Wikia

Psychology Wiki

Yoga

Talk0
34,117pages on
this wiki

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

World Psychology: Psychology by Country · Psychology of Displaced Persons


This article needs rewriting to enhance its relevance to psychologists..
Please help to improve this page yourself if you can..
Yoga girl
A woman practicing Yoga
LifeartistAdded by Lifeartist

Yoga is a family of ancient spiritual practices that originated in India, where it remains a vibrant living tradition and is seen as a means to enlightenment. Karma Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Jnana Yoga, and Raja Yoga are considered the four main yogas, but there are many other types. In other parts of the world where yoga is popular, notably the West, Yoga has become associated with the asanas (postures) of Hatha Yoga, which are popular as fitness exercises and also form the basis of an expanding business.

Yoga as a means to enlightenment is central to Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and has influenced other religious and spiritual practices throughout the world. Important Hindu texts establishing the basis for yoga include the Upanishads, Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, the Bhagavad Gita, and the Hatha Yoga Pradipika.
Yoga instructor
Eka-Pada-Rajakapotasana (Single-Legged Pigeon) demonstrated at a Hindu temple.
LifeartistAdded by Lifeartist

Yoga practice and intentionEdit

File:Indus 03.jpg
In Hinduism, Yoga is considered to be the ultimate way of attaining Enlightenment. The earliest written accounts of yoga appear in the Rig Veda, which began to be codified between 1500 and 1200 BCE. Some historians believe that this 5000-year-old sculpture is of a yogi.

Modern yoga practice often includes traditional elements inherited from eastern religion, such as moral and ethical principles, postures designed to keep the body fit, spiritual philosophy, instruction by a guru, chanting of mantras (sacred syllables), pranayama (breathing exercises), and stilling the mind through meditation. These elements are sometimes adapted to meet the needs of non-Hindu practitioners, who may be attracted to yoga by its utility as a relaxation technique or as a way to keep fit.

Proponents of yoga see daily practice as beneficial in itself, leading to improved health, emotional well-being, mental clarity, and joy in living. Yoga advocates progress toward the experience of samadhi, an advanced state of meditation where there is absorption in inner ecstasy.

The goals of yoga are expressed differently in different traditions. In theistic Hinduism, yoga may be seen as a set of practices intended to bring people closer to God - to help them achieve union with God. In Buddhism, which does not postulate a creator-type god, yoga may help people deepen their wisdom, compassion, and insight. In Western nations, where there is a strong emphasis on individualism, yoga practice may be an extension of the search for meaning in self, and integration of the different aspects of being. The terms Self-Realization and god-Realization are used interchangeably in Hindu yoga, with the underlying belief that the true nature of self, revealed through the practice of yoga, is of the same nature as God.

The ultimate goal of yoga is the attainment of liberation (Moksha) from worldly suffering and the cycle of birth and death (Samsara). Yoga entails mastery over the body, mind, and emotional self, and transcendence of desire. It is said to lead gradually to knowledge of the true nature of reality. The Yogi reaches an enlightened state where there is a cessation of thought and an experience of blissful union. This union may be of the individual soul (Atman) with the supreme Reality (Brahman), as in Vedanta philosophy; or with a specific god or goddess, as in theistic forms of Hinduism and some forms of Buddhism. Enlightenment may also be described as extinction of the limited ego, and direct and lasting perception of the non-dual nature of the universe.

For the average person still far from enlightenment, yoga can be a way of increasing one's spiritual awareness, or cultivating compassion and insight. While the history of yoga strongly connects it with Hinduism, proponents claim that yoga is not a religion itself, but contains practical steps which can benefit people of all religions, as well as those who do not consider themselves religious.

OriginsEdit

Main article: History of Yoga

Images of a meditating yogi from the Indus Valley Civilization are thought to be 6 to 7 thousand years old. The earliest written accounts of yoga appear in the Rig Veda, which began to be codified between 1500 and 1200 BC. It is difficult to establish the date of yoga from this as the Rig Veda was orally transmitted for at least a millennium. The first Yoga text dates to around the 2nd century BC by Patanjali, and prescribes adherence to "eight limbs" (the sum of which constitute "Ashtanga Yoga") to quiet one's mind and merge with the infinite.

The first full description of the principles and goals of yoga are found in the Upanisads, thought to have been composed between the eighth and fourth centuries BC. The Upanisads are also called Vedanta since they constitute the end or conclusion of the Vedas (the traditional body of spiritual wisdom). In the Upanisads, the older practises of offering sacrifices and ceremonies to appease external gods gives way instead to a new understanding that man can, by means of an inner sacrifice, become one with the Supreme Being (referred to as Brāhman or Māhātman) -- through moral culture, restraint and training of the mind.

The word "yoga"Edit

The word "yoga" derives from the Sanskrit root yuj ("to yoke"); which is cognate to modern English "yoke". Both derive from the Proto-Indo-European root *yeug- meaning "to join" or "unite".[1]

It is generally translated as "union of the individual atma (loosely translated to mean soul) with Paramatma, the universal soul." This may be understood as union with the Divine by integration of body, mind, and spirit. Thus, in essence, one who attempts yoga may loosely be referred to as a yogi or in Sanskrit, a yogin (masculine) or yogini (feminine). These designations are actually intended for advanced practitioners, who have already made considerable progress along the path, towards yoga.

Diversity of yogaEdit

Over the long history of yoga, different schools have emerged, and there are numerous examples of subdivisions and synthesis. It is common to speak of each form of yoga as a "path" to enlightenment. Thus, yoga may include love and devotion (as in Bhakti Yoga), selfless work (as in Karma Yoga), knowledge and discernment (as in Jnana Yoga), or an eight-limbed system of disciplines emphasizing meditation (as in Raja Yoga). These practices occupy a continuum from the religious to the scientific.[2] They need not be mutually exclusive. (A person who follows the path of selfless work might also cultivate some knowledge and devotion.) Some people (particularly in Western cultures) pursue Hatha yoga as exercise divorced from spiritual practice.

Other types of yoga include Mantra Yoga, Kundalini Yoga, Iyengar Yoga, Kriya Yoga, Integral Yoga, Nitya Yoga, Maha Yoga, Purna Yoga, Anahata Yoga, Tantra Yoga, Tibetan Yoga, Sahaja Yoga etc. It is often helpful to check the teacher and lineage to be sure how these terms are being used. Another name for Raja Yoga ("royal yoga") is Ashtanga Yoga ("eight-limbed yoga"), but this should not be confused with the Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga developed by Sri K. Pattabhi Jois, which is a specific style of Hatha Yoga practice.

Yoga and religionEdit

File:Yogidoingyoga.jpg
In Hinduism, Yoga is described as the ultimate way to attain God.

In the Hindu, Buddhist and Jain traditions, the spiritual goals of yoga are seen as inseparable from the religions of which yoga forms a part. Some yogis make a subtle distinction between religion and yoga, seeing religion as more concerned with culture, values, beliefs and rituals; and yoga as more concerned with Self-Realization, i.e., direct perception of the ultimate truth. In this sense, religion and yoga are complementary. Sri Ramakrishna likened religion to the husk, and direct experience to the kernel. Both are needed, "but if one wants to get at the kernel itself, he must remove the husk of the grain."

Some forms of yoga come replete with a rich iconography, while others are more austere and minimalist. Hindu practitioners of yoga are proud of their religious traditions, while non-Hindu practitioners claim that yoga may be practiced sincerely by those who have not accepted the Hindu religion.

While the yoga tradition remains rooted in India, the fact that some modern yogis like Swami Vivekananda and Paramahansa Yogananda came to the West suggests that they saw hope the yoga tradition could also flourish there. Critics of yoga as practiced in the West charge that it is sometimes watered down, corrupted, or cut off from its spiritual roots (e.g. the popular view that yoga is primarily physical exercises). The sheer number of people practicing yoga outside India suggests the need to define yoga both by its historical roots and its modern adaptations.

Common themesEdit

Common to most forms of yoga is the practice of concentration (dharana) and meditation (dhyana). Dharana, according to Patanjali's definition, is the "binding of consciousness to a single point." The awareness is concentrated on a fine point of sensation (such as that of the breath entering and leaving the nostrils). Sustained single-pointed concentration gradually leads to meditation (dhyana), in which the inner faculties are able to expand and merge with something vast. Meditators sometimes report feelings of peace, joy, and oneness.

The focus of meditation may differ from school to school, e.g. meditation on one of the chakras, such as the heart center (anahata) or the 'third eye' (ajna); or meditation on a particular deity, such as Krishna; or on a quality like peace. Non-dualist schools such as Advaita Vedanta may stress meditation on the Supreme with no form or qualities (Nirguna Brahman). This resembles Buddhist meditation on the Void.

Another common element is the spiritual teacher (guru in Sanskrit; lama in Tibetan). While emphasized to varying degrees by all schools of yoga, in some the guru is seen as an embodiment of the Divine. The guru guides the student (shishya or chela) through yogic discipline from the beginning. Thus, the novice yoga student traditionally devotes himself to a satguru (true teacher). Traditionally, knowledge of yoga - as well as permission to practice it or teach it--has been passed down through initiatory chains of gurus and their students. This is called guruparampara.

The yoga tradition is one of practical experience, but also incorporates texts which explain the techniques and philosophy of yoga. Many gurus write on the subject, either providing modern translations and elucidations of classical texts, or explaining how their particular teachings should be followed. A guru may also found an ashram or order of monks; these comprise the institutions of yoga. The yoga tradition has also been a fertile source of inspiration for poetry, music, dance, and art.

When students associate with a particular teacher, school, ashram or order, this naturally creates yoga communities where there are shared practices. Chanting of mantras such as Aum, singing of spiritual songs, and studying sacred texts are all common themes. The importance of any one element may differ from school to school, or student to student. Differences do not always reflect disagreement, but rather a multitude of approaches meant to serve students of differing needs, background and temperament.

The yogi is sometimes portrayed as going beyond rules-based morality. This does not mean that a yogi will act in an immoral fashion, but rather that he or she will act with direct knowledge of the supreme Reality[citation needed]. In some legends, a yogi - having amassed merit through spiritual practice, may then cause mischief even to the gods[How to reference and link to summary or text]. Some yogis in history have been naked ascetics, such as Swami Trailanga, who greatly vexed the occupying British in 19th century Benares by wandering about naked.

Roots of YogaEdit

Bhagavad GitaEdit

Hindu philosophy

Aum

Schools
Samkhya · Yoga
Nyaya · Vaisheshika
Purva Mimamsa · Vedanta
Schools of Vedanta
Advaita · Vishishtadvaita
Dvaita · Shuddhadvaita
Dvaitadvaita · Achintya Bheda Abheda
Important figures
Kapila · Patañjali
Gotama · Kanada
Jaimini · Vyasa
Medieval
Adi Shankara · Ramanuja
Madhva · Madhusudana
Vedanta Desika · Jayatirtha
Vallabha · Nimbarka
Chaitanya
Modern
Ramakrishna · Ramana
Vivekananda · Narayana Guru
N.C. Yati · Coomaraswamy
Aurobindo ·Sivananda
Satyananda · Chinmayananda
Main article: Bhagavad Gita

The Bhagavad Gita famously distinguishes several types of "yoga", corresponding to the duties of different nature of people. Capturing the essence and at the same time going into detail about the various Yogas and their philosophies, it constantly refers to itself as such, the "Scripture of Yoga" (see the final verses of each chapter). The book is thought to have been written some time between the 5th and the 2nd century BC. In it, Krishna describes the following yogas:

(1) Karma yoga, the yoga of "action" in the world.
(2) Jnana yoga, the yoga of knowledge and intellectual endeavor.
(3) Bhakti yoga, the yoga of devotion to a deity.
(4) Raja yoga, the yoga of meditation

PatanjaliEdit

Main article: Patanjali

Perhaps the classic description of yoga is the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, which form the basis not only of the darshana called "yoga"--one of six such "orthodox" (i.e. Veda-accepting) schools of Hindu philosophy--but also of the practice of yoga in most ashrams (to the extent these can be distinguished). The school (dharshana) of Indian philosophy known as "yoga" is primarily Upanishadic with roots in Samkhya, and some scholars see some influence from Buddhism. The Yoga philosophy fully believes in the epistemology of the Samkhya school, as well as its concept of the individual spirits (Purusha) and the Nature (Prakriti)—but differs from Samkhya's atheism.

Patanjali in the Yoga Sutras presents the goal of yoga as 'the cessation of mental fluctuations' (cittavrtti nirodha), an achievement which gives rise to the possibility of stable meditation and thus deeper states of absorption (dhyana or samadhi). This requires considerable restraint (yama) and self-discipline (niyama; see below for Patanjali's eight limbs of yoga)). Patanjali's yoga is sometimes called Raja Yoga (Skt: "Royal yoga") or "Ashtanga Yoga" ("Eight-Limbed Yoga"), in order to distinguish it from Hatha yoga. It is held as authoritative by all schools. Patanjali is also known for writing commentaries (Mahabhashya) on the Sutras of the great Sanskrit grammarian Panini. In fact, Panini, Patanjali and Kātyāyana are regarded are the highest authority not only in Sanskrit but also in the whole of Linguistics.

