysis & Contemporary Thought Vol 6(1) 1983, 29-72.
- Epstein, M. (1995). Thoughts without a thinker: Buddhism and psychoanalysis: Psychoanalytic Review Vol 82(4) Jun 1995, 391-406.
- Epstein, M. (2004). Somebody and nobody: Thoughts of psychoanalysis and Buddhism: Contemporary Psychoanalysis Vol 40(2) Apr 2004, 299-304.
- Ethan, S. (1999). Spirituality vs psychoanalysis: The example of Zen Buddhism: Issues in Psychoanalytic Psychology Vol 21(1-2) 1999, 33-44.
- Eynde, R. V. (1999). Buddhism and Gestalt: Gestalt Journal Vol 22(2) Fal 1999, 89-100.
- Farau, A. (1964). Individual psychology and existentialism: Individual Psychologist 2(1) 1964, 1-8.
- Fenchel, G. H. (1999). Can psychoanalysis live with spirituality? Discussion of Sy Ethan's paper, Spirituality vs psychoanalysis: The example of Zen Buddhism: Issues in Psychoanalytic Psychology Vol 21(1-2) 1999, 45-52.
- Field, N. (2004). Review of Enlightenment and Insight: Psychodynamic Practice: Individuals, Groups and Organisations Vol 10(4) Nov 2004, 557-561.
- Finn, M. (1992). Transitional space and Tibetan Buddhism: The object relations of meditation. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.
- Finn, M. (1998). Tibetan Buddhism and comparative psychoanalysis. New York, NY: North Point Press.
- Finn, M. (2007). Reflections from the Margin: Buddhism and Psychoanalysis. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.
- Fontaine, C. (1984). Brightening up the mindworks: Concepts of instruction in biblical wisdom and Rinzai Zen: Religious Education Vol 79(4) Fal 1984, 590-600.
- Friedman, N. L. (2002). Zen breath meditation awareness improves heart rate variability in patients with coronary artery disease. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Fromm, G. H. (1992). Neurophysiological speculations on Zen enlightenment: Journal of Mind and Behavior Vol 13(2) Spr 1992, 163-169.
- Fujinawa, A. (1978). Morita-therapy: Concerning a form of Japanese psychotherapy: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 21(3) Sep 1978, 113-123.
- Garfield, C. A. (1975). Consciousness alteration and fear of death: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology Vol 7(2) 1975, 147-175.
- Gaskins, R. W. (1999). "Adding legs to a snake": A reanalysis of motivation and the pursuit of happiness from a Zen Buddhist perspective: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 91(2) Jun 1999, 204-215.
- Gergen, K. J. (1983). Zen Buddhism and psychological science: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 26(3) Sep 1983, 129-141.
- Gilgen, A. R., & Cho, J. H. (1980). Comparison of performance on the East-West Questionnaire, Zen Scale, and Consciousness I, II, and III scales: Psychological Reports Vol 47(2) Oct 1980, 583-588.
- Gillani, N. B., & Smith, J. C. (2001). Zen meditation and ABC relaxation theory: An exploration of relaxation states, beliefs, dispositions, and motivations: Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 57(6) Jun 2001, 839-846.
- Glassman, B. T. (1983). Zen and communication: Communication Vol 8(1) 1983, 1-12.
- Goddard, K. (1991). Morita therapy: A literature review: Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review Vol 28(2) 1991, 93-115.
- Goldman, B. L., Dormitor, P. J., & Murray, E. J. (1979). Effects of Zen meditation on anxiety reduction and perceptual functioning: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 47(3) Jun 1979, 551-556.
- Gopfert, C. R. (1999). Student experiences of betrayal in the Zen Buddhist teacher/student relationship. (Buddhism). Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Gorton, D. (1987). Gestalt Therapy: The historical influences on Frederick S. Perls: Gestalt Theory Vol 9(1) Mar 1987, 28-39.
- Goss, R. E., & Klass, D. (1997). Tibetan Buddhism and the resolution of grief: The Bardo-thodo for the dying and the grieving: Death Studies Vol 21(4) Jul-Aug 1997, 377-395.
- Goyeche, J. R. (1982). Towards the integration of Eastern and Western approaches to the "mind-body" problem: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 4(1) Jan 1982, 65-69.
- Gross, R. M. (1984). The feminine principle in Tibetan Vajrayana Buddhism: Reflections of a Buddhist feminist: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology Vol 16(2) 1984, 179-192.
- Groth-Marnat, G. (1992). Buddhism and mental health: A comparative analysis. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- Gunn, R. W. (1997). The experience of emptiness in the process of self-transformation in Zen buddhism, Christianity and depth psychology as represented by Dogen Kigen, Thomas Merton and Carl Jung, with Donald Winnicott and Heinz Kohut. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Gunn, R. W. (1999). Dualism, splitting, gender, and transformation: Gender & Psychoanalysis Vol 4(4) Fal 1999, 413-431.
