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Wisconsin Card Sort Test

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The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test® (WCST) is a neuropsychological test of "set-shifting", i.e. the ability to display flexibility in the face of changing schedules of reinforcement.

MethodEdit

Initially, four stimulus cards are presented to the participant: the first has one red triangle, the second has two green stars, the third has three yellow crosses, and the fourth has four blue circles. He or she is then given a stack of additional cards and asked to match each one to one of the four stimulus cards, thereby forming four separate piles of cards. The participant is not told how to match the cards; however, he or she is told whether a particular match is right or wrong.

To determine whether each card is sorted correctly, a specific rule is chosen. A trial is correct if it is placed in the pile which matches the card on the dimension of the rule. If the participant successfully sorts a specific number of consecutive trials, the rule is changed. The task continues for 128 trials or until all rule changes have been accomplished successfully (called achieved categories).

The original WCST used paper cards and was carried out with the experimenter on one side of the desk facing the participant on the other.[1] Since the early 1990s, however, computerized versions of the task have been available, the most recent version being the windows-compatible version 4.0.[2] The latter has the advantage of automatically scoring the test, which was quite complex in the manual version. The test takes approximately 12-20 minutes to carry out and generates the following results:

  • Number of categories achieved
  • Number of trials
  • Number of errors
  • Number of perseverative errors
  • Percentage perseverative errors

Clinical useEdit

Clinically, the test is widely used by psychiatrists, neurologists and neuropsychologists in patients with acquired brain injury, neurodegenerative disease, or mental illness such as schizophrenia. Although successful completion of the test relies upon a number of intact cognitive functions including attention, working memory, and visual processing, it is loosely termed a "frontal lobe" test on the basis that patients with any sort of frontal lobe lesion generally do poorly at the test. In particular, patients with lesions of the dorsolateral frontal lobe make a higher number of perseverative errors than control participants.[3] Having achieved the first category they often continue to sort the cards according to the first rule long after that rule has been superseded. A recent factor analysis of the WCST has shown these perseverative errors to be the most useful outcome measure in assessing caseness.[4] A more sophisticated description of deficits of this type is "executive dysfunction".

Schizophrenia PET scan

Data from a PET study[5] suggests that the less the frontal lobes are activated (red) during a working memory task, the greater the increase in abnormal dopamine activity in the striatum (green), thought to be related to the neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia.


Use in researchEdit

The WCST has been used in neuroimaging paradigms such as PET and MRI. As predicted by the acquired brain injury literature, completing the task involves activation primarily of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.[6][7] The test's use in neurodegenerative diseases such as motor neurone disease and multiple sclerosis has identified at least a subgroup of these patients for whom there is some subtle degree of cognitive dysfunction, in contrast to the traditional view that these were pure disorders of the motor system.

The test is also widely used in research into schizophrenia e.g.[8][9]

Main article: Schizophrenia - Wisconsin Card Sort Test

ReferenceEdit

  1. E. A. Berg. (1948). A simple objective technique for measuring flexibility in thinking J. Gen. Psychol. 39: 15-22.
  2. Psychological Assessment Resources. Computerised Wisconsin Card Sort Task Version 4 (WCST). Psychological Assessment Resources; 2003.
  3. Milner B. Effect of Different Brain Lesions on Card Sorting. Archives of Neurology 1963; 9: 90-100.
  4. Greve KW, Stickle TR, Love J, Bianchini KJ, Stanford MS. Latent structure of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: a confirmatory factor analytic study. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 2005; 20: 355-364.
  5. Meyer-Lindenberg A, Miletich RS, Kohn PD, Esposito G, Carson RE, Quarantelli M, Weinberger DR, Berman KF (2002) Reduced prefrontal activity predicts exaggerated striatal dopaminergic function in schizophrenia. Nature Neuroscience, 5, 267-71.
  6. Berman KF, Ostrem JL, Randolph C et al. Physiological activation of a cortical network during performance of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: a positron emission tomography study. Neuropsychologia 1995; 33: 1027-1046.
  7. Cabeza R, Nyberg L. Imaging cognition II: An empirical review of 275 PET and fMRI studies. J Cogn Neurosci 2000; 12: 1-47.
  8. Cannon TD, Glahn DC, Kim J, Van Erp TG, Karlsgodt K, Cohen MS, Nuechterlein KH, Bava S, Shirinyan D., Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Activity During Maintenance and Manipulation of Information in Working Memory in Patients With Schizophrenia, Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005;62:1071-1080.
  9. Rossi A, Daneluzzo E, Tomassini A, Struglia F, Cavallaro R, Smeraldi E, Stratta P., The effect of verbalization strategy on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in schizophrenic patients receiving classical or atypical antipsychotics. BMC Psychiatry. 2006 Jan 26;6:3.