Patanjali's text sets forth eight "limbs" of yoga practice. Interestingly, only one of them involves physical postures (and these mainly involve seated positions). The eight are:

(1) Yama (The five "abstentions"): violence, lying, theft, (illicit-) sex, and possessions
(2) Niyama (The five "observances"): purity, contentment, austerities, study, and surrender to god
(3) Asana: This term literally means "seat," and originally referred mainly to seated positions. With the rise of Hatha yoga, it came to be used of these yoga "postures" as well.
(4) Pranayama: Control of prāna or vital breath
(5) Pratyahara ("Abstraction"): Reversal of the sense organs ( "That by which the senses do not come into contact with their objects and, as it were, follow the nature of the mind." — Vyasa)
(6) Dharana ("Concentration"): Fixing the attention on a single object
(7) Dhyana ("Meditation")
(8) Samadhi: Super-conscious state or trance (state of liberation)

God in Yoga philosophyEdit

Sivakempfort
A large statue in Bangalore depicting Lord Shiva meditating.
PhloxBotAdded by PhloxBot

The philosophy of Yoga also presented certain arguments for the existence of God (Ishvara, lit., the Supreme Lord):

  • The Vedas are regarded as evidence. The Vedas and their commentaries, the Upanishads mention and describe god—hence god exists.
  • Continuity: people and things have various degrees of differences among themselves. Some people are foolish, some are wise. Hence there ought to be some Being who has the highest level of knowledge among all—who is omniscient. That being is god.
  • Cosmic Evolution, leading to this universe, occurs because of the contact between Purusha (spirit) and Prakriti (Nature). Purusha is static, and Prakriti is unconscious. Hence there can be no contact between these two things of opposite characteristics, unless god—the omniscient being—brings about this contact.
  • Meditation upon a deity is regarded as the best means of attaining liberation. If meditation on such a being helps in liberation, and all obstacles are removed, then the object of the meditation must have a real existence.

Ishvara is regarded as a special Purusha, who is beyond sorrow and Karma laws. He is one, perfect, infinite, omniscient, omnipresent, omnipotent and eternal. He is beyond the three qualities of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. He is different from an ordinary liberated spirit, because the latter were bound once, whereas Ishvara was never bound. He is kind and merciful. He is the father of the demigods (the various Devas) and of the sages (rishis), as well as their guru; He is the author of the Vedas[How to reference and link to summary or text].

Yoga system is perhaps the first philosophy in the world to give arguments for monotheism. Yoga says that Ishvara can be only one and unique. If many gods are assumed:

  • Let us assume there are two gods. If god #1 gives a certain quality (say white color) to a thing and god #2 gives another (say black color) to the same thing, this would be mutually contradictory. On the other hand, if god #1's choice reigns supreme, god #2 would fail to remain as god.
  • Let us assume the gods work in as a committee to do certain tasks one by one. Then while one god is doing his work, the existence of the other gods would be superfluous and unnecessary.

Hatha YogaEdit

Main article: Hatha yoga

Over the last century the term yoga has come to be especially associated with the postures (Sanskrit āsanas) of hatha yoga ("Forced Yoga"). Hatha yoga has gained wide popularity outside of India and traditional yoga-practicing religions, and the postures are sometimes presented as entirely secular or non-spiritual in nature.

Traditional Hatha Yoga is a complete yogic path, including moral disciplines, physical exercises (e.g., postures and breath control), and meditation - and encompasses far more than the yoga of postures and exercises practiced in the West as a physical culture. The seminal work on Hatha Yoga is the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, written by Swami Svatmarama.

Hatha Yoga was invented to provide a form of physical purification and training that would prepare aspirants for the higher training that is called Raja Yoga (see above). This is still true today. Despite this, many in the West practice 'Hatha yoga' solely for the perceived health benefits it provides, and not as a path to enlightenment.

Natya YogaEdit

Main article: Natya Yoga

The guide to Natya (Dance) Yoga was written by Bharata Muni. Sage Narada along with Gandharvas were the first to practise Natya Yoga, which comprise all the four main yoga's. Natya Yoga was practised by the medieval devadasis, and is currently taught in a few orthodox schools of Bharatanatyam and Odissi.

Yoga and BuddhismEdit

Stop hand
The factual accuracy of this article is disputed.
Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page.

Within the various schools of Tibetan Buddhism yoga likewise holds a central place, though not in the form presented by Patanjali or the Gita. (For example, physical postures are rarely practiced.[dubious]) An example would be "guru yoga," the union with the mind of the spiritual teacher which must be done at the beginning of the spiritual path and regularly throughout. In the tantric traditions a number of practices are classified with the name "yoga", for example, the two of the four general classification of tantras -"Yoga Tantra" and "Highest Yoga Tantra".

A system of 108 bodily postures practiced with breath and heart rhythm timing in movement exercises is known as Trul khor or union of moon and sun (channel) prajna energies. The body postures of Tibetan ancient yogis are depicted on the walls of the Dalai Lama's summer temple of Lukhang.

As the whole buddhist lineage transmission of Kagyu school came to Tibet over the Indian Yogis Naropa, Tilopa, Marpa then Milarepa, Gampopa, authentic old buddhist yogic practices have been passed over to students still following these instructions throughout many Kagyu Monasteries and institutes worldwide.

Yogacara ("Yoga Adepts"), which is also known as Cittamatra ("Consciousness Only") is an important philosophical school within Indo-Tibetan Buddhism.[dubious]

Yoga among ChristiansEdit

Some Christians have changed the practice of yoga to accommodate their own approach to spirituality and out of concern for associating with spiritual practices of other non-Christian religions.[3][4][5]

Some Christians oppose major components of yoga outright. According to Donal O’Mathuna, Ph.D., and Walt Larimore, M.D., in their book Alternative Medicine, they claim: "Yoga is an alternative therapy that is difficult to wholeheartedly accept or reject. As a set of physical and breathing exercises, it can improve general well-being. As a deeply religious practice with the goal of union with the divine, it is antithetical to biblical Christianity."[6]

Other Christians have embraced many aspects of yoga and have incorporated the practice into their ministry, including the Outstretched ministry of Susan Bordenkirche,[7] author of Yoga For Christians. Another book is An Invitation to Christian Yoga by Nancy Roth.

Yoga and Tantra Edit

Main article: Tantra

Yoga is often mentioned in company with Tantra. While the two have deep similarities, most traditions distinguish them from one another.

They are similar in that both amount to families of spiritual texts, practices, and lineages with origins in the Indian subcontinent. (Coincidentally, both have been popularized to some extent in the West, with perhaps a shallower understanding of their nature). It should be noted however that for the most part, we are speaking of different families of texts, lineages, etc.

Their differences are variously expressed. Some Hindu commentators see yoga as a process whereby body consciousness is seen as the root cause of bondage, while tantra views the body as a means to understanding, rather than as an obstruction. It must be said that in India, tantra often carries quite negative connotations involving sexual misbehavior and black magic. Nevertheless, most forms of tantra follow more mainstream social mores. The Hatha Yoga Pradipika is generally classified as a Hindu tantric scripture.

Tantra has roots in the first millennium CE, and incorporates much more of a theistic basis. Almost entirely founded on Shiva and Shakti worship, Hindu tantra visualizes the ultimate Brahman as Param Shiva, manifested through Shiva (the passive, masculine force of Lord Shiva) and Shakti (the active, creative feminine force of his consort, variously known as Ma Kali, Durga, Shakti, Parvati and others). It focuses on the kundalini, a three and a half-coiled 'snake' of spiritual energy at the base of the spine that rises through the chakras until union between Shiva and Shakti (also known as samadhi) is achieved. (Some Hindu yoga teachers, however, have adopted these concepts.)

Tantra emphasises mantra (Sanskrit prayers, often to gods, that are repeated), yantra (complex symbols representing gods in various forms through intricate geometric figures), and rituals that range from simple murti (statue representations of deities) or image worship to meditation on a corpse! While tantric texts (see kaularvatantra, mahanirvana tantra) and teachers (e.g. Abhinava Gupta) may seem odd and highly arcane from the point of view of classical yoga, that these incorporate yoga concepts seems clear.

Notable YogisEdit

Main article: Yogi
Ramakrishna
Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (1836-1886)
PhloxBotAdded by PhloxBot

Many dedicated individuals have influenced the practice of yoga, and spread awareness of yoga throughout the world.

Centuries ago, such individuals included Meera from the Bhakti tradition, Shankaracharya from the Jnana Yoga tradition, Patanjali, who formalized the system of Raja Yoga, are just a few examples.

In the late 1800s, Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, a Bhakti Yogi, brought about a rebirth of yoga in India. A devotee of Mother Kali and a teacher of Advaita Vedanta, he preached that "all religions lead to the same goal."

The noted Indian author Sri Aurobindo translated and interpreted Yogic scriptures, such as the Upanishads and Bhagavad-Gita. His epic poem Savitri is a treasure of Hindu Yogic literature, among the longest poems ever written in English. He also founded Sri Aurobindo Ashram in Pondicherry, which continues to propagate the practice of Integral Yoga, which is Aurobindo's synthesis of the four main Yogas (Karma, Jnana, Bhakti and Raja).

Other Indian yogis who inspired their countrymen include Swami Rama Tirtha, and Swami Sivananda who authored over 300 books on yoga and spirituality.

Gopi Krishna was a Kashmiri office worker and spiritual seeker who wrote best-selling autobiographical[8] accounts of his spiritual experiences.

During the early twentieth century, many yogis travelled to the west to spread knowledge of Yoga.

Swami Vivekananda, Ramakrishna's disciple, is well known for introducing Yoga philosophy to many in the west, as well as reinvigorating Hinduism in a modern setting during India's freedom struggle.

Swami Sivananda (1887-1963), founder of the Divine Life Society lived most of his life in Rishikesh, India. He wrote an impressive 300 books on various aspects of Yoga, religions, philosophy, spirituality, Hinduism, moral ethics, hygiene and health. He was a pioneering Yogi in bringing Yoga to the west and throughout the world. He was clear, simple and precise in all his teachings. His motto being: "Serve. Love. Give. Meditate. Purify. Realise."

Paramahansa Yogananda (1893-1952), a practitioner of Kriya Yoga, taught Yoga as the binding force that reconciled Hinduism and Christianity. Yogananda founded the Self-Realization Fellowship in Los Angeles, in 1925. His book Autobiography of a Yogi continues to be one of the best-selling books on yoga.

A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada popularised Bhakti Yoga for Krishna in many countries through his movement, the International Society for Krishna Consciousness, (popularly known as the Hare Krishna movement) which he founded in 1966. His followers, known for enthusiastic chanting in public places, brought Bhakti Yoga to the attention of many westerners.

In 1955, the socio-spiritual organization Ananda Marga (the path of bliss) was founded by P.R. Sarkar also known as Shrii Shrii Anandamurti. Based on tantric yoga, his teaching emphasizes social service in the context of a political, economic and cultural theory; or “self-realization and service to all.”

Also during this period, many yogis brought greater awareness of Hatha yoga to the west. Some of these individuals include students of Sri Tirumalai Krishnamacharya, who taught at Mysore Palace from 1924 until his death in 1989; these students include Sri K. Pattabhi Jois, B.K.S. Iyengar, Indra Devi and Krishnamacharya's son T.K.V. Desikachar.

About the same time, the Beatles' interest in Transcendental Meditation served to make a celebrity of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi.

See also Edit

References Edit

  1. http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE600.html
  2. "Like that unifying process known in Sanskrit as yoga, religion is that multifaceted, effective process that binds together the totality of an otherwise disintegrated, dissipated or deadened existence to form an integrated and vital whole." from pg. 15 of Mahoney, William K. (1998). An Introduction to the Vedic Religious Imagination, Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0791435806. The scientific aspects of Yoga practice can be seen in Ayurevedic traditions and in the precision of asana practices such as Iyengar Yoga.
  3. http://www.gotquestions.org/Christian-yoga.html
  4. http://www.religionnewsblog.com/12332
  5. http://www.acfnewsource.org/religion/christian_yoga.html
  6. http://www.briomag.com/briomagazine/briobeyond/a0004643.html
  7. http://www.christianyoga.us
  8. http://www.gopikrishna.mystics.co.uk
  • Donatelle, Rebecca J. Health: The Basics. 6th ed. San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. 2005.
  • Feuerstein, Georg. The Shambhala Guide to Yoga. 1st ed. Boston & London: Shambhala Publications 1996.
  • Saraswati, swami satyananda (November 2002 (12th edition))"Asana Pranayama Mudra Bandha" ISBN 81-8633-614-1
  • Mittra, Dharma Sri. Asanas: 608 Yoga Poses. 1st ed. California: New World Library 2003.
  • Usharabudh, Arya Pandit. Philosophy of Hatha Yoga. 2nd ed. Pennsylvania: Himalayan Institute Press 1977, 1985.

Further referencesEdit

Abbott, E. R. (1997). States of meditation: A qualitative inquiry into the practices of fifteen meditators. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.

