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Withdrawal (defense mechanism)

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Withdrawal may be viewed as a psychological defence mechanism it is a psychoanalytic term and refers to the tendency to escape from or avoid situations that may be experienced as emotionally or psychologically challenging.

When this strategy is overused personality disorders can develop for example avoidant personality disorder or schizoid personality disorder

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

BooksEdit

  • Cheek, J. M., & Krasnoperova, E. N. (1999). Varieties of shyness in adolescence and adulthood. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Honk, J. v., & Haan, E. H. F. d. (2001). Conscious and unconscious processing of emotional faces. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Rubin, K. H., & Burgess, K. B. (2001). Social withdrawal and anxiety. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Serbin, L. A., Moskowitz, D. S., Schwartzman, A. E., & Ledingham, J. E. (1991). Aggressive, withdrawn, and aggressive/withdrawn children in adolescence: Into the next generation. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.


PapersEdit

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  • Bhatnagar, S., Nowak, N., Babich, L., & Bok, L. (2004). Deletion of the 5-HT-sub-3 receptor differentially affects behavior of males and females in the Porsolt forced swim and defensive withdrawal tests: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 153(2) Aug 2004, 527-535.
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  • Wright, J. C., & Mischel, W. (1987). A conditional approach to dispositional constructs: The local predictability of social behavior: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 53(6) Dec 1987, 1159-1177.
  • Young, M. R. R., & Bradley, M. T. (1998). Social withdrawal: Self-efficacy, happiness, and popularity in introverted and extroverted adolescents: Canadian Journal of School Psychology Vol 14(1) 1998, 21-35.
  • Younger, A. J., Schneider, B. H., & Daniels, T. (1991). Aggression and social withdrawal as viewed by children's peers: Conceptual issues in assessment and implications for intervention: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience Vol 16(3) Sep 1991, 139-145.
  • Younger, A. J., Schneider, B. H., Wadeson, R., Guirguis, M., & Bergeron, N. (2000). A behaviour-based peer-nomination measure of social withdrawal in children: Social Development Vol 9(4) 2000, 544-564.
  • Van Buren, J. (1997). Themes of being and non-being in the work of Frances Tustin and Jacques Lacan. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.
  • Van Yperen, N. W., Hagedoorn, M., & Geurts, S. A. (1994). Withdrawal behaviors of employees: Turnover and absenteeism as reactions to inequity: Gedrag en Organisatie Vol 7(5) Oct 1994, 243-260.
  • Verma, J. (1987). A case study of a withdrawn boy as measured through Rorschach: Indian Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 24(2) Jul 1987, 96-100.
  • Vogel, D. L., & Karney, B. R. (2002). Demands and withdrawal in newlyweds: Elaborating on the social structure hypothesis: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships Vol 19(5) Oct 2002, 685-701.
  • von Cranach, B., & et al. (1978). Socially withdrawn children in preschool institutions: Assessment and therapeutic intervention: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie Vol 27(5) Jul 1978, 167-179.
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DissertationsEdit

  • Bauknight, C. B. (1977). Parent-child interaction on the Family Drawing Test as an indication of withdrawn behavior in children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bowker, A. E. (1996). Coping with daily hassles in the peer group during early adolescence. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Briggs, R. S. (1992). Timid and withdrawn children. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
  • Burgess, K. B. (1997). Self-schemas and behavioural adjustment of socially withdrawn children. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Carrico, K. L. (1982). An examination of the social networks of normals and schizophrenics: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Chassine, E. A. (1993). A study of the differences between boys from divorced and intact families in relation to anxiety, aggression, and withdrawn behavior: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Childers, G. J. (1990). Relations among aggression, withdrawal, and victimization in peer-rejected children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Cochrane, N. J. (1982). The meanings that some adults derive from their personal withdrawal experiences: A dialogical inquiry: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Crawford, N. L. (1995). The emotional responses of aggressive and withdrawn preschoolers to peer interactions. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Cressey, K. N. (2000). Parallel formation processes of job, organization, and occupation withdrawal cognitions. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Daniels, T. L. (1996). Development and validation of the Withdrawal and Avoidance in Marriage scale. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Drew, K. D. (1986). Relationship of birth order to sociability in young children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Gooler, L. E. (1996). Coping with work-family conflict: The role of organizational support. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Gray, J. R. (2000). Emotional modulation of working memory. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Harrison, H. M. J. (1998). Modelling the structure of social (mal)adjustment during the developmental period. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Harrist, A. W. (1992). Synchronous and nonsynchronous parent-child interaction: Relations with children's later competence with peers: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hart, M. T. (1994). Social-cognitive processing in aggressive/withdrawn, aggressive/nonwithdrawn, and nondeviant children. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Hirschfeld, N. B. (1986). Maternal intensity and infant disengagement in face to face play: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Howe, P. A. (1981). Patterns of playroom behavior in disturbed and adjusted preschool children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kassier, M. R. (1979). The effects of televised modeling on selected pro-social behaviors of severely withdrawn children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kim, W.-K. (1998). Social withdrawal and psychological well-being in older adults. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Lepore, S. J. (1992). Residential density and psychological distress: Some social explanations: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Loiacono, R. (1979). Differential response patterns of achievers and non-achievers as a function of locus of control: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • McAffer, V. J. (1992). A longitudinal study of intergenerational transfer of psychosocial risk: Aggressive and withdrawn girls as mothers: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • McGuire, M. D. (1984). Attentional functions and information processing in adolescents at behavioral risk for schizophrenia: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Mott, A. L. (2006). The relationship between social withdrawal, friendship, and socioemotional adjustment in children. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • O'Hearn, H. G. (1999). Daily patterns of anger and withdrawal in violent and nonviolent couples. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Partridge, R. T. (2000). A developmental contextual model of approach/withdrawal temperament. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Peters, P. L. (2000). Assortative mating among men and women with histories of aggressive, withdrawn, and aggressive-withdrawn behaviour. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Raybuck, C. (1991). Attributional and behavioral discriminators of aggressive-withdrawn versus aggressive children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Rigsby, R. K. (1995). An inquiry into the adaptive function of withdrawal: Focusing on depression and abusive relationships. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Ritzema, R. J. (1978). The labeling of mental illness by nonprofessionals: An attributional approach: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Schneider, M. J. (1984). A comparison of aggressive and withdrawn children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Schwartz, D. (1995). The social behavior of bullied children. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Smith, K. B. (1996). Homeless school-age children. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Stempniak, M. W. (1979). Rating scales of child behavior problems: Halo, sex, and race effects: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Vallejo, J. O. (1986). Withdrawal: A basic positive and negative adaptation in addition to compliance and rebellion: Transactional Analysis Journal Vol 16(2) Apr 1986, 114-119. (1996). A multimethod study of the structure of social withdrawal in middle childhood. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Warden, M. R. (1991). Withdrawal of academic effort: Implications for self-handicapping and self-worth theories: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ventura-Cook, E. E. (1997). Attachment representations and socioemotional characteristics of lower-income solitary-passive, solitary-nonpassive, and nonwithdrawn preschool children. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.


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