Further readingEdit

BooksEdit

  • Parks, R. W., & Levine, D. S. (1998). Neural network modeling of Wisconsin Card Sorting and verbal fluency tests: Applications with frontal lobe-damaged and Alzheimer's disease patients. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.


PapersEdit

  • Abbruzzese, M., Ferri, S., & Scarone, S. (1995). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder: No evidence for involvement of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: Psychiatry Research Vol 58(1) Sep 1995, 37-43.
  • Abbruzzese, M., Ferri, S., & Scarone, S. (1996). Performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in schizophrenia: Perseveration in clinical subtypes: Psychiatry Research Vol 64(1) Aug 1996, 27-33.
  • Abbruzzese, M., Ferri, S., & Scarone, S. (1997). The selective breakdown of frontal functions in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and in patients with schizophrenia: A double dissociation experimental finding: Neuropsychologia Vol 35(6) Jun 1997, 907-912.
  • Alevriadou, A., Katsarou, Z., Bostantjopoulou, S., Kiosseoglou, G., & Mentenopoulos, G. (1999). Wisconsin card sorting test variables in relation to motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 89(3, Pt 1) Dec 1999, 824-830.
  • Amos, A. (2000). A computational model of information processing in the frontal cortex and basal ganglia: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience Vol 12(3) May 2000, 505-519.
  • Angrino, S. O., & Panesso, I. C. (2007). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test for the study of attention deficit with hyperactivity, psychiatric disorders, autism and aging: Universitas Psychologica Vol 6(3) 2007, 637-648.
  • Arffa, S., Lovell, M., Podell, K., & Goldberg, E. (1998). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in above average and superior school children: Relationship to intelligence and age: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology Vol 13(8) Nov 1998, 713-720.
  • Arnett, P. A., Rao, S. M., Bernardin, L., Grafman, J., & et al. (1994). Relationship between frontal lobe lesions and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in patients with multiple sclerosis: Neurology Vol 44(3) Mar 1994, 420-425.
  • Artiola i Fortuny, L., & Heaton, R. K. (1996). Standard versus computerized administration of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Clinical Neuropsychologist Vol 10(4) Nov 1996, 419-424.
  • Ashendorf, L., & McCaffrey, R. J. (2008). Exploring age-related decline on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Clinical Neuropsychologist Vol 22(2) Mar 2008, 262-272.
  • Ashendorf, L., O'Bryant, S. E., & McCaffrey, R. J. (2003). Specificity of Malingering Detection Strategies in Older Adults Using the CVLT and WCST: Clinical Neuropsychologist Vol 17(2) May 2003, 25-262.
  • Axelrod, B. N. (2002). Are normative data from the 64-card version of the WCST comparable to the full WCST? : Clinical Neuropsychologist Vol 16(1) Feb 2002, 7-11.
  • Axelrod, B. N., Goldman, R. S., Heaton, R. K., Curtiss, G., & et al. (1996). Discriminability of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test using the standardization sample: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology Vol 18(3) Jun 1996, 338-342.
  • Axelrod, B. N., Goldman, R. S., Tompkins, L. M., & Jiron, C. C. (1994). Poor differential performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in schizophrenia, mood disorder, and traumatic brain injury: Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, & Behavioral Neurology Vol 7(1) Jan 1994, 20-24.
  • Axelrod, B. N., Greve, K. W., & Goldman, R. S. (1994). Comparison of four Wisconsin Card Sorting Test scoring guides with novice raters: Assessment Vol 1(2) Jun 1994, 115-121.
  • Axelrod, B. N., Jiron, C. C., & Henry, R. R. (1993). Performance of adults ages 20 to 90 on the abbreviated Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Clinical Neuropsychologist Vol 7(2) Apr 1993, 205-209.
  • Barcelo, F. (2001). Does the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test measure prefrontal function? : The Spanish Journal of Psychology Vol 4(1) May 2001, 79-100.
  • Barcelo, F., & Knight, R. T. (2002). Both random and perspective errors underlie WCST deficits in prefrontal patients: Neuropsychologia Vol 40(3) 2002, 349-356.
  • Barcelo, F., Munoz-Cespedes, J. M., Pozo, M. A., & Rubia, F. J. (2000). Attentional set shifting modulates the target P3b response in the Wisconsin card sorting test: Neuropsychologia Vol 38(10) 2000, 1342-1355.
