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Efez Celsus Library 3 RB

Personification of wisdom (in Greek, "Σοφια") at the Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey.

File:AllegoryWisdomStrength.PNG

Wisdom, according to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, is defined as the "1 a: Accumulated philosophic or scientific learning-knowledge; b: Ability to discern inner qualities and relationships-insight; c: Good sense-judgment d: Generally accepted belief 2: A wise attitude, belief, or course of action. 3: The teachings of the ancient wise men"[1].

Most psychologists regard wisdom as distinct from the cognitive abilities measured by standardized intelligence tests. Wisdom is often considered to be a trait that can be developed by experience, but not taught. When applied to practical matters, the term wisdom is synonymous with prudence. Some see wisdom as a quality that even a child, otherwise immature, may possess independent of experience or complete knowledge. The status of wisdom or prudence as a virtue is recognized in cultural, philosophical and religious sources. Some define wisdom in a utilitarian sense, as foreseeing consequences and acting to maximize the long-term common good.[How to reference and link to summary or text]

As such, in general, wisdom is looked at his/her ideals and principles that govern all actions and decisions. Applications of personal wisdom include one's ethical and social guidelines in life that determines one’s unique style of personality, the particular nature of short and long-term goal(s) pursued in life (spiritual or materialistic for example), perspective on life, social attitudes, etc.

Philosophical perspectivesEdit

A standard philosophical definition says that wisdom consists of making the best use of available knowledge. As with any decision, a wise decision may be made with incomplete information[How to reference and link to summary or text]. The technical philosophical term for the opposite of wisdom is folly.[How to reference and link to summary or text]

In his Metaphysics, Aristotle defines wisdom as knowledge of causes: why things exist in a particular fashion.

In addition to experience there are a variety of other avenues to gaining wisdom. For example, Freethinkers and others believe that wisdom may come from pure reason and perhaps experience, while others believe that it comes from intuition or spirituality.[How to reference and link to summary or text]

Beginning with the ancient Greeks, European culture associates wisdom with virtue. Metis and Athene are associated with wisdom from earliest times. For example, many philosophers talk about the virtue of wisdom in relation to courage and moderation, and in the Roman Catholic church, wisdom (Prudence) stands with justice, fortitude and moderation as one of the four cardinal virtues. Plato's dialogues mention the virtue of wisdom, as knowledge about the Good and the courage to act accordingly. The Good would be about the right relations between all that exists. The Good, as a Platonic Form, would involve the perfect ideas of good government, love, friendship, community, and a right relation to the Divine. Perhaps the search or love of wisdom is more important than any proven claim. Socrates only claimed to know that he did not know, but this he was very certain of, and he showed the many contradictions in the claims of his fellow citizens[How to reference and link to summary or text].

Holists believe that wise people sense, work with and align themselves and others to life. In this view, wise people help others appreciate the fundamental interconnectedness of life[How to reference and link to summary or text].

Thoreau believed that “it is a characteristic of wisdom not to do desperate things[How to reference and link to summary or text].”

Nicholas Maxwell, a modern philosopher, argued that the basic aim of academic inquiry ought to be to seek and promote wisdom — wisdom being construed to be the capacity to realize what is of value in life for oneself and others, wisdom thus including knowledge and technological know-how, but much else besides.[2]

Scientific perspectivesEdit

Some may find the scientific method[3] to be a satisfactory path to a goal of gaining wisdom.

Psychological perspectivesEdit

Psychologists have gathered data on commonly held beliefs or folk theories about wisdom.[4] These analyses indicate that although "there is an overlap of the implicit theory of wisdom with intelligence, perceptiveness, spirituality and shrewdness, it is evident that wisdom is a distinct term and not a composite of other terms."[5]

Personality theorist Erik Erikson related wisdom to the last stage of his eight-stage theory of psychosocial development. Erikson's theory spans the entire lifespan and frames each stage in the form of internally-generated questions or tensions. Erikson claimed that in the last stage of human development, from approximately 65 years to death, individuals must resolve a psychological conflict between integrity and despair. He proposed that attaining wisdom is a favorable resolution and product of this conflict.