  • Adashko Raskin, A. D. (2004). The experience of yoga during the transition to motherhood. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Ainslie, G. (1975). The Biofeedback Rush: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 20 (5), May, 1975.
  • Ajaya, S. (1977). Meditational therapy. Oxford, England: Himalayan International Inst of Yog.
  • Allen, K. S., & Steinkohl, R. P. (1987). Yoga in a geriatric mental clinic: Activities, Adaptation & Aging Vol 9(4) Sum 1987, 61-68.
  • Altman, K. E. R. (2001). A brief therapy model to reduce stress by practicing breathing exercises, mindful meditation, and yoga stretching. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Anantharaman, R. N., & Kabir, R. (1984). A study of Yoga: Journal of Psychological Researches Vol 28(2) May 1984, 97-101.
  • Anderson, H. (1974). A study of the principles and methods of self-integration in integral yoga: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Andrade, R. L. d. P., & Pedrao, L. J. (2005). Some considerations about nurses' use of non traditional therapies in psychiatric nursing care: Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem Vol 13(5) Sep-Oct 2005, 737-742.
  • Angus, S. F. (1989). Three approaches to stress management for children: Elementary School Guidance & Counseling Vol 23(3) Feb 1989, 228-233.
  • Anjali, P. (1995). Yoga as psychotherapy: A distillation of the essential principles of Patanjala Yoga theory into a counseling and psychotherapy model. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Arambula, P., Peper, E., Kawakami, M., & Gibney, K. H. (2001). The physiological correlates of Kundalini yoga meditation: A study of a yoga master: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback Vol 26(2) Jun 2001, 147-153.
  • Austin, T. K. (1982). Stress management: Journal of Orthomolecular Psychiatry Vol 11(3) 1982, 193-197.
  • Baker, M. A. (1980). The effects of Hatha Yoga and self-recording on trait anxiety and locus of control: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Balakrishanan, R., Nachimuthu, P., & Varthini, R. (2007). Yoga attitude and U.S.H.A. well-being among yoga practitioners: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 25(1-2) Jan-Jul 2007, 59-63.
  • Baldwin, M. C. (1999). Psychological and physiological influences of Hatha Yoga training on healthy, exercising adults. (yoga, stress, wellness). Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Balodhi, J. P. (1986). Perspective of Rajayoga in its application to mental health: NIMHANS Journal Vol 4(2) Jul 1986, 133-138.
  • Balodhi, J. P., & Mishra, H. (1983). Patanjala yoga and behavior therapy: the Behavior Therapist Vol 6(10) Nov 1983, 196-197.
  • Balogh, P. (1976). Gestalt awareness: A way of being as a Yoga for the West: International Journal of Social Psychiatry Vol 22(1) Spr 1976, 64-66.
  • Banerjee, H. N. (1964). The proposal for the study of psychical capacities of the persons practicing Yoga: Research Journal of Philosophy & Social Sciences 1(1) 1964, 138-146.
  • Bansal, P. (2005). Review of Health Psychology: Psychological Studies Vol 50(4) Oct 2005, 369-371.
  • Barber, T. X. (1970). LSD, marihuana, yoga, and hypnosis. Oxford, England: Aldine.
  • Barnes, B. L., & Nagarkar, S. (1989). Yoga education and scholastic achievement: Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 16(2) Sep 1989, 96-98.
  • Barnes, R. M. (1981). A study of the psychological structures of Transcendental, Yoga, and Ignatian Meditation as allied phenomena: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Barte, H. (1971). A mystic or a delirious experience? Concerning the observation of Yogi: L'Evolution Psychiatrique Vol 36(4) Oct 1971, 817-827.
  • Becker, D. E., & Shapiro, D. (1981). Physiological responses to clicks during Zen, Yoga, and TM meditation: Psychophysiology Vol 18(6) Nov 1981, 694-699.
  • Beddoe, A. E. (2008). Mindfulness-based yoga during pregnancy: A pilot study examining relationships between stress, anxiety, sleep, and pain. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Benson, H., Beary, J. F., & Carol, M. P. (1974). The relaxation response: Psychiatry: Journal for the Study of Interpersonal Processes Vol 37(1) Feb 1974, 37-46.
  • Benson, H., & et al. (1982). Body temperature changes during the practice of g Tum-mo yoga: Nature Vol 295(5846) Jan 1982, 234-236.
  • Berger, B. G., & Owen, D. R. (1992). Mood alteration with Yoga and swimming: Aerobic exercise may not be necessary: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 75(3, Pt 2) Dec 1992, 1331-1343.
  • Bergin, A. E. (1986). Review of International Meditation Bibliography 1950-1982: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 31 (3), Mar, 1986.
  • Bernardi, L., Sleight, P., Bandinelli, G., Cencetti, S., Fattorini, L., Wdowczyc-Szulc, J., et al. (2001). Effect of rosary prayer and yoga mantras on autonomic cardiovascular rhythms: Comparative study: BMJ: British Medical Journal Vol 323(7327) Dec 2001, 1446-1449.
  • Bhavanani, A. B. (2006). Introducing integral yoga psychology in the teacher education curriculum: Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology Vol 32(2) Spec Issue Feb 2006, 204-213.
  • Bhavanani, A. B. (2006). Introducing intergral yoga psychology in the teacher education curriculum: Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology Vol 32(2, Spec Issue) Feb 2006, 204-213.
  • Bhushan, L. I. (2003). Yoga for promoting mental health of children: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 21(2) Jul 2003, 45-53.
  • Bhushan, S. (2006). Qualitative transformation in personality: A function of yoga nidra: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 24(1-2) Jan-Jul 2006, 65-75.
  • Bhushan, S. (2007). Qualitative transformation in personality: A function of yoga nidra: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 25(1-2) Jan-Jul 2007, 6-15.
  • Bhushan, S., & Sinha, P. (2001). Yoganidra and management of anxiety and hostility: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 19(1-2) Jan-Jul 2001, 44-49.
  • Bijlani, R. L., Vempati, R. P., Yadav, R. K., Ray, R. B., Gupta, V., Sharma, R., et al. (2005). A Brief but Comprehensive Lifestyle Education Program Based on Yoga Reduces Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes Mellitus: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine Vol 11(2) Apr 2005, 267-274.
  • Bikkina, N. (2006). Psychosocial aspects of classical dance forms of India: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 24(1-2) Jan-Jul 2006, 14-16.
  • Blumenthal, J. A., Emery, C. F., Madden, D. J., George, L. K., & et al. (1989). Cardiovascular and behavioral effects of aerobic exercise training in healthy older men and women: Journals of Gerontology Vol 44(5) Sep 1989, M147-M157.
  • Bonadies, V. (2004). A yoga therapy program for AIDS-related pain and anxiety: Implications for therapeutic recreation: Therapeutic Recreation Journal Vol 38(2) 2004, 148-166.
  • Booth-LaForce, C., Thurston, R. C., & Taylor, M. R. (2007). A pilot study of a Hatha yoga treatment for menopausal symptoms: Maturitas Vol 57(3) Jul 2007, 286-295.
  • Boudette, R. (2006). Question & answer: Yoga in the treatment of disordered eating and body image disturbance. How can the practice of yoga be helpful in recovery from an eating disorder? : Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention Vol 14(2) Mar-Apr 2006, 167-170.
  • Boudreau, L. (1972). Transcendental meditation and yoga as reciprocal inhibitors: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 3(2) Jun 1972, 97-98.
  • Bowers, K. (1971). Bringing Home the Bacon: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 16 (9), Sep, 1971.
  • Brady, M. R. (2007). The effects of Hatha yoga and weight training on trait and state anxiety. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Brar, H. S. (1970). Yoga and psychoanalysis: British Journal of Psychiatry 116(531) 1970, 201-206.
  • Broota, A., Varma, R., & Singh, A. (1995). Role of relaxation in hypertension: Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology Vol 21(1) Jan 1995, 29-36.
  • Brown, R. P., & Gerbarg, P. l. (2005). Sudarshan Kriya Yogic Breathing in the Treatment of Stress, Anxiety, and Depression: Part II-Clinical Applications and Guidelines: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine Vol 11(4) Aug 2005, 711-717.
  • Brown, R. P., & Gerbarg, P. L. (2005). Sudarshan Kriya yogic breathing in the treatment of stress, anxiety, and depression: Part I--neurophysiologic model: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine Vol 11(1) Feb 2005, 189-201.
  • Brownstein, A. H., & Dembert, M. L. (1989). Treatment of essential hypertension with yoga relaxation therapy in a USAF aviator: A case report: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 60(7) Jul 1989, 684-687.
  • Buhrman, S. A. (1996). Trance in America: A comparison of trance types and trance experience in two religious communities. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Bukowski, E. L., Conway, A., Glentz, L. A., Kurland, K., & Galantino, M. L. (2006). The effect of Iyengar yoga and strengthening exercises for people living with osteoarthritis of the knee: A case series: International Quarterly of Community Health Education Vol 26(3) 2006, 287-305.
  • Bunk, B. E. (1979). Effects of hatha yoga and mantra meditation on the psychological health and behavior of incarcerated males: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Butera, R. (2006). Yoga: An Introduction. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.
  • Butler, M. P. (2006). Five yogic practices and their relation to psychological distress. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Calajoe, A. (1986). Yoga as a therapeutic component in treating chemical dependency: Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly Vol 3(4) Win 1986, 33-46.
  • Campbell, J. F., Stenstrom, R. J., & Bertrand, D. (1985). Systematic changes in perceptual reactance induced by physical fitness training: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 61(1) Aug 1985, 279-284.
  • Cantor, A. J. (1973). How to turn on the power of your mind with alpha-theta UNITROL: Gateway to the unconscious for creativity, self-healing, enlightenment with the UNITROL of Yoga and Zen. Oxford, England: Hippocrates Press.
  • Carlsson, M. (2001). Kundalini and the Bonny Method of GIM: Journal of the Association for Music & Imagery Vol 8 2001-2002, 35-55.
  • Carson, J. W., Carson, K. M., Porter, L. S., Keefe, F. J., Shaw, H., & Miller, J. M. (2007). Yoga for Women with Metastatic Breast Cancer: Results from a Pilot Study: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management Vol 33(3) Mar 2007, 331-341.
  • Casden, D. R. (2005). The effects of Ashtanga yoga on autonomic, respiratory and cognitive functioning; psychological symptoms and somatic complaints: A controlled study. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Castillo, R. J. (1985). The transpersonal psychology of Patanjali's Yoga-Sutra (Book I: Samadhi): A translation and interpretation: Journal of Mind and Behavior Vol 6(3) Sum 1985, 391-417.
  • Chakraborty, S. K. (1986). The will-to-yoga: Key to better quality of work life: Vikalpa Vol 11(2) Apr-Jun 1986, 113-124.
  • Chan, C. L. W., Chan, T. H. Y., & Ng, S. M. (2006). The Strength-Focused and Meaning-Oriented Approach to Resilience and Transformation (SMART): A Body-Mind-Spirit Approach to Trauma Management: Social Work in Health Care Vol 43(2-3) 2006, 9-36.
  • Chandra, F. A. (1994). Respiratory practices in yoga. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  • Chari, C. T. (1973). Regurgitation, mediumship and yoga: Journal of the Society for Psychical Research Vol 47(757) Sep 1973, 156-172.
  • Chen, K.-M., Tseng, W.-S., Ting, L.-F., & Huang, G.-F. (2007). Development and evaluation of a yoga exercise programme for older adults: JAN Journal of Advanced Nursing Vol 57(4) Feb 2007, 432-441.
  • Christopher, J. C., Christopher, S. E., Dunnagan, T., & Schure, M. (2006). Teaching Self-Care Through Mindfulness Practices: The Application of Yoga, Meditation, and Qigong to Counselor Training: Journal of Humanistic Psychology Vol 46(4) Oct 2006, 494-509.
  • Clance, P. R., Mitchell, M., & Engelman, S. R. (1980). Body cathexis in children as a function of awareness training and yoga: Journal of Clinical Child Psychology Vol 9(1) Spr 1980, 82-85.
  • Clayton, A. H. (2005). Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Primary Psychiatry Vol 12(8) Aug 2005, 20-21.
  • Cohen, B. E., Kanaya, A. M., Macer, J. L., Shen, H., Chang, A. A., & Grady, D. (2007). Feasibility and acceptability of restorative yoga for treatment of hot flushes: A pilot trial: Maturitas Vol 56(2) Feb 2007, 198-204.
  • Collins, L. A. (1984). Stress management and yoga: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Connell, D. M. (1996). The relationship between Siddha meditation and stress in psychotherapists: A transcriptional perspective. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Corby, J. C., Roth, W. T., Zarcone, V. P., & Kopell, B. S. (1978). Psychophysiological correlates of the practice of Tantric Yoga meditation: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 35(5) May 1978, 571-577.
  • Cornelissen, M. (2003). The need for the Indian tradition: Psychological Studies Vol 48(3) 2003, 38-52.
  • Cornelissen, M. (2005). The farther reaches of human identity: An exploration based on the work of Sri Aurobindo: Psychological Studies Vol 50(2-3) 2005, 226-232.