  • Barcelo, F., & Rubia, F. J. (1998). Non-frontal P3b-like activity evoked by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Neuroreport: An International Journal for the Rapid Communication of Research in Neuroscience Vol 9(4) Mar 1998, 747-751.
  • Barcelo, F., Sanz, M., Molina, V., & Rubia, F. J. (1997). The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the assessment of frontal function: A validation study with event-related potentials: Neuropsychologia Vol 35(4) Apr 1997, 399-408.
  • Barnett, J. H., Jones, P. B., Robbins, T. W., & Muller, U. (2007). Effects of the catechol-O-methyltransferase Valsuperscript 1-sup-5-sup-8Met polymorphism on executive function: Meta-analysis of the Wisconsin Card Sort Test in schizophrenia and healthy controls: Molecular Psychiatry Vol 12(5) May 2007, 502-509.
  • Battaglia, M., Abbruzzese, M., Ferri, S., Scarone, S., & et al. (1994). An assessment of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test as an indicator of liability to schizophrenia: Schizophrenia Research Vol 14(1) Dec 1994, 39-45.
  • Beatty, W. W., Jocic, Z., Monson, N., & Katzung, V. M. (1994). Problem solving by schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients on the Wisconsin and California Card Sorting Tests: Neuropsychology Vol 8(1) Jan 1994, 49-54.
  • Beauvais, J. E., Woods, S. P., Delaney, R. C., & Fein, D. (2004). Development of a Tactile Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Rehabilitation Psychology Vol 49(4) Nov 2004, 282-287.
  • Bell, M. D., Greig, T. C., Kaplan, E., & Bryson, G. (1997). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test dimensions in schizophrenia: Factorial, predictive, and divergent validity: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology Vol 19(6) Dec 1997, 933-941.
  • Bellack, A. S., Blanchard, J. J., Murphy, P., & Podell, K. (1996). Generalization effects of training on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test for schizophrenia patients: Schizophrenia Research Vol 19(2,3) May 1996, 189-194.
  • Benge, J. F., Caroselli, J. S., & Temple, R. O. (2007). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Factor structure and relationship to productivity and supervision needs following severe traumatic brain injury: Brain Injury Vol 21(4) Apr 2007, 395-400.
  • Berman, K. F., Ostrem, J. L., Randolph, C., Gold, J., & et al. (1995). Physiological activation of a cortical network during performance of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: A positron emission tomography study: Neuropsychologia Vol 33(8) Aug 1995, 1027-1046.
  • Bernard, L. C., McGrath, M. J., & Houston, W. (1996). The differential effects of simulating malingering, closed head injury, and other CNS pathology on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Support for the "pattern of performance hypothesis." Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology Vol 11(3) May-Jun 1996, 231-245.
  • Berry, S. (1996). Diagrammatic procedure for scoring the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Clinical Neuropsychologist Vol 10(1) Feb 1996, 117-121.
  • Bijl, S., de Bruin, E. A., Bocker, K. B. E., Kenemans, J. L., & Verbaten, M. N. (2005). Chronic effects of social drinking in a card-sorting task: An event related potential study: Clinical Neurophysiology Vol 116(2) Feb 2005, 376-385.
  • Bondi, M. W., Monsch, A. U., Butters, N., Salmon, D. P., & et al. (1993). Utility of a modified version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in the detection of dementia of the Alzheimer type: Clinical Neuropsychologist Vol 7(2) Apr 1993, 161-170.
  • Bowden, S. C., Fowler, K. S., Bell, R. C., Whelan, G., Clifford, C. C., Ritter, A. J., et al. (1998). The reliability and internal validity of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation Vol 8(3) May 1998, 243-254.
  • Buchsbaum, B. R., Greer, S., Chang, W.-L., & Berman, K. F. (2005). Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies of the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Task and Component Processes: Human Brain Mapping Vol 25(1) May 2005, 35-45.
  • Buchsbaum, M. S., Trestman, R. L., Hazlett, E., Siegel, B. V., Jr., Schaefer, C. H., Luu-Hsia, C., et al. (1997). Regional cerebral blood flow during the Wisconsin Card Sort Test in schizotypal personality disorder: Schizophrenia Research Vol 27(1) Oct 1997, 21-28.