Strength here takes the form of that detached yet active concern with life bounded by death, which we call wisdom… Not that each man can evolve wisdom for himself… To whatever abyss ultimate concerns may lead individual men, man as a psychological creature will face, toward the end of his life, a new edition of the identity crisis which we may state by the words 'I am what survives me'.[6]

Thus, within Eriksonian theory, wisdom universally surfaces as an optimal potential outcome of the human experience.

In the 1970s, Vivian Clayton pioneered the academic study of wisdom. Clayton "is generally recognized as the first psychologist to ask, in even faintly scientific terms, 'What does wisdom mean, and how does age affect it?'"[7] Clayton's work caught the attention of Paul Baltes, who later founded the Berlin Wisdom Project at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development in Berlin, Germany. Another wisdom researcher, sociologist Monika Ardelt, has developed a "Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale", a test that individuals can take for a numerical assessment of their wisdom on a scale of one to five. The number of academic publications about wisdom increased significantly from 1984 to 2000. Nevertheless, according to Jacqui Smith, one of Baltes's collaborators, the subject is not completely accepted in academia.[8]

Religious perspectivesEdit

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Some religions have specific teachings relating to wisdom. In Mesopotamian Religion and Mythology Enki, also known as Ea, was the God of wisdom and intelligence. Wisdom was achieved by restoring balance.

In Islam, according to the Qur'an Prophet Muhammed was chosen by God to represent his wisdom. The Prophet Muhammad said that: "Fearing God in your actions and intentions, and knowing that Almighty God is watching you wherever and whenever you are is the head/peak of wisdom"[How to reference and link to summary or text]. In addition, Islam also mentions that a wise man with the name of Luqman once told his son to: "Sit with the learned men and keep close to them. Allah gives life to the hearts with the light of wisdom as Allah gives life to the dead earth with the abundant rain of the sky"[1].

In the Christian Bible, the magi (or "wise men") are sent by God to give the newly born Jesus three types of gifts. Wisdom is also represented by the sense of justice of the lawful and wise king [Solomon, who asks God for wisdom in 1 Kings 3. Proverbs 9:10 says: "The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom," and 8:13 "To fear the Lord is to hate evil;" There is an oppositional element in Christian thought between secular wisdom and Godly wisdom. The apostle Paul states that worldly wisdom thinks the claims of Christ to be foolishness. However, to those who are being saved Christ represents the wisdom of God. (1 Corinthians 1:17-31) Also, Wisdom is one of the Seven gifts of the Holy Spirit.

The seventh verse of the first chapter of the Jewish Proverbs states "Fear of God is the beginning of Wisdom" (Proverbs 1:7). The beginning of fear of God is hating evil, the ways of evil, arrogance, pride and a duplicitous mouth (Proverbs).

Confucius stated that wisdom can be learned by three methods: Reflection (the noblest), imitation (the easiest) and experience (the bitterest). According to "Doctrine of the Mean," Confucius also said, "Love of learning is akin to wisdom. To practice with vigor is akin to humanity. To know to be shameful is akin to courage (zhi,ren,yi..three of Mengzi's sprouts of virtue)." Compare this with the beginning of the Confucian classic "Great Learning" which begins with "The Way of learning to be great consists in manifesting the clear character, loving the people, and abiding in the highest good" one can clearly see the correlation with the Roman virtue "prudence," especially if one transliterates clear character as clear conscience. (Quotes from Chan's Sources of Chinese Philosophy).