- Haimes, N. (1972). Zen Buddhism and psychoanalysis: A bibliography essay: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 15(1) Mar 1972, 22-30.
- Haley, J. (1992). Zen and the art of therapy. Philadelphia, PA: Brunner/Mazel.
- Haney, W. S., II. (1999). Pure consciousness and cultural studies: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 6(2-3) Feb-Mar 1999, 238-240.
- Hanh, T. N. (2007). For a future to be possible: Buddhist ethics for everyday life. Berkeley, CA: Parallax Press.
- Hariman, J. (1983). Wisdom meditation: A modified "zen koan method" for ordinary people: Journal of Integrative & Eclectic Psychotherapy Vol 2(1) Feb 1983, 59-62.
- Harris, M. K. (1997). Claire Myers Owens: Life, work, art, 1896-1983. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Hart, J. (1970). The Zen of Hubert Benoit: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology Vol 2(2) 1970, 141-167.
- Harvey, P. (2000). The mind and its development in Theravada Buddhism: Communication & Cognition Vol 33(1-2) 2000, 65-82.
- Haule, J. R. (2000). Jung's practice of analysis: A Euro-American parallel to Ch'an Buddhism: Journal of Individual Psychology Vol 56(3) Fal 2000, 353-365.
- Heisig, J. W. (2002). Jung, Christianity, and Buddhism. New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.
- Herbrechtsmeier, W. (1993). Buddhism and the definition of religion: One more time: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion Vol 32(1) Mar 1993, 1-18.
- Heynekamp, E. E. (2002). Coming home: The difference it makes. New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.
- Hirai, T. (1989). Zen meditation and psychotherapy. New York, NY: Japan Publications.
- Ho, D. Y. F. (1995). Selfhood and identity in Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, and Hinduism: Contrasts with the West: Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour Vol 25(2) Jun 1995, 115-134.
- Horney, K. (1998). Free associations and the use of the couch. New York, NY: North Point Press.
- Hornstein, A. R. (2006). Working with the dying: Compassion, shame, and the illusion of loss. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Houtkooper, S. M. (1998). An exploratory study of the integration of Buddhism and psychoanalytic psychology. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Huppertz, M. (2003). The Relevance of Zen-Buddhism for Dialectic-Behavioral Therapy: Psychotherapie Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie Vol 53(9-10) Sep-Oct 2003, 376-383.
- Ikemi, Y., Ishikawa, H., Goyeche, J. R., & Saski, Y. (1978). Positive and negative aspects of the altered states of consciousness induced by autogenic training, Zen and yoga: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics Vol 30(3-4) 1978, 170-178.
- Ikemoto, T. (1971). Zen enlightenment without a teacher: The case of Mrs. Courtois, an American: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 14(2) Jun 1971, 71-76.
- Iwai, H., & Reynolds, D. K. (1970). Morita psychotherapy: The views from the West: American Journal of Psychiatry 126(7) 1970, 1031-1036.
- Izutsu, T., & Wilhelm, H. (1988). On images: Far Eastern ways of thinking. Dallas, TX: Spring Publications.
- Jain, M., & Jain, K. M. (1973). The science of yoga: A study in perspective: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine Vol 17(1) Fal 1973, 93-102.
- Jichaku, P., Fujita, G. Y., & Shapiro, S. I. (1984). The double bind and Koan Zen: Journal of Mind and Behavior Vol 5(2) Spr 1984, 211-221.
- Jones, J. W. (2003). The mirror of God: Christian faith as spiritual practice--Lessons from Buddhism and psychotherapy. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
- Kalff, M. (1983). The negation of ego in Tibetan Buddhism and Jungian psychology: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology Vol 15(2) 1983, 103-124.
- Kasamatsu, A., & Hirai, T. (1969). An electroencephalographic study on the Zen meditation (Zazen): Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 12(3-4) Dec 1969, 205-225.
- Kasamatsu, A., & Hirai, T. (1973). An electroencephalographic study on the Zen meditation (zazen): Journal of the American Institute of Hypnosis Vol 14(3) May 1973, 107-114.
- Kastl, R. (1990). Wolfgang Metzger's relationship to Taoism and Zen Buddhism: Gestalt Theory Vol 12(3) Sep 1990, 141-149.
- Kato, H. (2005). Zen and psychology: Japanese Psychological Research Vol 47(2) May 2005, 125-136.
- Keefe, T. (1975). A Zen perspective on social casework: Social Casework Vol 56(3) Mar 1975, 140-144.
- Keyes, C. F. (2007). Monks, guns, and peace: Theravada Buddhism and political violence. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
- Khong, B. S. L. (2003). Buddhism and psychotherapy: Experiencing and releasing dis-ease: Constructivism in the Human Sciences Vol 8(2) 2003, 37-56.
