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Word Memory Test

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The Word Memory Test was developed by Paul Green. It is a computer-based test that is designed to measure both verbal memory and biased responding (i.e. malingering). It measures memory on a number of dimensions and contains hidden scales, which serve to check the validity of the persons test scores.

See also

References & Bibliography

Key texts



  • Drane, D., Williamson, D.J., Stroup, E.S., Holmes, M.D., Jung, M., Koerner, E., Chayter, N., Wilensky, A.J. & Miller. J.W. (2006) Impairment is not equal in patients with epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. Epilepsia, 47 (11) 1879-1886.
  • Richman, J., Green, P. Gervais, R., Flaro, L., Merten, T., Brockhaus, R. Ranks, D. (2006) Objective Tests of Symptom Exaggeration in Independent Medical Examinations. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine. 48(3):303-311, March 2006.
  • Gervais, R., Rohling, M. Green, P. & Ford, W. (2004) A comparison of WMT, CARB and TOMM failure rates in non-head injury disability claimants. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 19 (4) 475-487.
  • Green, P. (in press) Spoiled for choice: Making comparisons between forced-choice effort tests. For K. Boone (Ed) Malingering of Neurocognitive Disorders. Guilford Press
  • Green, P. (in press) Questioning common assumptions in depression. For J. Morgan & J. Sweet (Eds.). Neuropsychology of Malingering Casebook, New York: Taylor & Francis.
  • Merten, T., Green, P., Henry, M., Blaskewitz, N., & Brockhaus, R. (2005) Analog validation of German language symptom validity tests and the influence of coaching. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 20, 6, 719-727.
  • Green, P. & Flaro, L. (2003), Word Memory Test performance in children. Child Neuropsychology, 9, 3, 189-207
  • Green, P., Rohling, M.L, Iverson, G. & Gervais, R. (2003) Relationships between olfactory discrimination and head injury severity. Brain Injury, 17 (6) 479-496
  • Rohling, M.L., Green, P., Allen, L. & Iverson, G.L. (2002) Depressive symptoms and neurocognitive test scores in patients passing symptom validity tests. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 17 (3), 205-222
  • Green, P. and Iverson, G. (2001) Validation of the Computerized Assessment of Response Bias in litigating patients with head injuries. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 15 (4), 492-497.
  • Green, P, Rohling, ML, Lees-Haley, PR & Allen LM. (2001) Effort has a greater effect on test scores than severe brain injury in compensation claimants. Brain Injury, 15 (12) 1045-1060
  • Green, P. & Iverson, G.L. (2001) Effects of injury severity and cognitive exaggeration on olfactory deficits in head injury compensation claims. Neurorehabilitation, 16, 237-243
  • Green, P. (2001), Why clinicians often disagree about the validity of test results, Neurorehabilitation, 16, 231-236
  • Green, P. (2001) Comment on article "Does pain confound interpretation of neuropsychological test results?" Neurorehabilitation, 16, 305-306
  • Green, P., Iverson, G. & Allen, L. Detecting malingering in head injury litigation with the Word Memory Test. Brain Injury, 1999, 13 (10) 813-819
  • Green, P., Gervais, R., & Merten, T. (2005) Das Memory Complaints Inventory (MCI): Gedächtnisstörungen, Beschwerdenschilderung und Leistungsmotivation [The Memory Complaints Inventory (MCI): Memory impairment, symptom presentation, and test effort.] Neurologie & Rehabilitation, 11, 3, 139-144
  • Green, P. (2004) Testmotivation und ihre Messung. Reportpsychologie, 29, 5, 303-308
  • Brockhaus, R. & Merten, T.(2004), "Neuropsychologische Diagnostik suboptimalen Leistungsverhaltens mit dem Word Memory Test", Nervenarzt, 75, (9), 882-887.
  • Green, P., Lees-Haley, P.R. & Allen, L.M. (2003) The Word Memory Test and the validity of neuropsychological test scores. In J. Hom & R.L. Denney (Eds) Detection of Response Bias in Forensic Neuropsychology New York, Haworth Medical Press
  • Green, P. & Josey, F. (2002) The use of an earplug to increase speech comprehension in a subgroup of children with learning disabilities: an experimental treatment. Applied Neuropsychology, 9 (1) 13-22
  • Green, P., Lees-Haley, P.R. & Allen, L.M. (2002) The Word Memory Test and the validity of neuropsychological test scores. Journal of Forensic Neuropsychology, 2, 3 / 4, 97-124
  • Rohling, M.L., Allen, L.M. & Green, P. (2002) Who is exaggerating cognitive impairment and who is not? CNS Spectrums, 7 (5), 387-395
  • Iverson, GL, Lange, RT, Green, P & Franzen, MD. (2002) Detecting exaggeration and malingering with the Trail Making Test. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 16 (3) 398-406
  • Ferrari, R., Obelieniene, D., Russell, A.S., Darlington, P., Gervais, R.O. & Green, P. (2002) Laypersons expectations of the sequelae of whiplash injury. A cross-cultural comparative study between Canada and Lithuania. Medical Science Monitor, 8 (11), 728-734
  • Iverson, G., Turner, R.A. and Green, P. Predictive validity of WAIS-R VIQ-PIQ splits in persons with major depression. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 1999, 55 (4), 519-524
  • Williamson, D, Rohling, M, Green, P & Allen, L. Evaluating effort with the Word Memory Test and Category Test Or not: Inconsistencies in a forensic sample. Accepted, Journal of Forensic Neuropsychology, 2001
  • Iverson, G.L. & Green, P. (2001) Measuring improvement or decline on the WAIS-R in inpatient psychiatry. Psychological Reports, 89, 457-462
  • Ferrari, R., Obelieniene, D., Russell, A.S., Darlington, P., Gervais, R.O. & Green, P. (2001) Symptom expectation after minor head injury. A comparative study between Canada and Lithuania. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, 103, 184-190
  • Gervais, R.O., Russell, A.S., Green, P., Ferrari, R. and Pieschl, S D. (2001) Effort testing in patients with fibromyalgia and disability incentives. Journal of Rheumatology, 28, 1892-1899.
  • Slick, D.J., Iverson, G.L. & Green, P. California Verbal Learning Test indicators of suboptimal performance in a sample of head-injury litigants. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. Vol. 22 (5) 569-579, 2000.
  • Gervais, R., Green, P., Allen, L.M. & Iverson, G. (2001). Effects of coaching on symptom validity testing in chronic pain patients presenting for disability assessments. Journal of Forensic Neuropsychology, 2 (2), 1-19.
    • Iverson, G., Green, P. & Gervais, R. (1999) Using the Word Memory Test to detect biased responding in head injury litigation. The Journal of Cognitive Rehabilitation, 17 (2), 4-8,

Additional material



External links

WMT website

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