  • Cornell, L. J. (2006). Green Yoga: A collaborative inquiry among a group of Kripalu Yoga teachers. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Cornwell, D. (1979). Energy-sensing: An application of Shabd Yoga to psychotherapy: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Coward, H. G. (1985). Jung and Kundalini: The Journal of Analytical Psychology Vol 30(4) Oct 1985, 379-392.
  • Coyote, A. L. E. C. (2000). Two perspectives on selfhood: Donald Wood Winnicott, MD and Dvaita yoga philosophy. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Criswell, E. (1970). Experimental yoga psychology course for college students: A progress report: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology Vol 2(1) 1970, 71-78.
  • Criswell, E., & Patel, K. C. (2003). The yoga path: Awakening from the dream. New York, NY: Haworth Press.
  • Crumbaugh, J. C. (1964). The potential contributions of yoga to parapsychology: Research Journal of Philosophy & Social Sciences 1(1) 1964, 75-77.
  • Culos-Reed, S. N., Carlson, L. E., Daroux, L. M., & Hately-Aldous, S. (2006). A pilot study of yoga for breast cancer survivors: Physical and psychological benefits: Psycho-Oncology Vol 15(10) Oct 2006, 891-897.
  • Cunningham, O. (1981). The relationship of psychic healing and insight oriented treatment within an expressive framework: Pratt Institute Creative Arts Therapy Review Vol 2 1981, 15-24.
  • Cusumano, J. A. (1991). The short-term psychophysiological effects of Hatha Yoga and progressive relaxation on female Japanese students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Cusumano, J. A. (1992). The short-term psychophysiological effects of hatha yoga and progressive relaxation on female Japanese students: Japanese Journal of Counseling Science Vol 25(2) Oct 1992, 94-100.
  • Cusumano, J. A., & Robinson, S. E. (1993). The short-term psychophysiological effects of hatha yoga and progressive relaxation on female Japanese students: Applied Psychology: An International Review Vol 42(1) Jan 1993, 77-90.
  • Dalal, A. S. (1991). Psychology, mental health and yoga: Essays on Sri Aurobindo's psychological thought implications of yoga for mental health: (1991).
  • Dalal, A. S., & Barber, T. X. (1969). Yoga, "yoga feats," and hypnosis in the light of empirical research: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 11(3) 1969, 155-166.
  • Dass, R. (1974). The only dance there is: Talks given at the Menninger Foundation, Topeka, Kansas, 1970, and at Spring Grove Hospital, Spring Grove, Maryland, 1972. Oxford, England: Anchor.
  • Daubenmier, J. J. (2003). A comparison of Hatha yoga and aerobic exercise on women's body satisfaction. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Daubenmier, J. J. (2005). The Relationship Of Yoga, Body Awareness, And Body Responsiveness To Self-Objectification And Disordered Eating: Psychology of Women Quarterly Vol 29(2) Jun 2005, 207-219.
  • Davis, I. E. (1976). The effects of a class in Kundalini yoga on field articulation, openness to experience and flexibility: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • de Gracia, M., & Marco, M. (2000). Psychological effects of physical activity in elderly people: Psicothema Vol 12(2) May 2000, 285-292.
  • Dengelegi, L. (1989). A study of the philosophy and lifestyle of a Yoga community: Religious commitment, control and well-being: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Derezotes, D. (2000). Evaluation of yoga and meditation trainings with adolescent sex offenders: Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal Vol 17(2) Apr 2000, 97-113.
  • Deuskar, M., Poonawala, N., & Bhatewara, S. A. (2006). Effect of Yoga Nidra and Applied Relaxation Technique on Steadiness and Performance of Archers: Psychological Studies Vol 51(1) Jan 2006, 64-68.
  • Dhikav, V., Karmarkar, G., Gupta, M., & Anand, K. S. (2007). Yoga in premature ejaculation: A comparative trial with fluoxetine: Journal of Sexual Medicine Vol 4(6) Nov 2007, 1726-1732.
  • DiTomasso, R. A. (1987). Essential hypertension: A methodological review. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Dixon-Peters, C. A. (2007). The psychological effects of Hatha yoga on low-income women who are survivors of domestic violence. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Dosajh, N. L. (1995). A new combination of therapies for the treatment of schizophrenia of less than five years duration: Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health Vol 2(2) Jul 1995, 135-138.
  • Dostalek, C. (1970). Research of yoga in contemporary India: Ceskoslovenska Psychologie Vol 14(5) 1970, 497-504.
  • Dostalek, C. (1994). Physiological bases of yoga techniques in the prevention of diseases: Homeostasis in Health and Disease Vol 35(4-5) Nov 1994, 205-208.
  • Dostalek, C., & et al. (1979). Meditational yoga exercises in EEG and EMG: Ceskoslovenska Psychologie Vol 23(1) 1979, 61-65.
  • Dreher, E. R. (1974). The effects of hatha yoga and judo on personality and self-concept profiles on college men and women: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Duraiswamy, G., Thirthalli, J., Nagendra, H. R., & Gangadhar, B. N. (2007). Yoga therapy as an add-on treatment in the management of patients with schizophrenia -- A randomized controlled trial: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 116(3) Sep 2007, 226-232.
  • Edwards, L. R. (1987). Psychological change and spiritual growth through the practice of Siddha Yoga: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Elavsky, S., & McAuley, E. (2007). Exercise and self-esteem in menopausal women: A randomized controlled trial involving walking and yoga: American Journal of Health Promotion Vol 22(2) Nov-Dec 2007, 83-92.
  • Elson, B. D., Hauri, P., & Cunis, D. (1977). Physiological changes in yoga meditation: Psychophysiology Vol 14(1) Jan 1977, 52-57.
  • Engelman, S. R., Clance, P. R., & Imes, S. (1982). Self and body-cathexis change in therapy and yoga groups: Journal of the American Society of Psychosomatic Dentistry & Medicine Vol 29(3) 1982, 77-88.
  • Estivill-Sancho, E., & Jaraba, G. (1991). The treatment of chronic insomnia: A program of creative relaxation and body consciousness as adjuvant of pharmacotherapy: Psiquis: Revista de Psiquiatria, Psicologia y Psicosomatica Vol 12(9) 1991, 52-57.
  • Faber, P. A., Saayman, G. S., & Touyz, S. W. (1978). Meditation and archetypal content of nocturnal dreams: The Journal of Analytical Psychology Vol 23(1) Jan 1978, 1-22.
  • Felber, M., Margreiter, U., & Schwentner, G. (2004). Psychotherapy as it relates to complementary healing methods ranging from aroma therapy to yoga: A review of the users of complementary methods: Psychotherapie Forum Vol 12(3) 2004, 170-177.
  • Fenz, W. D., & Plapp, J. M. (1970). Voluntary control of heart rate in a practitioner of yoga: Negative findings: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 30(2) Apr 1970, 493-494.
  • Ferrari, G., & Roberti, P. (1981). New therapeutic techniques in psychosomatic medicine: Yoga therapy for arterial hypertension: Medicina Psicosomatica Vol 26(4) 1981, 375-383.
  • Ferrell, K. (1995). The factor structure of relaxation experiences. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Fieldstone, A. (2001). Respiration as a mediator of body temperature. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Fleming, T. (2002). The Tapas acupressure technique-super(sm ). New York, NY: W W Norton & Co.
  • Frederick, A. N., & Barber, T. X. (1972). Yoga, hypnosis, and self-control of cardiovascular functions: Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association Vol 7(Pt 2) 1972, 859-860.
  • Frumkin, K., Nathan, R. J., Prout, M. F., & Cohen, M. C. (1978). Nonpharmacologic control of essential hypertension in man: A critical review of the experimental literature: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 40(4) Jun 1978, 294-320.
  • Funderburk, J. (1977). Science studies yoga: A review of physiological data. Oxford, England: Himalayan International Inst.
  • Garfinkel, M. S. (1992). The effect of yoga and relaxation techniques on outcome variables associated with osteoarthritis of the hands and finger joints: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Gerbarg, P. L. (2007). Yoga and neuro-psychoanalysis. New York, NY: The Analytic Press/Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Gerbarg, P. L., & Brown, R. P. (2007). Yoga. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.
  • Gharote, M. L. (1976). Effect of Yoga exercises on failures on the Kraus-Weber tests: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 43(2) Oct 1976, 654.
  • Ghoncheh, S., & Smith, J. C. (2004). Progressive Muscle Relaxation, Yoga Stretching, and ABC Relaxation Theory: Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 60(1) Jan 2004, 131-136.
  • Girodo, M. (1974). Yoga meditation and flooding in the treatment of anxiety neurosis: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 5(2) Sep 1974, 157-160.
  • Goldberg, L. S., & Meltzer, G. (1975). Arrow-Dot scores of drug addicts selecting general or yoga therapy: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 40(3) Jun 1975, 726.
  • Good, I. J. (1964). Quantum mechanics and Yoga: Research Journal of Philosophy & Social Sciences 1(1) 1964, 84-91.
  • Goodman, N. H. (1974). The effects of three Yoga exercises on the electroencephalogram in man: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Gouger, S. C. (1979). The effects of Hatha Yoga on psychiatric outpatients: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Gow, K. (2005). Editorial: Australian Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis Vol 33(2) Nov 2005, iii.
  • Goyeche, J. R. (1979). Yoga as therapy in psychosomatic medicine: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics Vol 31(1-4) 1979, 373-381.
  • Goyeche, J. R., Abo, Y., & Ikemi, Y. (1982). Asthma: The yoga perspective: II. Yoga therapy in the treatment of asthma: Journal of Asthma Vol 19(3) 1982, 189-201.
  • Goyeche, J. R. M., Ago, Y., & Ikemi, Y. (1980). Asthma: The yoga perspective. I: The somatopsychic imbalance in asthma-- towards a holistic therapy: Journal of Asthma Research Vol 17(3) Apr 1980, 111-121.
  • Granath, J., Ingvarsson, S., von Thiele, U., & Lundberg, U. (2006). Stress management: A randomized study of cognitive behavioural therapy and yoga: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Vol 35(1) 2006, 3-10.
  • Greendale, G. A., McDivit, A., Carpenter, A., Seeger, L., & Huang, M.-H. (2002). Yoga for women with hyperkyphosis: Results of a pilot study: American Journal of Public Health Vol 92(10) Oct 2002, 1611-1614.
  • Greyson, B. (2004). Editor's foreword: Journal of Near-Death Studies Vol 22(4) Sum 2004, 219-220.
  • Grimwade, J. (2004). Review of Modern Psychology and Ancient Wisdom: Psychological Healing Practices from the World's Religious Traditions: Journal of Family Studies Vol 10(2) Oct 2004, 292.
  • Grinshpon, Y. (2002). Review of Silence Unheard: Deathly Otherness in Patanjala-Yoga: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 20(2) Jul 2002, 49-54.
  • Grover, P., Varma, V. K., Pershad, D., & Verma, S. K. (1983). Construction of a scale for the measurement of attitudes to yoga (a preliminary report): Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 10(2) Sep 1983, 373-378.
  • Grover, P., Varma, V. K., Pershad, D., & Verma, S. K. (1991). Further data on the P.G.I. Yoga Attitude Scale: Journal of Personality and Clinical Studies Vol 7(2) Sep 1991, 219-226.
  • Grover, P., Varma, V. K., Verma, S. K., & Pershad, D. (1987). Relationship between the patient's attitude towards yoga and the treatment outcome: Indian Journal of Psychiatry Vol 29(3) Jul 1987, 253-258.
  • Grover, P., Varma, V. K., Verma, S. K., & Pershad, D. (1989). Factors influencing treatment acceptance in neurotic patients referred for yoga therapy: An exploratory study: Indian Journal of Psychiatry Vol 31(3) Jul 1989, 250-257.
  • Gupta, A. K. (2007). Impact of yoga practices on adjustment patterns and self-concept: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 25(1-2) Jan-Jul 2007, 74-83.
  • Gura, S. T. (2002). Yoga for stress reduction and injury prevention at work: Work: Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation Vol 19(1) 2002, 3-7.
  • Gura, S. T. (2007). Yoga for stress reduction and injury prevention at work. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.
  • Haber, D. (1983). Yoga as a preventive health care program for White and Black elders: An exploratory study: International Journal of Aging & Human Development Vol 17(3) 1983, 169-176.
  • Haber, D. (1986). Health promotion to reduce blood pressure level among older Blacks: The Gerontologist Vol 26(2) Apr 1986, 119-121.
  • Haber, D. (1988). A health promotion program in ten nursing homes: Activities, Adaptation & Aging Vol 11(1) 1988, 75-84.
  • Hamilton, N. A., Kitzman, H., & Guyotte, S. (2006). Enhancing Health and Emotion: Mindfulness as a Missing Link Between Cognitive Therapy and Positive Psychology: Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy Vol 20(2) Sum 2006, 123-134.
  • Hao, H. (2006). Early expertise development and transitions in a nonuniversal domain: A multi-method approach. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Harrigan, J. M. (1981). A component analysis of yoga: The effects of diaphragmatic breathing and stretching postures on anxiety, personality, and somatic/behavioral complaints: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Harrison, L. J., Manocha, R., & Rubia, K. (2004). Sahaja Yoga Meditation as a Family Treatment Programme for Children with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry Vol 9(4) Oct 2004, 479-497.