- Khong, B. S. L. (2003). dand Buddhism. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
- Kim, D.-H., Moon, Y.-S., Kim, H.-S., Jung, J.-S., Park, H.-M., Suh, H.-W., et al. (2005). Effect of Zen Meditation on serum nitric oxide activity and lipid peroxidation: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 29(2) Feb 2005, 327-331.
- Kimura, B. (1989). The role of language in the training of psychotherapists: Zeitschrift fur Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychoanalyse Vol 35(2) 1989, 143-155.
- Kinst, J. M. (2003). Trust, emptiness, and the self in the practice of Soto Zen Buddhism: An exploration including the insights of self psychology, Erik Erikson, and D. W. Winnicott. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Kishimoto, K. i., & Yamanaka, Y. (1987). Zen Buddhism and psychotherapy: A commentary on Yasenkanna ("A Quiet Talk in a Night Boat") by Zen Master Hakuin: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 30(2) Jun 1987, 113-125.
- Klunklin, A., & Greenwood, J. (2005). Buddhism, The Status of Women and The Spread of HIV/AIDS in Thailand: Health Care for Women International Vol 26(1) Jan 2005, 46-61.
- Knewitz, J. M. (1989). The explication of Zen Buddhism as a foundation for counseling: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Ko, B.-h. (1981). Applications in Korea: International Forum for Logotherapy Vol 4(2) Fal-Win 1981, 89-93.
- Kondo, A. (1992). A Zen perspective on the concept of self and human nature: International Bulletin of Morita Therapy Vol 5(1-2) Spr-Fal 1992, 46-49.
- Kopf, G. (1997). Beyond personal identity: Rethinking a dominant paradigm from a Zen perspective. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Krynicki, V. E. (1980). The double orientation of the ego in the practice of Zen: The American Journal of Psychoanalysis Vol 40(3) Fal 1980, 239-248.
- Kubose, S. K., & Umemoto, T. (1980). Creativity and the Zen koan: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 23(1) Mar 1980, 1-9.
- Kulka, R. (2006). The Human Condition between Emergence and Dissolving: Self Psychology as a Harmonious Bridge between Psychoanalysis and Buddhism: Selbstpsychologie: Europaische Zeitschrift fur psychoanalytische Therapie und Forschung/ Self Psychology: European Journal for Psychoanalytic Therapy and Research Vol 7(25-26) 2006, 312-321.
- Kumar, S. (2006). Toward an Integration of Buddhism and Psychology: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 51 (21), 2006.
- Kumar, S. M. (2002). An introduction to Buddhism for the cognitive-behavioral therapist: Cognitive and Behavioral Practice Vol 9(1) Win 2002, 40-43.
- Kurtz, S. (1998). The practice of unknowing. New York, NY: North Point Press.
- Kwee, M., & Ellis, A. (1998). The interface between rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) and Zen: Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy Vol 16(1) Spr 1998, 5-43.
- Kwee, M. G. T., & Taams, M. K. (2002). The NeoZen of Kaku-san: A constructivist synthesis of Zen in post Y2K-west: Constructivism in the Human Sciences Vol 7(1-2) 2002, 173-204.
- Lax, W. D. (1996). Narrative, social constructionism, and Buddhism. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
- Leever, B. A., & Mistler, B. J. (2005). Review of Awakening and Insight: Zen Buddhism and Psychotherapy: British Journal of Guidance & Counselling Vol 33(1) Feb 2005, 144-145.
- Lehr, E. (1994). The bridge: Symbolism and meaning: Analytische Psychologie Vol 25(98) Nov 1994, 297-311.
- Leone, G. (1995). Zen meditation: A psychoanalytic conceptualization: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology Vol 27(1) 1995, 87-94.
- Lesko, T. M. (2000). The long-term effects of Zen meditation (zazen): Living in the present moment and having an inner sense of direction. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Levine, M. (2000). The positive psychology of Buddhism and Yoga: Paths to a mature happiness: With a special application to handling anger. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Lewis, J. (2004). Buddhism and vegetarianism: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 22(SpecialIssue) Mar 2004, 19-27.
- Liao, H.-C., & Lo, P.-C. (2007). Investigation on spatiotemporal characteristics of Zen-meditation EEG rhythms: Journal of International Society of Life Information Science Vol 25(1) Mar 2007, 63-71.
- Lienau, A. M. (2007). The role of community and culture in spiritual growth for individuals who are converts to Buddhism. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Linden, S. (1997). Aiko: Drama therapy in the recovery of a Japanese/Korean-American woman: The Arts in Psychotherapy Vol 24(2) 1997, 193-203.
- Lopez, M. J. (2004). Facing east: Zen meditation and the improvement of psychotherapeutic skills. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Loue, S., Lane, S. D., Lloyd, L. S., & Loh, L. (1999). Integrating Buddhism and HIV prevention in U.S. southeast Asian communities: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved Vol 10(1) Feb 1999, 100-121.
- Loy, D. (1992). Avoiding the void: The lack of self in psychotherapy and Buddhism: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology Vol 24(2) 1992, 151-179.