Buddha taught that a wise person is endowed with good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct & good mental conduct (AN3:2) and a wise person does actions that are unpleasant to do but give good results and doesn’t do actions that are pleasant to do but give bad results (AN4:115). This is called karma. The Buddha has much to say on the subject of wisdom including:

  • He who arbitrates a case by force does not thereby become just (established in Dhamma). But the wise man is he who carefully discriminates between right and wrong.[9]
  • He who leads others by nonviolence, righteously and equitably, is indeed a guardian of justice, wise and righteous.[10]
  • One is not wise merely because he talks much. But he who is calm, free from hatred and fear, is verily called a wise man.[11]
  • By quietude alone one does not become a sage (muni) if he is foolish and ignorant. But he who, as if holding a pair of scales, takes the good and shuns the evil, is a wise man; he is indeed a muni by that very reason. He who understands both good and evil as they really are, is called a true sage.[12]

In Taoism Practical Wisdom may be described as knowing what to say and when to say it.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Wisdom, Merriam-Webſter.
  2. MAXWELL, Nicholas.
  3. William Stanley Jevons (1873, 1877) The Principles of Science: a treatise on logic and scientific method Dover edition, with a new preface by Ernest Nagel (1958)
  4. Sternberg, R. J. (1985). Implicit theories of intelligence, creativity, and wisdom. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 607–62.
  5. Brown, S. C., & Greene, J. A. (2006). The Wisdom Development Scale: Translating the conceptual to the concrete. Journal of College Student Development, 47, 1–19.
  6. Erikson, E. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis (pp. 140–41). New York: Norton.
  7. Hall, Stephen S. (May 6, 2007), "The Older-and-Wiser Hypothesis", The New York Times Magazine: 61, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/06/magazine/06Wisdom-t.html?ex=1336104000&en=4b4959cf047f61fe&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss 
  8. Hall, Stephen S. (May 6, 2007), "The Older-and-Wiser Hypothesis", The New York Times Magazine: 62, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/06/magazine/06Wisdom-t.html?ex=1336104000&en=4b4959cf047f61fe&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss 
  9. Dhammapada v.256
  10. Dhammapada v.257
  11. Dhammapada v.258
  12. Dhammapada v.268-9