  • Hartmann, M. (1982). Autogenic training of moderately motivated clients: Praxis der Psychotherapie und Psychosomatik Vol 27(4) Jul 1982, 147-150.
  • Hassan-Schwarz Galle, S. A. (2000). Hypnosis, yoga, and psychotherapy. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
  • Heilbronn, F. S. (1992). The use of Hatha Yoga as a strategy for coping with stress in management development: Management Education & Development Vol 23(2) Sum 1992, 131-139.
  • Henry, J. (2005). Yoga Nidra: Yogic Trance, Theory, Practice and Applications: Australian Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis Vol 33(2) Nov 2005, 242-251.
  • Herron, W. J. (1993). A questionnaire study comparing mystical experience among Zen, Yoga, Christian, and non-spiritual groups: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Herzog, H., Lele, V. R., Kuwert, T., Langen, K.-J., & et al. (1990). Changed pattern of regional glucose metabolism during Yoga meditative relaxation: Neuropsychobiology Vol 23(4) 1990-1991, 182-187.
  • Heyes, A. D. (1974). Blindness and yoga: New Outlook for the Blind Vol 68(9) Nov 1974, 385-393.
  • Holmer, M. L. (2004). The effects of yoga on symptoms and psychosocial adjustment in fibromyalgia syndrome patients. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Holthaus, S. M. (2005). A phenomenological study: Yoga during recovery from drugs or alcohol. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Hopkins, J. T., & Hopkins, L. J. (1979). A study of yoga and concentration: Academic Therapy Vol 14(3) Jan 1979, 341-345.
  • Hopkins, L. J., & Hopkins, J. T. (1976). Yoga in psychomotor training: Academic Therapy Vol 11(4) Sum 1976, 461-465.
  • Horan, R. (2007). The relationship between creativity and intelligence: A combined yogic-scientific approach: Creativity Research Journal Vol 19(2-3) 2007, 179-202.
  • Horneffer, K. (2006). Embracing Emotional Pain As a Means of Spiritual Growth: Tools from the East. New York, NY: Haworth Press.
  • Ikemi, Y., Ishikawa, H., Goyeche, J. R., & Saski, Y. (1978). Positive and negative aspects of the altered states of consciousness induced by autogenic training, Zen and yoga: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics Vol 30(3-4) 1978, 170-178.
  • Impett, E. A., Daubenmier, J. J., & Hirschman, A. L. (2006). Minding the Body: Yoga, Embodiment, and Well-Being: Sexuality Research & Social Policy: A Journal of the NSRC Vol 3(4) Dec 2006, 39-48.
  • Ishii, Y., Ichii, M., Saito, A., & Haruki, Y. (1992). The recent studies on eastern mental/physical practices in foreign countries: Japanese Psychological Review Vol 35(1) 1992, 45-70.
  • Iyengar, B. K. S., Evans, J. J., & Abrams, D. (2005). Light on life: The yoga journey to wholeness, inner peace, and ultimate freedom. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press.
  • Jacobson, E. (1938). Review of Yoga: A scientific Evaluation: Psychological Bulletin Vol 35(1) Jan 1938, 46-50.
  • Jain, M., & Jain, K. M. (1973). The science of yoga: A study in perspective: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine Vol 17(1) Fal 1973, 93-102.
  • Jain, S. C., Rai, L., Valecha, A., Jha, U. K., & et al. (1991). Effect of yoga training on exercise tolerance in adolescents with childhood asthma: Journal of Asthma Vol 28(6) Dec 1991, 437-442.
  • Janakiramaiah, N., Gangadhar, B. N., Murthy, P. J. N. V., Harish, M. G., Shetty, K. T., Subbakrishna, D. K., et al. (1998). Therapeutic efficacy of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) in dysthymic disorder: NIMHANS Journal Vol 16(1) Jan 1998, 21-28.
  • Janakiramaiah, N., Gangadhar, B. N., Murthy, P. J. N. V., Harish, M. G., Subbakrishna, D. K., & Vedamurthachar, A. (2000). Antidepressant efficacy of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) in melancholia: A randomized comparison with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and imipramine: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 57(1-3) Jan-Mar 2000, 255-259.
  • Jensen, P. S., & Kenny, D. T. (2004). The effects of yoga on the attention and behavior of boys with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Journal of Attention Disorders Vol 7(4) May 2004, 205-216.
  • Jhunijhunwala, L. N., Iyer, R. J., & Srivastava, P. K. (1987). Indian psycho-philosophy and human response in organizations: Vikalpa Vol 12(1) Jan-Mar 1987, 33-42.
  • John, P. J., Sharma, N., Sharma, C. M., & Kankane, A. (2007). Effectiveness of yoga therapy in the treatment of migraine without aura: A randomized controlled trial: Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain Vol 47(5) May 2007, 654-661.
  • Johnson, E. M. (1983). Anxiety, drug consumption, and personality correlates of yoga and progressive muscle relaxation: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Johnson, S. J. (1974). Effects of yoga-therapy on conflict resolution, self-concept, and emotional adjustment: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Joiner, C. W., Jr. (2001). A spiritual synergic inquiry with SRI aurobindo: How to live in harmony with nature and spirit. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Jonas, G. (1973). Visceral learning: Toward a science of self-control. Oxford, England: Viking.
  • Jung, A. R. (1987). Alternatives to psychotherapy: Issues in Radical Therapy Vol 12(4) 1987, 30-33, 54-55.
  • Jung, C. G. (1976). Psychological commentary on Kundalini Yoga: Spring Annual 1976, 1-31.
  • Jung, C. G., & Shamdasani, S. (1996). The psychology of Kundalini yoga: Notes of the seminar given in 1932 by C. G. Jung. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J. (2005). Full Catastrophe Living: Using the Wisdom of Your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain, and Illness: Fifteenth Anniversary Edition. New York, NY: Delta Trade Paperback/Bantam Dell.
  • Kakar, S. (1977). Relative realities: Images of adulthood in psychoanalysis and the yogas: Samiksa Vol 31(2) 1977, 37-48.
  • Kakigi, R., Nakata, H., Inui, K., Hiroe, N., Nagata, O., Honda, M., et al. (2005). Intracerebral pain processing in a Yoga Master who claims not to feel pain during meditation: European Journal of Pain Vol 9(5) Oct 2005, 581-589.
  • Kalayil, J. A. (1989). A controlled comparison of Progressive Relaxation and Yoga Meditation as methods to relieve stress in middle grade school children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kalghatgi, T. G. (1964). A new look at paranormal phenomena: Research Journal of Philosophy & Social Sciences 1(1) 1964, 92-98.
  • Kamei, T. (2003). The Relaxation and Change of Cellular Immunity: Japanese Journal of Autogenic Therapy Vol 22(1-2) Apr 2003, 32-37.
  • Kamei, T., Toriumi, Y., Kimura, H., & Kimura, K. (2001). Correlation between alpha rhythms and natural killer cell activity during yogic respiratory exercise: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress Vol 17(3) Apr 2001, 141-145.
  • Kamei, T., Toriumi, Y., Kimura, H., Ohno, S., Kumano, H., & Kimura, K. (2000). Decrease in serum cortisol during yoga exercise is correlated with alpha wave activation: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 90(3,Pt1) Jun 2000, 1027-1032.
  • Karawatt, M. (1991). Notes for a study on the active imagination and meditation techniques: Giornale Storico di Psicologia Dinamica Vol 15(30) Jun 1991, 31-53.
  • Karel, N. (1993). Twelve years of experience with yoga in psychiatry: International Journal of Psychosomatics Vol 40(1-4) 1993, 105-107.
  • Katkin, E. S. (1974). Miller's Grist: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 19 (9), Sep, 1974.
  • Kauffman, J. L. (1995). The subjective impact of yoga practice on patients with bronchial asthma. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Kawano, R. (1999). The effect of exercise on body awareness and mood. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Kaye, V. G. (1985). An innovative treatment modality for elderly residents of a nursing home: Clinical Gerontologist Vol 3(4) Sum 1985, 45-51.
  • Kelly, D. J. (2007). Yoga and meditation in a therapeutic day school. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Kelly, M. T. (1978). Sensory deprivation and research on telepathy: Parapsychology Review Vol 9(4) Jul-Aug 1978, 24-26.
  • Khalsa, G. S. (2005). Getting Focused in an Age of Distraction: Approaches to Attentional Disorders Using the Humanology of Yogi Bhajan. New York, NY: Haworth Press.
  • Khalsa, M. K. (2005). Alternative Treatments for Borderline and Narcissistic Personality Disorders. New York, NY: Haworth Press.
  • Khalsa, S. B. S. (2004). Treatment of Chronic Insomnia with Yoga: A Preliminary Study with Sleep-Wake Diaries: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback Vol 29(4) Dec 2004, 269-278.
  • Khasky, A. D., & Smith, J. C. (1999). Stress, relaxation states and creativity: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 88(2) Apr 1999, 409-416.
  • Khumar, S. S., Kaur, P., & Kaur, S. (1993). Effectiveness of Shavasana on depression among university students: Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 20(2) Sep 1993, 82-87.
  • Kiely, W. F. (1974). Critique of mystical states: A reply: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 159(3) Sep 1974, 196-197.
  • Kinzey, D. A. (1989). The unification of opposites in Gestalt theory and therapy, Patanjali Yoga Sutras, and Hegelian dialectics: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kokinakis, C. L. (1996). Teaching professional standards: Training yoga therapists in loving presence. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Kolasinski, S. l., Garfinkel, M., Tsai, A. G., Matz, W., Van Dyke, A., & Schumacher, H. R., Jr. (2005). Iyengar Yoga for Treating Symptoms of Osteoarthritis of the Knees: A Pilot Study: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine Vol 11(4) Aug 2005, 689-693.
  • Kolsawalla, M. B. (1978). An experimental investigation into the effectiveness of some yogic variables as a mechanism of change in the value-attitude system: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 1(1) Jan 1978, 59-68.
  • Kopp, S. B. (1978). Tantric therapy: Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy Vol 9(2) Win 1978, 131-134.
  • Krishna, G. (1975). The awakening of Kundalini. New York, NY, England: E P Dutton.
  • Krishna Rao, P. V. (1995). Yoga: Its scientific and applied aspects: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 13(2) Jul 1995, 1-12.
  • Krishna Rao, P. V. (2000). Yogasanas in psychotherapy: Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology Vol 26(1-2) Jan-Jul 2000, 73-75.
  • Kroner-Herwig, B., Hebing, G., Van Rijn-Kalkmann, U., Frenzel, A., & et al. (1995). The management of chronic tinnitus: Comparison of a cognitive-behavioural group training with yoga: Journal of Psychosomatic Research Vol 39(2) Feb 1995, 153-165.
  • Kumar, K. G., & Ali, M. H. (2003). Meditation--A harbinger of subjective well-being: Journal of Personality and Clinical Studies Vol 19(1) Mar 2003, 93-102.
  • Kumari, S., Nath, N. C. B., & Nagendra, H. R. (2007). Enhancing emotional competence among managers through SMET: Psychological Studies Vol 52(2) Apr 2007, 171-173.
  • Kuppuswamy, B. (1976). Yoga and self-actualization: Manas Vol 23(2) 1976, 131-137.
  • Kuttner, L., Chambers, C. T., Hardial, J., Israel, D. M., Jacobson, K., & Evans, K. (2006). Un essai aleatoire du yoga pour des adolescents atteints du syndrome du colon irritable: Pain Research & Management Vol 11(4) Win 2006, 217-223.
  • Lamontagne, Y. (1978). Relaxation techniques: Vie medicale au Canada francais Vol 7(1) Jan 1978, 56-65.
  • Lasater, J. H. (1980). An investigation of the psycho-spiritual dynamics of Hatha Yoga as contrasted with Western body work therapies: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Latha. (2002). Yoga attitude scale construction and validation: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 20(1) Jan 2002, 43-50.
  • Latha. (2003). Nature of work and fatigue: Role of yoga training: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 21(1) Jan 2003, 54-61.
  • Latha, & Kaliappan, K. V. (1991). Yoga, pranayama, thermal biofeedback techniques in the management of stress and high blood pressure: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 9(1-2) Jan-Jul 1991, 36-46.
  • Latha, D., & Kaliappan, K. V. (1992). Efficacy of yoga therapy in the management of headaches: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 10(1-2) Jan-Jul 1992, 41-47.
  • Latha, M., & Kaliappan, K. V. (1987). The efficacy of yoga therapy in the treatment of migraine and tension headaches: Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology Vol 13(2) Jul 1987, 95-100.
  • Lavey, R., Sherman, T., Mueser, K. T., Osborne, D. D., Currier, M., & Wolfe, R. (2005). The Effects of Yoga on Mood in Psychiatric Inpatients: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal Vol 28(4) Spr 2005, 399-402.
  • le Guennec, M. (1982). Relaxation and culture: Etudes Psychotherapiques Vol 13(2)[48] Jun 1982, 117-122.
  • Lee, G. W. (2004). The subjective well-being of beginning vs. advanced hatha yoga practitioners. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Lee, M. (1999). Phoenix Rising Yoga Therapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Lee, R. L. M. (2004). The Reimagination of Death: Dream Yoga, Near-Death, and Clear Light: Journal of Near-Death Studies Vol 22(4) Sum 2004, 221-234.
