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The Y-maze is a type of maze.

Example of useEdit

Researchers in Australia found what they consider to be Circadian timed episodic-like memory in honey bees. In their study they examined foraging bees in three Y-mazes. Two mazes represented training and testing zones with different time placements. Maze C acted as the location for transfer tests. The bees were placed in Maze A in the afternoon hours of 2:30 to 5:30, whereas Maze B held bees in the morning hours of 9:30 to 12:30. All of the three mazes had two compartments, and in Mazes A and B, one held a sugar solution as a reward for making the positive decision. During training, the compartment containing the positive pattern was changed every thirty minutes. In Maze A, the positive (rewarded) pattern was a blue vertical pattern, while the negative (non-rewarded) pattern was a blue vertical pattern. Additionally, the positive pattern for Maze B was a yellow vertical (rewarded) pattern, with a yellow horizontal pattern as a negative (non-rewarded) pattern. The three aspects of episodic-like memory in this experiment are the morning or afternoon times (when), either Maze A or B (where), and by using horizontal/vertical patterns (what).

In the first of four experiments, the colour cue was removed by using black patterns, but the shape cues remained the same. The scientists tested whether the bees would still choose the positive pattern; this decision would then be based on the what, where, and when components. Through the other three experiments, one of the cues was examined independently from the others.

Genetic basis of performanceEdit

Neurological correlates of performanceEdit

Neurochemical correlates of performanceEdit

Pharmacological manipulationEdit

See alsoEdit


  • Baturin, V. A. (1987). Interconnection of circadian rhythm of motor activity and rat behavior in an open field and a Y-maze: Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'nosti Vol 37(3) May-Jun 1987, 567-569.
  • Cross, H. A., Boyer, W. N., & Anderson, C. (1964). Influence of reward experience and contemporary amount of reward in a Y-maze problem: Psychological Reports 15(3) 1964, 687-690.
  • Drew, W. G., Kostas, J., McFarland, D. J., & de Rossett, S. E. (1980). Continuous, spontaneous alternation in the rat: Influence of Y-maze arm times: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 51(2) Oct 1980, 359-369.
  • Havekes, R., Nijholt, I. M., Luiten, P. G. M., & Van der Zee, E. A. (2006). Differential involvement of hippocampal calcineurin during learning and reversal learning in a Y-maze task: Learning & Memory Vol 13(6) Nov-Dec 2006, 753-759.
  • Havekes, R., Timmer, M., & Van der Zee, E. A. (2007). Regional differences in hippocampal PKA immunoreactivity after training and reversal training in a spatial Y-maze task: Hippocampus Vol 17(5) 2007, 338-348.
  • Hu, D., Xu, X., & Gonzalez-Lima, F. (2006). Vicarious trial-and-error behavior and hippocampal cytochrome oxidase activity during Y-maze discrimination learning in the rat: International Journal of Neuroscience Vol 116(3) Mar 2006, 265-280.
  • Ito, R., Robbins, T. W., McNaughton, B. L., & Everitt, B. J. (2006). Selective excitotoxic lesions of the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala have dissociable effects on appetitive cue and place conditioning based on path integration in a novel Y-maze procedure: European Journal of Neuroscience Vol 23(11) Jun 2006, 3071-3080.
  • Lipp, H.-P., & Van der Loos, H. (1991). A computer-controlled Y-maze for the analysis of vibrissotactile discrimination learning in mice: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 45(2) Nov 1991, 135-145.
  • Lorenzini, C. A., Bucherelli, C., Falchini, S., Giachetti, A., & et al. (1990). The rat's right-left preference during free exploration of a multiple Y-maze: Physiology & Behavior Vol 48(1) Jul 1990, 175-177.
  • Pollard, J. C., Littlejohn, R. P., & Suttie, J. M. (1994). Responses of red deer to restraint in a Y-maze preference test: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 39(1) Jan 1994, 63-71.
  • Toga, A. W., Layton, B. S., Davenport, D. G., & Horenstein, S. (1977). A Y-maze for cats: Psychological Reports Vol 40(3, Pt 2) Jun 1977, 1071-1074.
  • Zerbolio, D. J. (1980). Measurement of color preference in goldfish using a negative reinforcement Y-maze avoidance procedure: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 15(2) Feb 1980, 128-130.

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