Further readingEdit

  • Abeles, N. (2007). Ethics, wisdom, and common sense: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 52 (38), 2007.
  • Absey, J. (2005). Review of Wisdom in the body: The craniosacral approach to essential health: Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health Vol 20(2) Win 2005, 177-179.
  • Absey, J. (2006). Review of Wisdom in the Body: The Craniosacral Approach to Essential Health: Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health Vol 21(1) Fal 2006, 96-99.
  • Address, R. F. (2005). Review of Getting home before dark: Stories of wisdom for all ages: Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging Vol 18(1) 2005, 98-100.
  • Allen, C. N. (1935). Wish and Wisdom; Episodes in the Vagaries of Belief: The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Vol 30(3) Oct 1935, 397-398.
  • Allen, J. G. (2004). Review of The wisdom in feeling: Psychological processes in emotional intelligence: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic Vol 68(3) Sum 2004, 260.
  • Allison, E. T. (2007). Wisdom and loss: The role of life loss in the lives of nurses thought to be wise. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Ambrosius, M. (2002). Wisdom: A positive aspect of aging. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Anderson, B. J. (1999). Development of wisdom-related knowledge in adolescence and young adulthood. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Anderson, D. D. (1992). Questioning the conventional wisdom and critiquing unconventional perspectives in abnormal psychology: A written exercise: Teaching of Psychology Vol 19(4) Dec 1992, 230-232.
  • Ardelt, M. (1995). Wisdom in the later years: A life course approach to successful aging. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Ardelt, M. (1997). Wisdom and life satisfaction in old age: Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences Vol 52B(1) Jan 1997, P15-P27.
  • Ardelt, M. (2000). Antecedents and effects of wisdom in old age: A longitudinal perspective on aging well: Research on Aging Vol 22(4) Jul 2000, 360-394.
  • Ardelt, M. (2000). Intellectual versus wisdom-related knowledge: The case for a different kind of learning in the later years of life: Educational Gerontology Vol 26(8) Dec 2000, 771-789.
  • Ardelt, M. (2003). Empirical assessment of a three-dimensional wisdom scale: Research on Aging Vol 25(3) May 2003, 275-324.
  • Ardelt, M. (2004). Where Can Wisdom Be Found? A Reply to the Commentaries by Baltes and Kunzmann, Sternberg, and Achenbaum: Human Development Vol 47(5) Sep-Oct 2004, 304-307.
  • Ardelt, M. (2004). Wisdom as Expert Knowledge System: A Critical Review of a Contemporary Operationalization of an Ancient Concept: Human Development Vol 47(5) Sep-Oct 2004, 257-285.
  • Ardelt, M. (2008). Wisdom, religiosity, purpose in life, and death attitudes of aging adults: Tomer, Adrian (Ed); Eliason, Grafton T (Ed); Wong, Paul T P (Ed).
  • Ardelt, M.; Oh, H. (2010) Wisdom: Definition, assessment, and relation to successful cognitive and emotional aging. In Depp, Colin A [Ed]; Jeste, Dilip V [Ed]. (2010). Successful cognitive and emotional aging. (pp. 87-113). xxi, 419 pp. Arlington, VA, US: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.; US.
  • Arnkil, T. E. (2006). Commentary: On Wisdom: Family Process Vol 45(1) Mar 2006, 133-137.
  • Askenazi-Gerson, J. (1992). On a word of wisdom: Psychanalyse a l'Universite Vol 17(67) Jul 1992, 61-64.
  • Aslan, A. (2005). Wisdom As a Subject of Psychological Studies: Turk Psikoloji Yazilari Vol 8(15) Jun 2005, 1-9.
  • Assmann, A. (1994). Wholesome knowledge: Concepts of wisdom in a historical and cross-cultural perspective. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Aubrey, R., & Cohen, P. M. (1995). Working wisdom: Timeless skills and vanguard strategies for learning organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • Averbeck, R. E. (2006). Creation and Corruption, Redemption and Wisdom: A Biblical Theology Foundation for Counseling Psychology: Journal of Psychology and Christianity Vol 25(2) Sum 2006, 111-126.
  • Baer, S. M., Hoffamann, A. C., & Sheikh, A. A. (2003). Healing images: Connecting with inner wisdom. Amityville, NY: Baywood Publishing Co.
  • Baltes, P. B., & Freund, A. M. (2003). Human strengths as the orchestration of wisdom and selective optimization with compensation. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Baltes, P. B., & Freund, A. M. (2003). The intermarriage of wisdom and selective optimization with compensation: Two meta-heuristics guiding the conduct of life. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Baltes, P. B., Gluck, J., & Kunzmann, U. (2002). Wisdom: Its structure and function in regulating successful life span development. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Baltes, P. B., & Kunzmann, U. (2003). Wisdom: The Psychologist Vol 16(3) Mar 2003, 131-133.