  • Lehrer, P. (2003). Applied Psychophysiology: Beyond the Boundaries of Biofeedback (Mending a Wall, a Brief History of Our Field, and Applications to Control of the Muscles and Cardiorespiratory Systems): Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback Vol 28(4) Dec 2003, 291-304.
  • Lerner, M. (1971). Yoga concentration and psychotherapy: Acta Psiquiatrica y Psicologica de America Latina Vol 17(6) Dec 1971, 410-417.
  • Lerner, M. (1975). Recent medical research on yoga and states of concentration: Acta Psiquiatrica y Psicologica de America Latina Vol 21(1) Mar 1975, 56-63.
  • Lerner, M., & Remen, R. N. (1987). Tradecraft of the Commonweal Cancer Help Program: Advances Vol 4(3) 1987, 11-25.
  • Leslie, R. C. (1976). Yoga and the fear of death: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology Vol 8(2) 1976, 128-132.
  • Lesser, D. P. (1986). Yoga asana and self actualization: A Western psychological perspective: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Levine, M. (2000). The positive psychology of Buddhism and Yoga: Paths to a mature happiness: With a special application to handling anger. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Lohman, R. (1999). Yoga techniques applicable within drug and alcohol rehabilitation programmes: Therapeutic Communities Vol 20(1) Spr 1999, 61-72.
  • Lou, H. C., Kjaer, T. W., Friberg, L., Wildschiodtz, G., Holm, S., & Nowak, M. (1999). A superscript 1-sup-5O-H-sub-2O PET study of meditation and the resting state of normal consciousness: Human Brain Mapping Vol 7(2) 1999, 98-105.
  • Lowe, A. (2006). "Sexualpneumatology" or "Another Order of Things". A Contribution to the Meaning of Tantric Rituals and Jung's Kundalini-Reception: Analytische Psychologie Vol 37(146) 2006, 414-440.
  • Lozanov, G. (1978). Suggestology and outlines of suggestopedy. (Trans M. Hall-Pozharlieva & K. Pashmakova). Oxford, England: Gordon & Breach.
  • Lu, J. S., & Pierre, J. M. (2007). Psychotic episode associated with Bikram yoga: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 164(11) Nov 2007, 1761.
  • Lukenbach, A. P. (1978). Scientific Research on Yoga and Meditation: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 23 (5), May, 1978.
  • Lynton, H., Kligler, B., & Shiflett, S. (2007). Yoga in stroke rehabilitation: A systematic review and results of a pilot study: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation Vol 14(4) Jul-Aug 2007, 1-8.
  • Magnussen, S. (2004). The effect of the spiritual practice of Tibetan Buddhist guru yoga on the clinical practice of psychotherapy. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Mailoo, V. J. (2005). Yoga: An Ancient Occupational Therapy? : British Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 68(12) Dec 2005, 574-577.
  • Malathi, A., Damodaran, A., Shah, N., Patil, N., & Marathe, A. (1999). Self-actualization and practice of yoga: NIMHANS Journal Vol 17(1) Jan 1999, 39-44.
  • Malhotra, A. K. (1997). Sartre and Samkhya-Yoga on the self. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
  • Manjunath, N. K., & Telles, S. (1999). Improvement in visual perceptual sensitivity in children following yoga training: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 17(2) Jul 1999, 41-45.
  • Manjunath, N. K., & Telles, S. (2006). Pulmonary functions following yoga in a community dwelling geriatric population in India: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 24(1-2) Jan-Jul 2006, 44-51.
  • Manocha, R., Noyce, J., Rohowyj, A., & Turek, G. (2005). Sahaja yoga: Australian Journal of Clinical Hypnotherapy and Hypnosis Vol 26(1-2) Spr 2005, 22-36.
  • Manocha, R., Semmar, B., & Black, D. (2007). A pilot study of a mental silence form of meditation for women in perimenopause: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings Vol 14(3) Sep 2007, 266-273.
  • Master, J. (2004). True health: Journal of International Society of Life Information Science Vol 22(2) Sep 2004, 477-480.
  • Mati, A. (1991). Using sound to deepen and enliven imagery work. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  • Maxwell, G., & Maxwell, M. L. (1972). In the Beginning: The Word or the Deed? : PsycCRITIQUES Vol 17 (10), Oct, 1972.
  • Mazure, C. M., & Keita, G. P. (2006). Understanding depression in women: Applying empirical research to practice and policy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Menon, A., & Krishnan, V. R. (2004). Transformational leadership and follower's karma-yoga: Role of follower's gender: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 22(2) Jul 2004, 50-62.
  • Mezey, L. (2007). Review of Complementary and alternative treatments in mental health care: Psychiatric Services Vol 58(6) Jun 2007, 884-885.
  • Michaelson, J. (2006). Reclamation in motion: An exploration of yoga as an adjunctive treatment for women sexually abused as children. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Mijares, S. G. (2003). Modern psychology and ancient wisdom: Psychological healing practices from the world's religious traditions. New York, NY: Haworth Press.
  • Miller, R. (2003). Welcoming All That Is: Nonduality, Yoga Nidra, and the Play of Opposites in Psychotherapy. St. Paul, MN: Paragon House Publishers.
  • Miller, T. M. (2005). The integration of short-term dynamic therapy and yoga in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder and depression. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Milligan, C. K. (2006). Yoga for Stress Management Program as a Complementary Alternative Counseling Resource in a University Counseling Center: Journal of College Counseling Vol 9(2) Fal 2006, 181-187.
  • Mills, G. K., & Campbell, K. (1974). A critique of Gellhorn and Kiely's mystical states of consciousness: Neurophysiological and clinical aspects: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 159(3) Sep 1974, 191-195.
  • Minvaleev, R. S., Nozdrachev, A. D., Kir'yanova, V. V., & Ivanov, A. I. (2004). Postural Influences on the Hormone Level in Healthy Subjects: I. The Cobra Posture and Steroid Hormones: Human Physiology Vol 30(4) Jul-Aug 2004, 452-456.
  • Miovic, M. (2004). Sri Aurobindo and Transpersonal Psychology: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology Vol 36(2) 2004, 111-133.
  • Mishra, M., & Sinha, R. K. (2001). Effect of yogic practices on depression and anxiety: Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health Vol 8(1) Jan 2001, 23-27.
  • Mishra, R. S. (1973). Yoga sutras: The textbook of yoga psychology. Oxford, England: Anchor.
  • Mitchell, K. S., Mazzeo, S. E., Rausch, S. M., & Cooke, K. L. (2007). Innovative Interventions for Disordered Eating: Evaluating Dissonance-Based and Yoga Interventions: International Journal of Eating Disorders Vol 40(2) Mar 2007, 120-128.
  • Mittal, V. K. (1982). Hypnobehavioural model and yoga: An overview: Rivista Internazionale di Psicologia e Ipnosi Vol 23(3-4) Jul-Dec 1982, 359-367.
  • Moane, F. M. (2003). The effect of yoga, in comparison to aerobic exercise, on anxiety and mood in a workplace setting. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Morone, N. E., & Greco, C. M. (2007). Mind-body interventions for chronic pain in older adults: A structured review: Pain Medicine Vol 8(4) May 2007, 359-375.
  • Morse, D. R., Cohen, L., Furst, M. L., & Martin, J. S. (1984). A physiological evaluation of the yoga concept of respiratory control of autonomic nervous system activity: International Journal of Psychosomatics Vol 31(1) 1984, 3-19.
  • Moss, S. B. (2004). The effects of cognitive behavior therapy, meditation, and yoga on self-ratings of stress and psychological functioning in college students. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Moy, M. (1996). An investigation of the effectiveness of yoga and meditation upon anxiety and its implications for education. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Mulla, Z. R., & Krishnan, V. R. (2006). Karma Yoga: A conceptualization and validation of the Indian philosophy of work: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 24(1-2) Jan-Jul 2006, 26-43.
  • Murthy, P. J. N. V., Gangadhar, B. N., Janakiramaiah, N., & Subbakrishna, D. K. (1997). Normalization of P300 amplitude following treatment in dysthymia: Biological Psychiatry Vol 42(8) Oct 1997, 740-743.
  • Murthy, P. J. N. V., Janakiramaiah, N., Gangadhar, B. N., & Subbakrishna, D. K. (1998). P300 amplitude and antidepressant response to Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY): Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 50(1) Jul 1998, 45-48.
  • Nagendra, H. R., & Nagarathna, R. (1986). An integrated approach of yoga therapy for bronchial asthma: A 3-54-month prospective study: Journal of Asthma Vol 23(3) Jun 1986, 123-137.
  • Narayanan, A. (2008). What empirical evidence is available for the impact of a yoga practice on different aspects of the self? Can Brahman be operationalized? Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Narayanan, J., & Krishnan, V. R. (2003). Impact of sativa and rajas gunas on transformational leadership and karma-yoga: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 21(2) Jul 2003, 1-11.
  • Naug, R. N. (1983). Treatment of intractable hiccups by yogic therapeutic schedule: Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 10(2) Sep 1983, 387-389.
  • Naveen, K. V., Nagarathna, R., Nagendra, H. R., & Telles, S. (1997). Yoga breathing through a particular nostril increases spatial memory scores without lateralized effects: Psychological Reports Vol 81(2) Oct 1997, 555-561.
  • Naveen, K. V., & Telles, S. (2003). Yoga and psychosis: Risks and therapeutic potential: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 21(1) Jan 2003, 34-37.
  • Nebelkopf, E. (1989). Holistic methods in drug abuse treatment. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  • Neki, J. S. (1967). Yoga and Psychoanalysis: Comprehensive Psychiatry 8(3) 1967, 160-167.
  • Nelson, J. E. (1990). Healing the split: Madness or transcendence? A new understanding of the crisis and treatment of the mentally ill. Los Angeles, CA, England: Jeremy P Tarcher, Inc.
  • Nespor, K. (1985). The combination of psychiatric treatment and yoga: International Journal of Psychosomatics Vol 32(2) 1985, 24-27.
  • Nespor, K. (1989). Psychosomatics of back pain and the use of yoga: International Journal of Psychosomatics Vol 36(1-4) 1989, 72-78.
  • Nespor, K. (1991). Pain management and yoga: International Journal of Psychosomatics Vol 38(1-4), Spec Issue 1991, 76-81.
  • Netz, Y., & Lidor, R. (2003). Mood alterations in mindful versus aerobic exercise modes: Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied Vol 137(5) Sep 2003, 405-419.
  • No authorship, i. (1938). "Yoga: a scientific evaluation": Correction: Psychological Bulletin Vol 35(2) Feb 1938, 125.
  • No authorship, i. (1987). Review of Inner Bridges: A Guide to Energy Movement and Body Structure: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 32 (6), Jun, 1987.
  • Norton, G. R., & Johnson, W. E. (1983). A comparison of two relaxation procedures for reducing cognitive and somatic anxiety: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 14(3) Sep 1983, 209-214.
  • Nowakowska, C., & et al. (1982). Evaluation of relaxation and concentration exercises modelled on yoga in the treatment of psychogenic mental disorders: Psychiatria Polska Vol 16(5-6) 1982, 365-370.
  • Oleshansky, M. B. (2004). The effects of Hatha yoga on stress and coping. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Olkin, S. K. (1987). Prenatal yoga, inner bonding, and natural birth. New York, NY: Human Sciences Press.
  • Oretzky, S. (2007). The effects of yoga on elevated depressive and somatic symptoms in young adults. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Osowiec, D. A. (2000). Yogic breathwork and ultradian hypnosis. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
  • Padmasri, G., & Telles, S. (2007). Frontalis EMG amplitude changes during yoga relaxation based on initial levels: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 25(1-2) Jan-Jul 2007, 16-23.
  • Pandeya, R. C. (1964). ESP and Yoga: Research Journal of Philosophy & Social Sciences 1(1) 1964, 99-106.
  • Panjwani, U., Selvamurthy, W., Singh, S. H., Gupta, H. L., Mukhopadhyay, S., & Thakur, L. (2000). Effect of Sahaja yoga meditation on auditory evoked potentials (AEP) and visual contrast sensitivity (VCS) in epileptics: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback Vol 25(1) Mar 2000, 1-12.
  • Pankhania, J. (2005). Yoga and Its Practice in Psychological Healing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd.
  • Paranjpe, A. C. (1985). Parapsychology and Patanjali's Yoga: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 4(2) Jul 1985, 13-20.
  • Paranjpe, A. C., & Hanson, R. K. (1988). On dealing with the stream of consciousness: A comparison of Husserl and Yoga. New York, NY, England: Praeger Publishers.
  • Pasek, T. (1982). Relaxation-concentration training as a form of rehabilitation of psychiatric patients: Psychiatria Polska Vol 16(5-6) 1982, 371-375.
  • Patel, C. (1975). Yoga and biofeedback in the management of hypertension: Journal of Psychosomatic Research Vol 19(5-6) 1975, 355-360.
  • Patel, S. R. (2005). The effects of yoga on mood disturbance and pain in an underserved breast cancer population. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Pathak, M. P., & Mishra, L. S. (1984). Rehabilitation of mentally retarded through Yoga Therapy: Child Psychiatry Quarterly Vol 17(4) Oct-Dec 1984, 153-158.