- Loy, D. R. (1999). Loving the world as our own body: The non-dualist ethics of Taoism, Buddhism, and deep ecology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press/Greenwood Publishing Group.
- MacHovec, F. J. (1984). Current therapies and the ancient East: American Journal of Psychotherapy Vol 38(1) Jan 1984, 87-96.
- MacPhillamy, D. J. (1986). Some personality effects of long-term Zen monasticism and religious understanding: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion Vol 25(3) Sep 1986, 304-319.
- Magid, B. (2000). The couch and the cushion: Integrating Zen and psychoanalysis: Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis & Dynamic Psychiatry Vol 28(3) Fal 2000, 513-526.
- Magid, B. (2002). Ordinary mind: Exploring the common ground of Zen and psychotherapy. Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications.
- Magid, B. (2007). Don't Remove Delusion: Don't Even Seek the Truth. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.
- Maher, B. A. (1976). Review of Personality and personal growth: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 21 (12), Dec, 1976.
- Malec, J., & Sipprelle, C. N. (1977). Physiological and subjective effects of Zen meditation and demand characteristics: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 45(2) Apr 1977, 339-340.
- Marzanski, M., & Bratton, M. (2002). Mystical States or Mystical Life? Buddhist, Christian, and Hindu Perspectives: Comment: Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology Vol 9(4) Dec 2002, 349-351.
- Masis, K. V. (2002). American Zen and psychotherapy: An ongoing dialogue. New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.
- Masis, K. V. (2004). Compassion Betrayed: Spiritual Abuse in an American Zen Center: Cultic Studies Review Vol 3(1) 2004, No Pagination Specified.
- Matsubara, T. (1973). Japanese psychotherapy (Morita therapy) and its relationship to Zen Buddhism: Journal of the National Association of Private Psychiatric Hospitals Vol 5(1) 1973, 9-14.
- Maupin, E. W. (1962). Zen Buddhism: A psychological review: Journal of Consulting Psychology Vol 26(4) Aug 1962, 362-378.
- Maupin, E. W. (1965). Individual differences in response to a Zen meditation exercise: Journal of Consulting Psychology Vol 29(2) Apr 1965, 139-145.
- McGuire, G. A. (1998). Zen metapsychology and Western thought. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- McGuire, W. (2003). Jung, Evans-Wentz and various other gurus: The Journal of Analytical Psychology Vol 48(4) Sep 2003, 433-445.
- McIntosh, W. D. (1997). East meets West: Parallels between Zen Buddhism and social psychology: International Journal for the Psychology of Religion Vol 7(1) 1997, 37-52.
- Meadows, G. (2003). Buddhism and psychiatry: Confluence and conflict: Australasian Psychiatry Vol 11(1) Mar 2003, 16-19.
- Metcalf, F. A. (1998). Why do Americans practice Zen Buddhism? Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Mikulas, W. L. (1981). Buddhism and behavior modification: Psychological Record Vol 31(3) Sum 1981, 331-342.
- Mikulas, W. L. (2007). Buddhism & western psychology: Fundamentals of integration: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 14(4) Apr 2007, 4-49.
- Mitchell, J. L. (2003). Martin Heidegger's meditative thinking and Theravada Buddhist mindfulness: Going towards a psychological interface (Theravada Buddhism). Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Mohan, K. K. (2003). Buddhism and psychotherapy: An exploratory field study: Constructivism in the Human Sciences Vol 8(2) 2003, 203-223.
- Molino, A. (1998). The couch and the tree: Dialogues in psychoanalysis and Buddhism. New York, NY: North Point Press.
- Molino, A. (1998). Zen, Lacan, and the alien ego. New York, NY: North Point Press.
- Molino, A. (2002). Review of The Couch and the Tree: Dialogues in Psychoanalysis and Buddhism: Psychodynamic Practice: Individuals, Groups and Organisations Vol 8(3) Aug 2002, 410-413.
- Moncayo, R. (1998). The real and symbolic in Lacan, Zen and Kabbalah: International Journal for the Psychology of Religion Vol 8(3) 1998, 179-196.
- Moncayo, R. (1998). True subject is no-subject: The real, imaginary, and symbolic in psychoanalysis and Zen Buddhism: Psychoanalysis & Contemporary Thought Vol 21(3) Sum 1998, 383-422.
- Morgan, D. (1996). If the Buddha Were a Psychoanalyst, or Vice Versa: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 41 (3), Mar, 1996.
- Morsbach, H. (1973). Aspects of nonverbal communication in Japan: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 157(4) Oct 1973, 262-277.
- Morton, C. B. (2003). Countertransference in the works of Bollas, Ogden, and Stolorow: Toward a deconstruction of the countertransference metaphor (Christopher Bollas, Thomas Ogden, Robert Stolorow). Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Morvay, Z. (1999). Horney, Zen, and the real self: Theoretical and historical connections: The American Journal of Psychoanalysis Vol 59(1) Mar 1999, 25-35.