  • Baltes, P. B., & Kunzmann, U. (2004). The Two Faces of Wisdom: Wisdom as a General Theory of Knowledge and Judgment about Excellence in Mind and Virtue vs. Wisdom as Everyday Realization in People and Products: Human Development Vol 47(5) Sep-Oct 2004, 290-299.
  • Baltes, P. B., & Smith, J. (1990). Wisdom and its development: Prolegomena to a psychological theory of wisdom: Zeitschrift fur Entwicklungspsychologie und Padagogische Psychologie Vol 22(2) 1990, 95-135.
  • Baltes, P. B., & Smith, J. (2008). The fascination of wisdom: Its nature, ontogeny, and function: Perspectives on Psychological Science Vol 3(1) Jan 2008, 56-64.
  • Baltes, P. B., Smith, J., & Staudinger, U. M. (1992). Wisdom and successful aging. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Baltes, P. B., & Staudinger, U. M. (1993). The search for a psychology of wisdom: Current Directions in Psychological Science Vol 2(3) Jun 1993, 75-80.
  • Baltes, P. B., & Staudinger, U. M. (2000). Wisdom: A metaheuristic (pragmatic) to orchestrate mind and virtue toward excellence: American Psychologist Vol 55(1) Jan 2000, 122-136.
  • Baltes, P. B., Staudinger, U. M., Maercker, A., & Smith, J. (1995). People nominated as wise: A comparative study of wisdom-related knowledge: Psychology and Aging Vol 10(2) Jun 1995, 155-166.
  • Bankart, C. P. (2006). Treating Anger with Wisdom and Compassion: A Buddhist Approach. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.
  • Barnett, H. J. M. (2005). Conventional wisdom vs reality in stroke prevention: Neurology Vol 64(7) Apr 2005, 1122-1124.
  • Barretta, P., & Barretta, N. (2006). Review of The Wisdom of Milton H. Erickson: The Complete Volume: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis Vol 49(1) Jul 2006, 73-74.
  • Bassett, C. L. (2006). Laughing at Gilded Butterflies: Integrating Wisdom, Development, and Learning. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Bates, C. A. (1994). Wisdom: A postmodern exploration. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Bauer, G. P. (1990). Wit and wisdom in dynamic psychotherapy. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.
  • Bauer, J. (2007). Review of The happiness hypothesis: Finding modern truth in ancient wisdom: The Journal of Positive Psychology Vol 2(1) 2007, 76-78.
  • Bayer, B. (2001). Values, wisdom, beliefs, and directions: Korean Journal of Thinking & Problem Solving Vol 11(1) Apr 2001, 73-80.
  • Benton, S., & Giovagnoli, M. (2006). The wisdom network: An 8-step process for identifying, sharing and leveraging individual expertise. New York, NY: Amacom.
  • Bianchi, E. (2005). Living with Elder Wisdom: Journal of Gerontological Social Work Vol 45(3) 2005, 319-329.
  • Birren, J. E., & Svensson, C. M. (2005). Wisdom in History. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Blanchard-Fields, F., Brannan, J. R., & Camp, C. J. (1987). Alternative conceptions of wisdom: An onion-peeling exercise: Educational Gerontology Vol 13(6) 1987, 497-503.
  • Blechman, E. A. (1982). Conventional wisdom about familial contributions to substance abuse: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse Vol 9(1) 1982, 35-53.
  • Bluck, S., & Gluck, J. (2005). From the Inside Out: People's Implicit Theories of Wisdom. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Bluck, S., & Glueck, J. (2004). Making Things Better and Learning a Lesson: Experiencing Wisdom Across the Lifespan: Journal of Personality Vol 72(3) Jun 2004, 543-572.
  • Bransford, J. D., Franks, J. J., Vye, N. J., & Sherwood, R. D. (1989). New approaches to instruction: Because wisdom can't be told. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Brennan, R. L. (1995). The conventional wisdom about group mean scores: Journal of Educational Measurement Vol 32(4) Win 1995, 385-396.
  • Brewer, M. D., Kersh, R., & Petersen, R. E. (2003). Assessing conventional wisdom about religion and politics: A preliminary view from the pews: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion Vol 42(1) Mar 2003, 125-136.
  • Brink, N. (2003). Review of Dream Wisdom: Uncovering Life's Answers in Your Dreams: Imagination, Cognition and Personality Vol 23(2-3) 2003-2004, 248-251.
  • Brown, S. C. (2000). Learning across the campus: How college facilitates the development of wisdom. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Brown, S. C. (2004). Learning Across the Campus: How College Facilitates the Development of Wisdom: Journal of College Student Development Vol 45(2) Mar-Apr 2004, 134-148.
  • Brown, S. C., & Greene, J. A. (2006). The Wisdom Development Scale: Translating the Conceptual to the Concrete: Journal of College Student Development Vol 47(1) Jan-Feb 2006, 1-19.
  • Brown, W. S. (2000). Understanding wisdom: Sources, science, & society. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.