  • Burrows, S., & Lucas, M. D. (2000). Comparison of two tests of executive functioning: Journal of Genetic Psychology Vol 161(2) Jun 2000, 253-255.
  • Bustini, M., Stratta, P., Daneluzzo, E., Pollice, R., Prosperini, P., & Rossi, A. (1999). Tower of Hanoi and WCST performance in schizophrenia: Problem-solving capacity and clinical correlates: Journal of Psychiatric Research Vol 33(3) May-Jun 1999, 285-290.
  • Caffarra, P., Vezzadini, G., Dieci, F., Zonato, F., & Venneri, A. (2004). Modified Card Sorting Test: Normative Data: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology Vol 26(2) Apr 2004, 246-250.
  • Campana, A., Macciardi, F., Gambini, O., & Scarone, S. (1996). The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) performance in normal subjects: A twin study: Neuropsychobiology Vol 34(1) 1996, 14-17.
  • Catafau, A. M., Parellada, E., Lomena, F., Bernardo, M., Setoain, J., Catarineu, S., et al. (1998). Role of the cingulate gyrus during the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: A single photon emission computed tomography study in normal volunteers: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging Vol 83(2) Aug 1998, 67-74.
  • Channon, S. (1996). Executive dysfunction in depression: The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Journal of Affective Disorders 39(2) Jul 1996, 107-114.
  • Chase-Carmichael, C. A., Ris, M. D., Weber, A. M., & Schefft, B. K. (1999). Neurologic validity of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test with a pediatric population: Clinical Neuropsychologist Vol 13(4) Nov 1999, 405-413.
  • Cianchetti, C., Corona, S., Foscoliano, M., Contu, D., & Sannio-Fancello, G. (2007). Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (MCST, MWCST): Normative data in children 4-13 years old, according to classical and new types of scoring: Clinical Neuropsychologist Vol 21(3) Sep 2007, 456-478.
  • Cianchetti, C., Corona, S., Foscoliano, M., Scalas, F., & Sannio-Fancello, G. (2005). Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Proposal of a supplementary scoring method: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology Vol 20(4) Jun 2005, 555-558.
  • Cicek, M., & Nalcaci, E. (2001). Interhemispheric asymmetry of EEG alpha activity at rest and during the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Relations with performance: Biological Psychology Vol 58(1) Sep 2001, 75-88.
  • Cinan, S. (2006). Development of Inhibitory Control and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Turk Psikoloji Yazilari Vol 9(18) Dec 2006, 101-112.
  • Cinan, S., & Tanor, O. O. (2002). An attempt to discriminate different types of executive functions in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Memory Vol 10(4) Jul 2002, 277-289.
  • Coffey, D. M., Marmol, L., Schock, L., & Adams, W. (2005). The influence of acculturation on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test by Mexican Americans: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology Vol 20(6) Aug 2005, 795-803.
  • Corcoran, R., & Upton, D. (1993). A role for the hippocampus in card sorting? : Cortex Vol 29(2) Jun 1993, 293-304.
  • Corcoran, R., & Upton, D. (1996). "A role for the hippocampus in card sorting?": Response: Cortex Vol 32(1) Mar 1996, 187-189.
  • Cuesta, M. J., Peralta, V., Caro, F., & de Leon, J. (1995). Is poor insight in psychotic disorders associated with poor performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test? : American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 152(9) Sep 1995, 1380-1382.
  • Cuesta, M. J., Peralta, V., Caro, F., & de Leon, J. (1995). Schizophrenic syndrome and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test dimensions: Psychiatry Research Vol 58(1) Sep 1995, 45-51.
  • Cuesta, M. J., Peralta, V., Caro, F., & de Leon, J. (1996). "Is poor sight in psychotic disorders associated with poor performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test?": Correction: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 153(2) Feb 1996, 270.
  • de Zubicaray, G., & Ashton, R. (1996). Nelson's (1976) Modified Card Sorting Test: A review: Clinical Neuropsychologist Vol 10(3) Aug 1996, 245-254.
  • de Zubicaray, G., & Ashton, R. (1996). "A role for the hippocampus in card sorting?" A cautionary note: A comment to Corcoran and Upton: Cortex Vol 32(1) Mar 1996, 187-189.
  • Deicken, R. F., Merrin, E. L., Floyd, T. C., & Weiner, M. W. (1995). Correlation between left frontal phospholipids and Wisconsin Card Sort Test performance in schizophrenia: Schizophrenia Research Vol 14(2) Jan 1995, 177-181.
  • Demakis, G. J. (2003). A meta-analytic review of the sensitivity of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test to frontal and lateralized frontal brain damage: Neuropsychology Vol 17(2) Apr 2003, 255-264.
  • Deshpande, S. A., Lichtenberg, P. A., & Youngblade, L. (1997). Clinical utility of the modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Clinical Gerontologist Vol 17(3) 1997, 55-58.
  • Dias, R., Robbins, T. W., & Roberts, A. C. (1996). Primate analogue of the Wisconsin card sorting test: Effects of excitotoxic lesions of the prefrontal cortex in the marmoset: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 110(5) Oct 1996, 872-886.
  • Dieci, M., Vita, A., Silenzi, C., Caputo, A., Comazzi, M., Ferrari, L., et al. (1997). Non-selective impairment of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in patients with schizophrenia: Schizophrenia Research Vol 25(1) May 1997, 33-42.
  • Donders, J. (1999). Specificity of a malingering formula for the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Journal of Forensic Neuropsychology Vol 1(3) 1999, 35-42.
  • Donders, J., & Wildeboer, M. A. (2004). Validity of the WCST-64 After Traumatic Brain Injury in Children: Clinical Neuropsychologist Vol 18(4) Nov 2004, 521-527.
  • Eling, P., Derckx, K., & Maes, R. (2008). On the historical and conceptual background of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Brain and Cognition Vol 67(3) Aug 2008, 247-253.
  • Elvevag, B., & Goldberg, T. E. (1999). Commentary on Laws: Refining Laws--A rejoinder: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry Vol 4(1) Feb 1999, 33-35.
  • Everett, J., Lavoie, K., Gagnon, J.-F., & Gosselin, N. (2001). Performance of patients with schizophrenia on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST): Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience Vol 26(2) Mar 2001, 123-130.
  • Fallgatter, A. J., & Strik, W. K. (1998). Frontal brain activation during the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test assessed with two-channel near-infrared spectroscopy: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience Vol 248(5) 1998, 245-249.
  • Feldstein, S. N., Keller, F. R., Portman, R. E., Durham, R. L., Klebe, K. J., & Davis, H. P. (1999). A comparison of computerized and standard versions of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Clinical Neuropsychologist Vol 13(3) Aug 1999, 303-313.
  • Ferland, M. B., Ramsay, J., Engeland, C., & O'Hara, P. (1998). Comparison of the performance of normal individuals and survivors of traumatic brain injury on repeat administrations of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology Vol 20(4) Aug 1998, 473-482.
  • Fisher, N. J., DeLuca, J. W., & Rourke, B. P. (1997). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Halstead Category Test Performances of Children and adolescents who exhibit the syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: Child Neuropsychology Vol 3(1) Apr 1997, 61-70.
  • Fleck, D. E., Shear, P. K., Madore, M., & Strakowski, S. M. (2008). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in bipolar disorder: Effects of mood state and early course: Bipolar Disorders Vol 10(4) Jun 2008, 539-545.
  • Fristoe, N. M., Salthouse, T. A., & Woodard, J. L. (1997). Examination of age-related deficits on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Neuropsychology Vol 11(3) Jul 1997, 428-436.
  • Frith, C. (1999). Commentary on Laws: What are we trying to explain? : Cognitive Neuropsychiatry Vol 4(1) Feb 1999, 31-32.
  • Galic, S. (2007). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in differential diagnosis of schizophrenia and brain disorder: Suvremena Psihologija Vol 10(2) 2007, 223-236.
  • Gold, J. M., Carpenter, C., Randolph, C., Goldberg, T. E., & Weinberger, D. R. (1997). Auditory working memory and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in schizophrenia: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 54(2) Feb 1997, 159-165.
  • Goldberg, T. E., & Weinberger, D. R. (1994). Schizophrenia, training paradigms, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test redux: Schizophrenia Research Vol 11(3) Feb 1994, 291-296.