- Mruk, C. J., & Hartzell, J. (2003). Zen and psychotherapy: Integrating traditional and nontraditional approaches. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.
- Muramoto, S. (1985). Buddhism and psychotherapy in the world today: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 28(2) Jun 1985, 101-114.
- Muramoto, S. (2002). Buddhism, religion and psychotherapy in the world today. New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.
- Muramoto, S. (2002). Jung and Buddhism. New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.
- Murata, T., Takahashi, T., Hamada, T., Omori, M., Kosaka, H., Yoshida, H., et al. (2004). Individual Trait Anxiety Levels Characterizing the Properties of Zen Meditation: Neuropsychobiology Vol 50(2) 2004, 189-194.
- Nathan, J. H. (1990). Sitting, laboring, and changing: A critical examination of the indigenous Japanese psychotherapies: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 33(3) Sep 1990, 163-170.
- Neelis, J. E. (2001). Long-distance trade and the transmission of Buddhism through northern Pakistan, primarily based on Kharosthi and Brahmi inscriptions. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Nelson-Jones, R. (2004). Cognitive humanistic therapy: Buddhism, Christianity and being fully human. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
- Neuberg, A. (2003). Bridging secular and spiritual approaches to neurotic misery and everyday unhappiness: A dialogue between psychoanalysis and Jewish and Zen Buddhist mystical traditions. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- No authorship, i. (1986). Review of Buddhism and Jungian Psychology: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 31 (7), Jul, 1986.
- No authorship, i. (1990). Review of Oriental Theories of Human Development: Scriptural and Popular Beliefs from Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Shinto, and Islam: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 35 (7), Jul, 1990.
- No authorship, i. (1990). Review of Zen Meditation and Psychotherapy: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 35 (9), Sep, 1990.
- Noda, S. (1985). Buddhism and individual psychology: Zeitschrift fur Individualpsychologie Vol 10(4) 1985, 212-225.
- Noda, S. J. (2000). The concept of holism in Individual Psychology and Buddhism: Journal of Individual Psychology Vol 56(3) Fal 2000, 285-295.
- Noe, A. (2005). Self psychology, buddhism, and mindfulness meditation: An integrated conceptualization and treatment approach for women experiencing post-abortion distress. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Nordberg, R. B. (1973). The teenager and the new mysticism. Oxford, England: Richards Rosen Press.
- Odajnyk, V. W. (1998). Zen meditation as a way of individuation and healing. New York, NY: North Point Press.
- Okano, M. (2002). The consciousness-only school: An introduction and a brief comparison with Jung's psychology. New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.
- Onda, A. (1974). Zen, hypnosis and creativity: Interpersonal Development Vol 5(3) 1974-1975, 156-163.
- Osho. (2007). Compassion: The ultimate flowering of love. New York, NY: St Martin's Press.
- Pagnoni, G., & Cekic, M. (2007). Age effects on gray matter volume and attentional performance in Zen meditation: Neurobiology of Aging Vol 28(10) Oct 2007, 1623-1627.
- Palmer, B., & Whight, D. (2007). Dialectical behaviour therapy: A treatment for borderline personality disorder. New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
- Parkes, G. (1997). Nietzsche and Nishitani on nihilism and tradition. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
- Payne, R. K. (2002). Locating Buddhism, locating psychology. New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.
- Peng, T. (1994). Meditation and psycho-spiritual transformation: A phenomenological study of Ch'an (Zen) Buddhism and Christian mysticism. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Peter-Frank, D. P. (2004). Psychological defenses under the influence of Buddhism: Case studies of Vipassana practitioners. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Phillips, A. (1998). Reflections on Buddhism and psychoanalysis. New York, NY: North Point Press.
- Phillips, T., & Aarons, H. (2005). Choosing Buddhism in Australia: Towards a traditional style of reflexive spiritual engagement: British Journal of Sociology Vol 56(2) Jun 2005, 215-232.
- Philp, J., & Mercer, D. (1999). Commodification of Buddhism in contemporary Burma: Annals of Tourism Research Vol 26(1) Jan 1999, 21-54.
- Piechowski, M. M. (1991). "Characteristics of the self-actualized person: Visions from the East and West": Comment: Counseling and Values Vol 36(1) Oct 1991, 19-20.
- Piven, J. S. (2003). Buddhism, Death, and The Feminine: Psychoanalytic Review Vol 90(4) Aug 2003, 498-536.
- Piven, J. S. (2004). Buddhism, Death, and the Feminine. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.
- Ponton, L. (2004). Review of Going on Being: Buddhism and the Way of Change: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 43(8) Aug 2004, 1063-1064.
- Poon, H. G.-C. (1996). How Confucianism can contribute to clinical psychology and psychotherapy. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Powell, J. K. I. (1998). The great debate in mahayana buddhism: The nature of consciousness. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Puhakka, K. (1998). Dissolving the self: Rinzai Zen training at an American monastery: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology Vol 30(2) 1998, 135-160.