  • Paul, R. (2004). The Yoga of Sound: Healing & enlightenment through the sacred practice of mantra. Novato, CA: New World Library.
  • Paulson, D. S. (2006). Review of The perennial quest for a psychology with a soul: An inquiry into the relevance of Sri Aurobindo's metaphysical yoga psychology in the context of Ken Wilber's integral psychology: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology Vol 38(2) 2006, 251-255.
  • Pazhayattil, H. (1986). Western psychotherapy in relation to the classical Patanjala yoga: A phenomenological and clincial inquiry into consciousness change and therapeutic process in a combined East-West approach: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Peck, H. L., Kehle, T. J., Bray, M. A., & Theodore, L. A. (2005). Yoga as an Intervention for Children With Attention Problems: School Psychology Review Vol 34(3) 2005, 415-424.
  • Persson, A. (2007). Intimate immensity: Phenomenology of place and space in an Australian yoga community: American Ethnologist Vol 34(1) Feb 2007, 44-56.
  • Petzold, M. (1989). The heritage of India: Yoga psychology in East and West: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 32(4) Dec 1989, 275-280.
  • Phillips, L. L. (2007). Examining flow states and motivational perspectives of ashtanga yoga practitioners. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Phillips, S. K. (1980). Yoga psychology and dimensions of counseling practice: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Piggins, D., & Morgan, D. (1977). Note upon steady visual fixation and repeated auditory stimulation in meditation and the laboratory: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 44(2) Apr 1977, 357-358.
  • Pilkington, K., Kirkwood, G., Rampes, H., & Richardson, J. (2005). Yoga for depression: The research evidence: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 89(1-3) Dec 2005, 13-24.
  • Prasad, S. V. (2006). Obituary: Dr. George Kurian 1954-2005: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 24(1-2) Jan-Jul 2006, 83-87.
  • Raghuraj, P., & Telles, S. (2002). Improvement in spatial and temporal measures of visual perception following yoga training: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 20(1) Jan 2002, 23-31.
  • Raghuraj, P., & Telles, S. (2003). A randomized trial comparing the effects of yoga and physical activity programs on depth perception in school children: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 21(2) Jul 2003, 54-60.
  • Raghuraj, P., & Telles, S. (2004). Right uninostril yoga breathing influences ipsilateral components of middle latency auditory evoked potentials: Neurological Sciences Vol 25(5) Dec 2004, 274-280.
  • Raghuraj, R., & Telles, S. (2003). Effect of a yoga-based and forced uninostril breathing on the autonomic nervous system: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 96(1) Feb 2003, 79-80.
  • Raingruber, B., & Robinson, C. (2007). The effectiveness of Tai Chi, Yoga, Meditation, and Reiki healing sessions in promoting health and enhancing problem solving abilities of registered nurses: Issues in Mental Health Nursing Vol 28(10) Oct 2007, 1141-1155.
  • Rajesh, B., Jayachandran, D., Mohandas, G., & Radhakrishnan, K. (2006). A pilot study of a yoga meditation protocol for patients with medically refractory epilepsy: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine Vol 12(4) May 2006, 367-371.
  • Rajski, P. (2002). Alcoholism and rebirthing: Therapeutic use of breathing with people addicted to alcohol in the program "Rebirthers for Alcoholics," Siemianowice, Poland: International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling Vol 24(2) Jun 2002, 123-136.
  • Rakesh. (1981). The vedantic tradition: The science of yoga and the sutras of patanjali: ReVISION Vol 4(2) Fal-Win 1981, 72-77.
  • Rama, S., Ballentine, R., & Ajaya, S. (1976). Yoga and psychotherapy: The evolution of consciousness. Oxford, England: Himalayan Inst.
  • Ramakrishna Rao, K., Dukhan, H., & Krishna Rao, P. V. (1978). Yogic meditation and psi scoring in forced-choice and free-response tests: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 1(2) Jul 1978, 160-175.
  • Ramaswami, S. (1989). Yoga and healing. Oxford, England: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Rani, N. J. (2006). Effect of enhancement of oxygen supply through yogic procedure on cognitive task performance: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 24(1-2) Jan-Jul 2006, 1-6.
  • Rani, N. J. (2007). Impact of yoga training on triguna and self-ideal disparity: Psychological Studies Vol 52(2) Apr 2007, 174-177.
  • Rani, N. J., & Rao, P. K. (1992). Self-ideal disparity and yoga training: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 10(1-2) Jan-Jul 1992, 35-40.
  • Rani, N. J., & Rao, P. V. K. (1994). Body awareness and yoga training: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 79(3, Pt 1) Dec 1994, 1103-1106.
  • Rani, N. J., & Rao, P. V. K. (2005). Impact of yoga training on body image and depression: Psychological Studies Vol 50(1) Jan 2005, 98-100.
  • Rao, K. R., Dukhan, H., & Rao, P. V. K. (2001). Yogic meditation and psi scoring in forced-choice and free-response tests. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co.
  • Rao, P. K., & Harigopal, K. (1979). The three gunas and ESP: An exploratory investigation: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 2(1) Jan 1979, 63-68.
  • Regner, V. A. (1999). Reexamining Christian conversion experiences: Considering Kundalini awakenings and spiritual emergencies. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Rhodes, J. (2002). Prenatal Yoga and Natural Childbirth: Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health Vol 16(4) Sum 2002, 377-378.
  • Rhodes, J. M. (1997). Alternative therapies: Incorporating the ancient practice of yoga postures: Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health Vol 12(1) Fal 1997, 31-38.
  • Rhodes, J. M. (1997). Aware beginnings: Body language and birth memory through the lens of the ancient practice of yoga asana. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Rice, S., Cucci Iii, L., & Williams, J. (2001). Practice variables as predictors of stress and relaxation dispositions for yoga and meditation. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.
  • Rohini, V., Pandey, R. S., Janakiramaiah, N., Gangadhar, B. N., & Vedamurthachar, A. (2000). A comparative study of full and partial Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) in major depressive disorder: NIMHANS Journal Vol 18(1-2) Jan-Apr 2000, 53-57.
  • Roney-Dougal, S. M., & Solfvin, J. (2006). Yogic attainment in relation to awareness of precognitive targets: Journal of Parapsychology Vol 70(1) Spr 2006, 91-120.
  • Rossmann, P. (1981). Comment to Singh and Oberhummer: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 12(2) Jun 1981, 177.
  • Rout, A. K. (1987). Yoga as a framework of psychological research: Indian Psychological Review Vol 32(5-6) 1987, 34-37.
  • Roy, D. (2000). Stress management: Some Indian concepts: Abhigyan Vol 18(1) Jan-Mar 2000, 1-7.
  • Rubin, D. C., & Feeney, C. (1986). A multicomponent stress management program for college students: Journal of Counseling & Development Vol 64(8) Apr 1986, 531.
  • Rubin, J. B. (2007). Through the Net: A Journey from Basketball to Psychoanalysis and Buddhism. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.
  • Rudolph, S. G. (1981). The effect on the self concept of female college students of participation in Hatha Yoga and Effective Interpersonal Relationship Development classes: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Sageman, S. (2004). Breaking Through the Despair: Spiritually Oriented Group Therapy As a Means of Healing Women with Severe Mental Illness: The Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry Vol 32(1) Spr 2004, 125-141.
  • Sahasi, G. (1984). A replicated study on the effects of yoga on cognitive functions: Indian Psychological Review Vol 27(1-4) 1984, 33-35.
  • Sahasi, G., Mohan, D., & Kacker, C. (1989). Effectiveness of yogic techniques in the management of anxiety: Journal of Personality and Clinical Studies Vol 5(1) Mar 1989, 51-55.
  • Sarang, P., & Telles, S. (2006). Effects of Two Yoga Based Relaxation Techniques on Heart Rate Variability (HRV): International Journal of Stress Management Vol 13(4) Nov 2006, 460-475.
  • Sarang, P. S., & Telles, S. (2006). Oxygen Consumption and Respiration During and After two Yoga Relaxation Techniques: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback Vol 31(2) Jun 2006, 143-153.
  • Sarang, S. P., & Telles, S. (2006). Changes in P300 following two yoga-based relaxation techniques: International Journal of Neuroscience Vol 116(12) Dec 2006, 1419-1430.
  • Sarang, S. P., & Telles, S. (2006). Cyclic meditation - A 'moving meditation' - Reduces energy expenditure more than supine rest: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 24(1-2) Jan-Jul 2006, 17-25.
  • Sarang, S. P., & Telles, S. (2007). Immediate effect of two yoga-based relaxation techniques on performance in a letter-cancellation task: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 105(2) Oct 2007, 379-385.
  • Saraswati, S. N. (2001). Yoga and personality: Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health Vol 8(1) Jan 2001, 19-22.
  • Sarkar, A. K. (1964). The place of Yoga in the principal Upanisads: Research Journal of Philosophy & Social Sciences 1(2) 1964, 9-22.
  • Sathyaprabha, T. N., Satishchandra, P., Pradhan, C., Sinha, S., Kaveri, B., Thennarasu, K., et al. (2008). Modulation of cardiac autonomic balance with adjuvant yoga therapy in patients with refractory epilepsy: Epilepsy & Behavior Vol 12(2) Feb 2008, 245-252.
  • Sathyavathi, K. (1988). Mental health. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Sauermann, G. (1980). Psychotherapy and yoga: Zeitschrift fur Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychoanalyse Vol 26(4) Oct-Dec 1980, 364-378.
  • Schmidt, T. F. H., Wijga, A. H., Robra, B. P., Muller, M. J., & et al. (1995). "Yoga training and vegetarian nutrition reduce cardiovascular risk factors in healthy Europeans": Correction: Homeostasis in Health and Disease Vol 36(2-3) Aug 1995, 66.
  • Schmidt, T. F. H., Wijga, A. H., Robra, B.-P., Muller, M. J., & et al. (1994). Yoga training and vegetarian nutrition reduce cardiovascular risk factors in healthy Europeans: Homeostasis in Health and Disease Vol 35(4-5) Nov 1994, 209-225.
  • Schneiderman, N. (1978). More Internal Control Needed: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 23 (9), Sep, 1978.
  • Schure, M. B., Christopher, J., & Christopher, S. (2008). Mind-body medicine and the art of self-care: Teaching mindfulness to counseling students through yoga, meditation, and Qigong: Journal of Counseling & Development Vol 86(1) Win 2008, 47-56.
  • Scotton, B. W., & Hiatt, J. F. (1996). The contribution of Hinduism and yoga to transpersonal psychiatry. New York, NY: Basic Books.
  • Seeman, G. W. (2002). Individuation and subtle body: A commentary on Jung's kundalini seminar (Carl G. Jung). Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Sehgal, S. (2008). The effects of Kundalini yoga on sleep disturbance. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Sen, I. (1980). The pursuit of psychology: Psychological Research Journal Vol 4(2) Dec 1980, 91-95.
  • Senar, A. G. (1982). Oriental inspired psychophysiotherapeutic techniques for a psychiatry in transformation: Revista de Psiquiatria y Psicologia Medica Vol 15(7) Jul-Sep 1982, 387-409.
  • Shannahoff-Khalsa, D. S. (2003). Kundalini Yoga Meditation Techniques for the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive and OC Spectrum Disorders: Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention Vol 3(3) Fal 2003, 369-382.
  • Shannahoff-Khalsa, D. S. (2006). Kundalini yoga meditation: Techniques specific for psychiatric disorders, couples therapy, and personal growth. New York, NY: W W Norton & Co.
  • Sharad, S. (2005). Rethinking the identity of psychology: Consciousness, Indian psychology and yoga: Psychological Studies Vol 50(2-3) 2005, 233-237.
  • Sharma, N. R., Yadava, A., & Hooda, D. (2005). Effect of yoga on psycho-physical functions: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 23(1) Jan 2005, 37-42.
  • Sharma, R. N. (1964). Indian psychology: Retrospect and prospect: Research Journal of Philosophy & Social Sciences 1(2) 1964, 211-233.
  • Sharma, R. N. (1964). Parapsychology and integral Yoga: Research Journal of Philosophy & Social Sciences 1(1) 1964, 164-178.
  • Sharma, S. (1983). Yoga therapy and autogenic training: A comparative study: Journal of Integrative & Eclectic Psychotherapy Vol 2(3) Nov 1983, 36-49.
  • Shestopal, A. L. (1999). Psychological effects of physical exercise and yoga. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Singh, A. N. (2006). Role of yoga therapies in psychosomatic disorders. New York, NY: Elsevier Science.
  • Singh, R. (1964). Parapsychological references in Yoga Sutras: Research Journal of Philosophy & Social Sciences 1(1) 1964, 118-131.
  • Singh, R., & Oberhummer, I. (1980). Behaviour therapy within a setting of Karma Yoga: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 11(2) Jun 1980, 135-141.
  • Singh, R., & Oberhummer, I. (1981). Behavior therapy within a setting of Karma Yoga: A reply to Rossmann: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 12(2) Jun 1981, 178.
  • Singh, R. H. (1986). Evaluation of some Indian traditional methods of promotion of mental health: Activitas Nervosa Superior Vol 28(1) 1986, 67-69.