  • Golden, C. J., Kushner, T., Lee, B., & McMorrow, M. A. (1998). Searching for the meaning of the Category Test and the Wisconsin Card Sort Test: A comparative analysis: International Journal of Neuroscience Vol 93(1-2) 1998, 141-150.
  • Goldman, R. S., Axelrod, B. N., Heaton, R. K., Chelune, G. J., & et al. (1996). Latent structure of the WCST with the standardization samples: Assessment Vol 3(1) Mar 1996, 73-78.
  • Goldstein, B., Obrzut, J. E., John, C., Ledakis, G., & Armstrong, C. L. (2004). The impact of frontal and non-frontal brain tumor lesions on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance: Brain and Cognition Vol 54(2) 2004, 110-116.
  • Goldstein, G., Beers, S. R., & Shemansky, W. J. (1996). Neuropsychological differences between schizophrenic patients with heterogeneous Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance: Schizophrenia Research Vol 21(1) Jul 1996, 13-18.
  • Gonzalez-Hernandez, J. A., Pita-Alcorta, C., Cedeno, I., Bosch-Bayard, J., Galan-Garcia, L., Scherbaum, W. A., et al. (2002). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test synchronizes the prefrontal, temporal and posterior association cortex in different frequency ranges and extensions: Human Brain Mapping Vol 17(1) Sep 2002, 37-47.
  • Goshiki, T., & Miyahara, M. (2008). Effects of individual differences and irrelevant speech on WCST and Stroop test: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 51(1) Mar 2008, 28-45.
  • Greve, K. W. (1993). Can perseverative responses on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test be scored accurately? : Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology Vol 8(6) Nov-Dec 1993, 511-517.
  • Greve, K. W. (2001). The WCST-64: A standardized short-form of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Clinical Neuropsychologist Vol 15(2) May 2001, 228-234.
  • Greve, K. W., & Bianchini, K. J. (2002). Using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test to detect malingering: An analysis of the specificity of two methods in nonmalingering normal and patient samples: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology Vol 24(1) Feb 2002, 48-54.
  • Greve, K. W., Bianchini, K. J., Mathias, C. W., Houston, R. J., & Crouch, J. A. (2002). Detecting malingered performance with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: A preliminary investigation in traumatic brain injury: Clinical Neuropsychologist Vol 16(2) May 2002, 179-191.
  • Greve, K. W., Brooks, J., Crouch, J. A., Williams, M. C., & et al. (1997). Factorial structure of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: British Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 36(2) May 1997, 283-285.
  • Greve, K. W., Ingram, F., & Bianchini, K. J. (1998). Latent structure of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in a clinical sample: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology Vol 13(7) Oct 1998, 597-609.
  • Greve, K. W., Love, J. M., Sherwin, E., Mathias, C. W., Houston, R. J., & Brennan, A. (2002). Temporal stability of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in a chronic traumatic brain injury sample: Assessment Vol 9(3) Sep 2002, 271-277.
  • Greve, K. W., Love, J. M., Sherwin, E., Mathias, C. W., Ramzinski, P., & Levy, J. (2002). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in chronic severe traumatic brain injury: Factor structure and performance subgroups: Brain Injury Vol 16(1) Jan 2002, 29-40.
  • Greve, K. W., Stickle, T. R., Love, J. M., Bianchini, K. J., & Stanford, M. S. (2005). Latent structure of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: A confirmatory factor analytic study: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology Vol 20(3) May 2005, 355-364.
  • Greve, K. W., Williams, M. C., Haas, W. G., Littell, R. R., & Reinoso, C. (1996). The role of attention in Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology Vol 11(3) May-Jun 1996, 215-222.
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  • Hellman, S. G., Kern, R. S., Neilson, L. M., & Green, M. F. (1998). Monetary reinforcement and Wisconsin Card Sorting performance in schizophrenia: Why show me the money? : Schizophrenia Research Vol 34(1-2) Nov 1998, 67-75.
  • Henry, J. D. (2006). A meta-analytic review of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Verbal Fluency Performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry Vol 11(2) Mar 2006, 156-176.
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Additional materialEdit