- Quinn, S. (1987). A mind of her own: The life of Karen Horney. New York, NY: Summit Books.
- Radford, J. (1976). What can we learn from Zen? A review and some speculations: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 19(2) Jun 1976, 57-66.
- Ragsdale, E. S. (2003). Value and meaning in Gestalt psychology and Mahayana Buddhism. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
- Rascovsky, A. (2006). Contemporary psychoanalysis in ethnic Chinese societies: New developments: International Journal of Psychoanalysis Vol 87(2) Apr 2006, 573-575.
- Reynolds, D. K. (1989). On being natural: Two Japanese approaches to healing. Oxford, England: John Wiley & Sons.
- Rhee, D. (1990). The Tao, psychoanalysis and existential thought: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics Vol 53(1-4) 1990, 21-27.
- Rhyner, B. (1988). Morita psychotherapy and Zen Buddhism: A comparison of theoretical concepts: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 31(1) Mar 1988, 7-14.
- Rhyner, B. (1988). Morita therapy, Mitchell's rest treatment, and Otto Binswanger's geregelte Lebensfuhrung: A methodological comparison: International Bulletin of Morita Therapy Vol 1(1) May 1988, 6-10.
- Riepe, D. (1964). Discussion: Zen and the scientific outlook: Philosophy of Science 31(1) 1964, 71-74.
- Ritskes, R., Ritskes-Hoitinga, M., Stodkilde-Jorgensen, H., Baerentsen, K., & Hartman, T. (2003). MRI Scanning During Zen Meditation: The Picture of Enlightenment? : Constructivism in the Human Sciences Vol 8(1) 2003, 85-90.
- Rizzetto, D. E. (2005). Waking up to what you do: A Zen practice for meeting every situation with intellience and compassion. Boston, MA: Shambhala Publications.
- Robins, C. J. (2002). Zen principles and mindfulness practice in dialectical behavior therapy: Cognitive and Behavioral Practice Vol 9(1) Win 2002, 50-57.
- Rosch, E. H. (2004). Promise and Peril in the Buddhism-Psychology Dialog: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 49 (Suppl 14), 2004.
- Rosenbaum, R. (1998). Zen and the heart of psychotherapy. Philadelphia, PA: Brunner/Mazel.
- Rubin, J. B. (1993). Psychoanalysis and Buddhism: Toward an integration. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
- Rubin, J. B. (1996). Psychotherapy and Buddhism: Toward an integration. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
- Rubin, J. B. (1999). Close encounters of a new kind: Toward an integration of psychoanalysis and Buddhism: The American Journal of Psychoanalysis Vol 59(1) Mar 1999, 5-24.
- Rubin, J. B. (2004). Psychoanalysis and Buddhism. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Rubin, J. B. (2007). Through the Net: A Journey from Basketball to Psychoanalysis and Buddhism. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.
- Rubottom, R. L. (1973). The differences and similarities of Zen, autogenic training, hypnosis and acupuncture: Journal of the American Institute of Hypnosis Vol 14(5) Sep 1973, 226-227.
- Rudnick, S. (2007). Coming Home to Wholeness. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.
- Rush, B. A. (2000). Zen and the therapeutic relationship. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Safran, J. D. (2006). Acceptance, surrender and nonduality: Contemporary Psychoanalysis Vol 42(2) Apr 2006, 225-230.
- Sahn, S., & Gak, H. (2006). Wanting enlightenment is a big mistake: Teachings of Zen master Seung Sahn. Boston, MA: Shambhala Publications.
- Sakamoto, Y., & Miura, T. (1976). An attempt to understand Japanese personality from a family psychiatry point of view: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry Vol 10(1-A) Mar 1976, 115-117.
- Sarro, R. (1970). Eastern-Western psychiatry: Revista de Psiquiatria y Psicologia Medica Vol 9(6) Apr 1970, 367-382.
- Sasaki, Y. (1992). Developments in the Zen therapy based on Zen meditation: An overview: Japanese Psychological Review Vol 35(1) 1992, 113-131.
- Sato, K. (1967). Zen of a Communist: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient 10(2) 1967, 101-103.
- Sato, K. (1968). Zen from a personological viewpoint: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient 11(1-2) 1968, 3-24.
- Sato, K. (1970). Zen, Tendai Sen and Naikan: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 13(1) Mar 1970, 2-4.
- Sayama, M. K. (1982). Mushin, the highest state of consciousness in Zen Buddhism: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Scotton, B. W. (1996). The contribution of Buddhism to transpersonal psychiatry. New York, NY: Basic Books.
- Shaneman, J. (2008). The practice of marriage and family counseling and Buddhism. New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
- Shapiro, D. H. (1976). Zen meditation and behavioral self-control strategies applied to a case of generalized anxiety: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 19(3) Sep 1976, 134-138.
- Shapiro, D. H. (1978). Instructions for a training package combining formal and informal Zen meditation with behavioral self-control strategies: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 21(2) Jun 1978, 70-76.
- Shapiro, D. H., & Zifferblatt, S. M. (1976). Zen meditation and behavior self-control: Similarities, differences, and clinical applications: American Psychologist Vol 31(7) Jul 1976, 519-532.
- Sharad, S. (2006). Review of Colors of Truth: Religion, Self and Emotions: Perspectives of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Islam, Sikhism and Contemporary Psychology: Psychological Studies Vol 51(4) Oct 2006, 329-330.
- Shimano, E. T., & Douglas, D. B. (1975). On research in Zen: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 132(12) Dec 1975, 1300-1302.
- Shore, J. (2002). A Buddhist model of the human self: Working through the Jung-Hisamatsu discussion. New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.
- Sinha, A. K. (1984). Eastern and Western Psychotherapies: Indian Psychological Review Vol 27(1-4) 1984, 1-16.
- Skinner, M. (1986). Selfhood and self-consciousness in social psychology: The views of G. H. Mead and Zen. Dorset, England: Prism Press.
- Smith, E. W. (1976). The growing edge of Gestalt therapy. Oxford, England: Brunner/Mazel.
- Sollod, R. N. (1982). Authoritarianism in Disguise: An Ethos Based on Personal Choice: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 27 (8), Aug, 1982.
- Song, S., & Lee, J. D. (1994). Family ethics and child rearing reflected in the thought of Won Buddhism: Korean Journal of Child Studies Vol 15(2) Nov 1994, 213-229.
- Stagner, R. (1938). Review of War dance: A study of the psychology of war: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 22(4) Aug 1938, 449-452.
- Stoyva, J. (1976). An Empirical Look at Zen: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 21 (1), Jan, 1976.
- Sugamura, G., Haruki, Y., & Koshikawa, F. (2007). Building more solid bridges between Buddhism and Western psychology: American Psychologist Vol 62(9) Dec 2007, 1080-1081.
- Sule, F. (1989). Intrapersonal change and the dynamics of the intrapersonal fields of force in a therapeutic community: International Journal of Therapeutic Communities Vol 10(3) 1989, 133-144.
- Suler, J. (1990). Images of the self in Zen meditation: Journal of Mental Imagery Vol 14(3-4) Fal-Win 1990, 197-204.
- Suler, J. (1995). In search of the self: Zen Buddhism and psychoanalysis: Psychoanalytic Review Vol 82(4) Jun 1995, 407-426.
- Suler, J. R. (1989). Paradox in psychological transformations: The Zen koan and psychotherapy: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 32(4) Dec 1989, 221-229.
- Suzuki, D. T. (1998). The Zen doctrine of no-mind. New York, NY: North Point Press.
- Takeo, K., Minamisawa, H., Kanda, K., & Hasegawa, S. (1984). Heart rates during the daily activity of "Zen" priests: Journal of Human Ergology Vol 13(1) Sep 1984, 83-87.
- Taniguchi, Y. (1992). Psychophysiological consideration on Zen meditation: Japanese Psychological Review Vol 35(1) 1992, 71-93.
- Tart, C. T. (1975). Transpersonal psychologies. Oxford, England: Harper & Row.
- Tart, C. T. (1991). Influences of previous psychedelic drug experiences on students of Tibetan Buddhism: A preliminary exploration: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology Vol 23(2) 1991, 139-173.
- Thomas, M. (1999). Seventeen syllables for the self. Florence, KY: Taylor & Frances/Routledge.
- Thomas, R. M. (1988). Oriental theories of human development: Scriptural and popular beliefs from Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Shinto, and Islam. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.
- Thuan, T. X. (2006). Science and Buddhism. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.
- Thuan, T. X. (2006). Science and Buddhism: At the Crossroads. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.
- Tipton, S. M. (1987). Zen practice and moral meaning. St. Paul, MN: Paragon House Publishers.
- Tloczynski, J., & Tantriella, M. (1998). A comparison of the effects of Zen breath meditation or relaxation on college adjustment: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 41(1) Mar 1998, 32-43.
- Tro, R. P. (1993). Karen Horney, psychoanalysis and Morita therapy: A historical overview of the Zen connection: International Bulletin of Morita Therapy Vol 6(1-2) Spr-Fal 1993, 30-46.
- Truitner, K., & Truitner, N. (1993). Death and dying in Buddhism. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis.
- Tsai, J. L., Miao, F. F., & Seppala, E. (2007). Good Feelings in Christianity and Buddhism: Religious Differences in Ideal Affect: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin Vol 33(3) Mar 2007, 409-421.
- Twemlow, S. W. (2001). Training psychotherapists in attributes of "mind" from Zen and psychoanalytic perspectives, Part I: Core principles, emptiness, impermanence, and paradox: American Journal of Psychotherapy Vol 55(1) 2001, 1-21.