  • Brown, W. S. (2000). Wisdom and human neurocognitive systems: Perceiving and practicing the laws of life. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.
  • Brown, W. S. (2005). Discussion: Seven Pillars of the House of Wisdom. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Brugman, G. M. (2006). Wisdom and Aging. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.
  • Buss, D. M. (2001). Cognitive biases and emotional wisdom in the evolution of conflict between the sexes: Current Directions in Psychological Science Vol 10(6) Dec 2001, 219-223.
  • Capacchione, L. (2001). The power of your other hand: A course in channeling the inner wisdom of the right brain. Franklin Lakes, NJ: New Page Books.
  • Carter, M. J. (2004). Reasoning for wisdom in emotional education. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Chauchard, P. (1979). Cerebral control and attention: Science and wisdom: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics Vol 31(1-4) 1979, 334-343.
  • Chemsi, Z. B., & Natahi, O. (1991). Femininity and the question of wisdom in the Arab-Moslem civilization: Psychanalystes No 40 Oct 1991, 71-76.
  • Clayton, V. (1975). Erikson's theory of human development as it applies to the aged: Wisdom as contradictive cognition: Human Development Vol 18(1-2) 1975, 119-128.
  • Clayton, V. (1982). Wisdom and intelligence: The nature and function of knowledge in the later years: International Journal of Aging & Human Development Vol 15(4) 1982, 315-321.
  • Col, N. F. (2007). Using Internet technologies to improve and simplify counseling about menopause: The WISDOM website: Maturitas Vol 57(1) May 2007, 95-99.
  • Coleman, M. G. (2003). African American Popular Wisdom Versus the Qualification Question: Is Affirmative Action Merit-based? : Western Journal of Black Studies Vol 27(1) Spr 2003, 35-44.
  • Connelly, M. S. (1996). Exploring the relationships of creative problem-solving skills and wisdom to leadership. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Cooper-White, P. (2006). Shared Wisdom: Use of the Self in Pastoral Care and Counseling (Person, Culture, and Religion Group, American Academy of Religion, November 18, 2005): Pastoral Psychology Vol 55(2) Nov 2006, 233-241.
  • Craft, A. (2006). Fostering creativity with wisdom: Cambridge Journal of Education Vol 36(3) Sep 2006, 337-350.
  • Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Nakamura, J. (2005). The Role of Emotions in the Development of Wisdom. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Daiute, C., Buteau, E., & Rawlins, C. (2001). Social-relational wisdom: Developmental diversity in children's written narratives about social conflict: Narrative Inquiry Vol 11(2) 2001, 277-306.
  • Daleiden, E. L., & Chorpita, B. F. (2005). From Data to Wisdom: Quality Improvement Strategies Supporting Large-scale Implementation of Evidence-Based Services: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America Vol 14(2) Apr 2005, 329-349.
  • Damon, W. (2000). Setting the stage for the development of wisdom: Self-understanding and moral identity during adolescence. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.
  • Davies, S. (2004). Review of The Wisdom in Feeling: Psychological Processes in Emotional Intelligence: Personnel Psychology Vol 57(2) Sum 2004, 511-514.
  • Defilippo, B. J. (1996). The social construction of wisdom judgments. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Deming, N., Fryer-Edwards, K., Dudzinski, D., Starks, H., Culver, J., Hopley, E., et al. (2007). Incorporating Principles and Practical Wisdom in Research Ethics Education: A Preliminary Study: Academic Medicine Vol 82(1) Jan 2007, 18-23.
  • Depraz, N. (2001). The Husserlian theory of intersubjectivity as Alterology: Emergent theories and wisdom traditions in the light of genetic phenomenology. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.
  • Dipalma, L. M. (2004). Shades of wisdom: Portraits of attachment in families at risk. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
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  • Dittmann-Kohli, F. (1984). Wisdom as a possible result of intellectual development in adulthood: Sprache & Kognition Vol 3(2) Apr 1984, 112-132.
  • Douglas, C. (2006). The old woman's daughter: Transformative wisdom for men and women. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.
  • Dussutour, A., Simpson, S. J., Despland, E., & Colasurdo, N. (2007). When the group denies individual nutritional wisdom: Animal Behaviour Vol 74(4) Oct 2007, 931-939.
  • Dybicz, P. (2004). An Inquiry Into Practice Wisdom: Families in Society Vol 85(2) Apr-Jun 2004, 197-203.
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  • Fox, N. J., Dolman, E. A., Lane, P., O-Rourke, A. J., & Roberts, C. (1999). The WISDOM project: Training primary care professionals in informatics in a collaborative 'virtual classroom.' Medical Education Vol 33(5) May 1999, 365-370.
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