BooksEdit

PapersEdit

DissertationsEdit

  • Ashendorf, L. (2006). Age-related decline on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Beauvais, J. E. (1999). Normative data on a Tactile Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in sighted and visually impaired populations. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Brown, M. L. (1999). Smooth pursuit tracking, volumetric MRI, and Wisconsin Card Sorting performance in first-break, adolescent schizophrenia. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Caulfield, J. B. (1996). An exploration of error response time variables as a neuropsychological marker in boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Clarke, K. A. (1998). The relationship of race and ethnicity to performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test with male veterans. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Coffey, D. M. (2004). The influence of acculturation on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test by Mexican Americans. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Dasilva, D. N. (1996). An analysis of the factor structure of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in psychiatric inpatients. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Davis, R. D. (1993). Performance on a modified version of the Wisconsin card sorting test as a function of intelligence: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Debeus, M. E. (1999). Electroencephalographic events during the wisconsin card sorting test. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Fortner, C. P. (1995). A comparison of neuropsychological functioning and social skills development for attention deficit hyperactivity disordered students. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Freyslinger, M. G. (1996). A comparison of instructional techniques in the remediation of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test deficits of chronic schizophrenic patients. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Godinez, D. (2008). The Wisconsin Card Sorting Task: An analysis of the construct validity, heritability, and association with the COMT Val158Met polymorphism. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Hammarlund, S. (2000). The role of cognitive dysfunction in psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Hildebrand, B. (1997). Neuropsychological predictors of academic success: Use of Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Trailmaking Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test as measures of academic success among community college students. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Koren, D. (1996). Heterogeneity of neuropsychological performance in schizophrenia: Correlates of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Long, J. F. (2000). Learning transfer in patients with schizophrenia: Implications for generalization effects and remediation of wcst deficits. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Lunn, D. J. (2001). Utilization of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in the diagnostic discrimination of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disorders in children. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Miller, A. D. (1998). Executive functions deficits in incarcerated adolescent sexual offenders as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Pochyly, J. M. (1998). A comparison of two forms of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test as measures of executive functioning in school-aged children. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Potterat, E. G. (1998). Measuring the density of executive impairment in patients with schizophrenia: The effects of strategy verbalization on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Sanders, J. F. (2001). A comparison of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Boston Naming Test with Native Americans. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Smith, H. B. (1995). The Milwaukee Card Sort Test as a neuropsychological measure of the presence or absence of brain damage in an inner city African American population. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Watson, T. D. (2006). Event-Related Potential correlates of cognitive operations in a modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Task. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Weatherly, G. E. (2002). Investigation of the factor structure of the wisconsin card sorting test using structural equation modeling. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Wolfe, P. R. (1993). A cognitive process approach to interpreting performance on the Booklet Category Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Woodruff, G. R. (1997). Unique and shared components of executive function as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Halstead Categories Test. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.

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