- Twemlow, S. W. (2001). Training psychotherapists in attributes of "mind" from Zen and psychoanalytic perspectives, Part II: Attention, here and now, nonattachment, and compassion: American Journal of Psychotherapy Vol 55(1) 2001, 22-39.
- Umemoto, K., Endo, A., & Machado, M. (2004). From sashimi to zen-in: The evolution of concurrent engineering at Fuji Xerox: Journal of Knowledge Management Vol 8(4) 2004, 89-99.
- Uno, Y., & Rosenthal, R. (1972). Tacit communication between Japanese experimenters and subjects: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 15(4) Dec 1972, 213-222.
- Valentine, A. M. (1971). Zen and the psychology of education: Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied Vol 79(1) Sep 1971, 103-110.
- Veith, I. (1978). Psychiatric foundations in the Far East: Psychiatric Annals Vol 8(6) Jun 1978, 275-289.
- Vygotsky, L. S., Whorf, B. L., Wittgenstein, L., & Fromm, E. (1990). Language and consciousness. Toronto, ON, Canada: University of Toronto Press.
- Walker, C. A. (2004). Treating chemical dependency using the 12-steps, buddhism, and complementary therapies. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Wallace, B. A. (1995). The cultivation of sustained voluntary attention in Indo-Tibetan Buddhism. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Wallace, B. A. (2007). Contemplative science: Where Buddhism and neuroscience converge. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
- Wallin, J., & Graham, T. (2002). Generativity: Lived Experience as Curricular Content: Alberta Journal of Educational Research Vol 48(4) Win 2002, 341-349.
- Walter, S. (1994). Does a systemic therapist have Buddha nature? : Journal of Systemic Therapies Vol 13(3) Fal 1994, 42-49.
- Wang, H.-M. (2001). Length and frequency of practice of Zen meditation and personality for meditators in Taiwan (China). Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Waning, A. v. (2002). A mindful self and beyond: Sharing in the ongoing dialogue of Buddhism and psychoanalysis. New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.
- Watanabe, N., & Machleidt, W. (2003). Morita therapy: A Japanese method for treating neurotic anxiety syndrome: Nervenarzt Vol 74(11) 2003, 1020-1024.
- Watson, G., Batchelor, S., & Claxton, G. (2000). The psychology of awakening: Buddhism, science, and our day-to-day lives. York Beach, ME: Samuel Weiser.
- Weisz, P. (1990). The contribution of Georg Wilhelm Groddeck: Gestalt Journal Vol 13(2) Fal 1990, 85-98.
- Welwood, J. (2000). Toward a psychology of awakening: Buddhism, psychotherapy, and the path of personal and spiritural transformation. Boston, MA: Shambhala Publications.
- Wenk, H. E. (1999). Zen and the Art of Reductionism: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 44 (4), Aug, 1999.
- Witt, P. H. (2006). Albert Ellis on Everything: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 51 (33), 2006.
- Wolin, S. J., Muller, W., Taylor, F., & Wolin, S. (1999). Three spiritual perspectives on resilience: Buddhism, Christianity, and Judaism. New York, NY: Guilford Publications.
- Woolfolk, R. L. (1975). Psychophysiological correlates of meditation: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 32(10) Oct 1975, 1326-1333.
- Wray, I. (1986). Buddhism and psychotherapy: A Buddhist perspective. Dorset, England: Prism Press.
- Wuthnow, R., & Cadge, W. (2004). Buddhists and Buddhism in the United States: The scope of influence: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion Vol 43(3) Sep 2004, 363-380.
- Yokoyama, H. (1985). The comparative theory of religion: The symbolism of the mountain in the Japanese folk religion and Buddhism: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 28(2) Jun 1985, 115-127.
- Yoon, B.-y. (1979). A study of an extended concept of human intrapsychic capacity as expressed in D. T. Suzuki's Zen Buddhism: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Young-Eisendrath, P. (1997). The resilient spirit: Transforming suffering into insight and renewal. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley/Addison Wesley Longman.
- Young-Eisendrath, P. (2002). The transformation of human suffering: A perspective from psychotherapy and Buddhism. New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.
- Young-Eisendrath, P., & Muramoto, S. (2002). Awakening and insight: Zen Buddhism and psychotherapy. New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.
- Zen Centers at the Open Directory Project
- Zen Buddhism WWW Virtual Library
- The International Research Institute for Zen Buddhism
- Joint Council for Rinzai and Obaku Zen
- Soto zen
- Shambhala Sun Zen Articles
- A Study on the Origin of Chan Buddhism
- Rinzai Zen, master Shodo Harada Roshi, Sogenji,Okayama
- Rochester Zen Center
- Means of Authorization: Establishing Hierarchy in Ch'an/Zen Buddhism in America
- Isthmus Zen Community of Madison, WI
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|