  • Sinha, A. K. (1964). Yoga and Western psychology: Research Journal of Philosophy & Social Sciences 1(2) 1964, 80-92.
  • Smith, J. C. (2001). ABC Relaxation Theory and yoga, meditation, and prayer: Relaxation dispositions, motivations, beliefs, and practice patterns. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.
  • Smith, J. C. (2001). Seok Chan Bang's study of ABC Relaxation training as a treatment for depression for the Korean elderly. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.
  • Smith, J. C. (2006). Some Light on the Popularity of Yoga and Famous Yoga Masters: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 51 (2), 2006.
  • Smith, J. C., Amutio, A., Anderson, J. P., & Aria, L. A. (1996). Relaxation: Mapping an uncharted world: Biofeedback & Self Regulation Vol 21(1) Mar 1996, 63-90.
  • Smith, J. C., Goc, N. L., & Kinzer, D. J. (2001). Initial trial of the Smith Intercentering Inventory: Progressive muscle relaxation versus yoga stretching versus breathing relaxation. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.
  • Spaeth, M. J. D. (2003). The recovery of spirituality in trauma, stress, and loss: A conceptual integration of analytical psychotherapy, core shamanism, and kundalini yoga. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Spencer, K. (2006). Review of Hey! Who's having this Baby Anyway?: How to take charge and create a safe environment for your baby's birth, including essential information about medication and interventions: What Every Woman Must Know About Childbirth: A guide and Workbook: Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health Vol 21(1) Fal 2006, 101-103.
  • Spoerl, H. D. (1938). Review of Yoga: A Scientific Evaluation: The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Vol 33(2) Apr 1938, 286-287.
  • Sridevi, K., & Krishna Rao, P. V. (1996). Yoga practice and menstrual distress: Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology Vol 22(1-2) Jan-Jul 1996, 47-54.
  • Sridevi, K., Sitamma, M., & Krishna Rao, P. V. (1995). Perceptual organisation and yoga training: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 13(2) Jul 1995, 21-27.
  • Srinivasan, N., & Baijal, S. (2007). Concentrative meditation enhances preattentive processing: A mismatch negativity study: Neuroreport: For Rapid Communication of Neuroscience Research Vol 18(16) Oct 2007, 1709-1712.
  • Starcher, C. D. (2004). The chakra system of tantric yoga: "Sat-cakra-nirupana" text interpreted within the context of a growth-oriented depth psychology (Carl G. Jung). Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Stewart, R. A. (1974). States of human realization: Some physiological and psychological correlates: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 17(3) Sep 1974, 126-134.
  • Streeter, C. C., Jensen, J. E., Perlmutter, R. M., Cabral, H. J., Tian, H., Terhune, D. B., et al. (2007). Yoga asana sessions increase brain GABA levels: A pilot study: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine Vol 13(4) May 2007, 419-426.
  • Stueck, M., & Gloeckner, N. (2005). Yoga for children in the mirror of the science: Working spectrum and practice fields of the Training of Relaxation with Elements of Yoga for Children: Early Child Development and Care Vol 175(4) May 2005, 371-377.
  • Subbannachar, N. V. (1964). The problem of consciousness: Modern psychology and Sri Aurobindo: Research Journal of Philosophy & Social Sciences 1(2) 1964, 102-120.
  • Subbarayappa, B. V. (2006). Science and Hinduism: Some Reflections. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.
  • Sudha, P., Jyotsna, G. N., Sumita, K., & Nalini, B. (2006). Comparative study of psychological distress among practitioners and non-practitioners of yoga: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 24(1-2) Jan-Jul 2006, 7-13.
  • Szabo, A., Mesko, A., Caputo, A., & Gill, E. T. (1998). Examination of exercise-induced feeling states in four modes of exercise: International Journal of Sport Psychology Vol 29(4) Oct-Dec 1998, 376-390.
  • Telles, S., Hanumanthaiah, B., Nagarathna, R., & Nagendra, H. R. (1993). Improvement in static motor performance following yogic training of school children: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 76(3, Pt 2) Jun 1993, 1264-1266.
  • Telles, S., Joshi, M., Dash, M., Raghuraj, P., Naveen, K. V., & Nagendra, H. R. (2004). An Evaluation of the Ability to Voluntarily Reduce the Heart Rate after a Month of Yoga Practice: Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science Vol 39(2) Apr-Jun 2004, 119-125.
  • Telles, S., Nagarathna, R., & Nagendra, H. R. (1995). Improvement in visual perception following yoga training: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 13(1) Jan 1995, 30-32.
  • Telles, S., Narendran, S., Raghuraj, P., Nagarathna, R., & Nagendra, H. R. (1997). Comparison of changes in autonomic and respiratory parameters of girls after yoga and games at a community home: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 84(1) Feb 1997, 251-257.
  • Telles, S., & Naveen, K. V. (2004). Changes in middle latency auditory evoked potentials during meditation: Psychological Reports Vol 94(2) Apr 2004, 398-400.
  • Telles, S., Raghuraj, P., Maharana, S., & Nagendra, H. R. (2007). Immediate effect of three yoga breathing techniques on performance on a letter-cancellation task: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 104(3, Pt2) Jun 2007, 1289-1296.
  • Telles, S., Reddy, S. K., & Nagendra, H. R. (2000). Oxygen consumption and respiration following two yoga relaxation techniques: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback Vol 25(4) Dec 2000, 221-227.
  • Telles, S., Shreevidya, N., & Naveen, K. V. (2007). A comparison of the bilateral elbow joint position sense in yoga and non yoga practitioners: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 25(1-2) Jan-Jul 2007, 1-5.
  • Telles, S., & Srinivas, R. B. (1998). Autonomic and respiratory measures in children with impaired vision following yoga and physical activity programs: International Journal of Rehabilitation & Health Vol 4(2) Apr 1998, 117-122.
  • Telles, S., & Vani, P. R. (2002). Increase in voluntary pulse rate reduction achieved following yoga training: International Journal of Stress Management Vol 9(3) Jul 2002, 236-239.
  • Thorpe, T. J. (1976). The effects of integral Hatha Yoga on self-actualization, anxiety, and body-cathexis in drug users: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Thouless, R. H. (1964). The control of psi phenomena: Research Journal of Philosophy & Social Sciences 1(1) 1964, 71-74.
  • Tooley, G. A., Armstrong, S. M., Norman, T. R., & Sali, A. (2000). Acute increases in night-time plasma melatonin levels following a period of meditation: Biological Psychology Vol 53(1) May 2000, 69-78.
  • Tulku, T. (2000). Lucid dreaming: Exerting the creativity of the unconscious. York Beach, ME: Samuel Weiser.
  • Uma, K., Nagendra, H. R., Nagarathna, R., Vaidehi, S., & et al. (1989). The integrated approach of yoga: A therapeutic tool for mentally retarded children: A one-year controlled study: Journal of Mental Deficiency Research Vol 33(5) Oct 1989, 415-421.
  • Urban, C. B. (1999). Imagery, intuition and reasoning in beneficial resonance techniques: Revista de Psihologie Vol 45(1-2) 1999, 59-73.
  • Valente, V., & Marotta, A. (2005). The impact of yoga on the professional and personal life of the psychotherapist: Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal Vol 27(1) Mar 2005, 65-80.
  • Van der Lans, J. (1975). Therapeutic importance of Yoga and meditation: Gedrag: Tijdschrift voor Psychologie Vol 3(2) 1975, 49-62.
  • Vedamurthachar, A., Janakiramaiah, N., Hegde, J. M., Shetty, T. K., Subbakrishna, D. K., Sureshbabu, S. V., et al. (2006). Antidepressant efficacy and hormonal effects of Sudarshana Kriya Yoga (SKY) in alcohol dependent individuals: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 94(1-3) Aug 2006, 249-253.
  • Vempati, R. P., & Telles, S. (1999). Yoga based isometric relaxation versus supine rest: A study of oxygen consumption, breath rate and volume and autonomic measures: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 17(2) Jul 1999, 46-52.
  • Vempati, R. P., & Telles, S. (2000). Baseline occupational stress levels and physiological responses to a two day stress management program: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 18(1-2) Jan-Jul 2000, 33-37.
  • Vempati, R. P., & Telles, S. (2002). Yoga-based guided relaxation reduces sympathetic activity judged from baseline levels: Psychological Reports Vol 90(2) Apr 2002, 487-494.
  • Venkatesh, S., Pal, M., Negi, B. S., Varma, V. K., & et al. (1994). A comparative study of yoga practitioners and controls on certain psychological variables: Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 21(1) Mar 1994, 22-27.
  • Vijayalakshmi, S., Satyanarayana, M., Krishna Rao, P. V., & Prakash, V. (1988). Combined effect of yoga and psychotherapy on management of asthma: A preliminary study: Journal of Indian Psychology Vol 7(2) Jul 1988, 32-39.
  • Vishal, Singh, A., & Madhu. (1987). A study of the effect of yogic practices on certain psychological parameters: Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 14(2) Sep 1987, 80-83.
  • Volweider, F. H. (1982). A comparison of short-term yoga and buddy-oriented groups with chronic psychiatric patients: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Von Moltke, B. (2001). A dialogue between Jung's psychology and the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali (Carl G. Jung). Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Waelde, L. C. (2004). Dissociation and Meditation: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation Vol 5(2) 2004, 147-162.
  • Waelde, L. C., Thompson, L., & Gallagher-Thompson, D. (2004). A Pilot Study of a Yoga and Meditation Intervention for Dementia Caregiver Stress: Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 60(6) Jun 2004, 677-687.
  • Wagner, R. A. (1998). Hatha yoga for individuals in alcoholism recovery. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Walsh, R. (1989). Asian psychotherapies. Itasca, IL: F E Peacock Publishers.
  • Walsh, R. (1999). Asian contemplative disciplines: Common practices, clinical applications, and research findings: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology Vol 31(2) 1999, 83-107.
  • Walters, J. (2006). Child Psychology Selection: Child and Adolescent Mental Health Vol 11(1) Feb 2006, 57-59.
  • Wardlaw, F. (1994). Hypnosis in the treatment of Bruxism: Australian Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis Vol 22(2) Nov 1994, 97-107.
  • Ware, C. J. (2005). Yoga in a partial hospitalization program: The effects on at-risk youth. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Watanabe, E., Fukuda, S., Hara, H., & Shirakawa, T. (2002). Altered responses of saliva cortisol and mood status by long-period special yoga exercise mixed with meditation and guided imagery: Journal of International Society of Life Information Science Vol 20(2) Sep 2002, 585-587.
  • Watts, F. N. (2000). Psychological research questions about yoga: Mental Health, Religion & Culture Vol 3(1) May 2000, 71-83.
  • West, J., Otte, C., Geher, K., Johnson, J., & Mohr, D. C. (2004). Effects of Hatha Yoga and African Dance on Perceived Stress, Affect, and Salivary Cortisol: Annals of Behavioral Medicine Vol 28(2) Oct 2004, 114-118.
  • Williams, A. P. (1993). The effects of yoga training on concentration and selected psychological variables in young adults: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Williams, K. A., Petronis, J., Smith, D., Goodrich, D., Wu, J., Ravi, N., et al. (2005). Effect of Iyengar yoga therapy for chronic low back pain: Pain Vol 115(1-2) May 2005, 107-117.
  • Williams, P. G. (2002). The spiritual recovery manual: Vedic knowledge and yogic techniques to accelerate recovery. Palo Alto, CA: Incandescent Press.
  • Wilson, S. R. (1985). Therapeutic processes in a yoga ashram: American Journal of Psychotherapy Vol 39(2) Apr 1985, 253-262.
  • Wilson, S. R. (1991). Self-actualization and selflessness: A social-psychological analysis: Journal of Social Behavior & Personality Vol 6(5) 1991, 97-108.
  • Wolf, D. B. (2000). Effects of the hare krsna maha mantra on stress, depression, and the three gunas. (spirituality, yoga). Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Woolery, A. C. (2007). Body posture as a mechanism of mood change in yoga. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Yamazaki, M., Mitsuhashi, Y., & Yamada, F. (1987). Features of yoga meditation in EEG: Japanese Journal of Hypnosis Vol 32(2) 1987, 4-13.
  • Yellin, D. (1983). Left brain, right brain, super brain: The holistic model: Reading World Vol 23(1) Oct 1983, 36-44.
  • Yuille, J. C., & Sereda, L. (1980). Positive effects of meditation: A limited generalization? : Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 65(3) Jun 1980, 333-340.
  • Zipkin, D. (1985). Relaxation techniques for handicapped children: A review of literature: The Journal of Special Education Vol 19(3) Fal 1985, 283-289.
  • Zitnay, G. A. (2006). Complementary medicine and TBI. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis.
  • Zorab, G. (1964). Yoga and parapsychology: Research Journal of Philosophy & Social Sciences 1(1) 1964, 78-83.


External links Edit

Category Hindhu psychology


{enWP|Yoga}}
Advertisement | Your ad here

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki