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Although there is similarity with the McClintock effect, the latter does not posit a role for male pheromones. In addition, there is little evidence for a functioning vomeronasal system (thought to be the sensory organ that initiates the Bruce, Vandenbergh, and Whitten effects) in humans. These differences, in putative stimulus and neural pathway (as well as species observed), stringently distinguishes the Whitten and McClintock effects.
- Whitten, W.K. (July 1956). Modification of the oestrous cycle of the mouse by external stimuli associated with the male. Journal of Endocrinology 13 (4): 399-404. Journal code: 0375363
- Whitten, WK (1957-12-21). Effect of exteroceptive factors on the oestrous cycle of mice. Nature 180 (4599): 1436.
- (August 1984)Studies of the male-originating pheromones involved in the Whitten effect and Bruce effect in mice 31 (1): 89-96.
- Whitten, W.K. (1966). Pheromones and mammalian reproduction. Advanced Reproductive Physiology (1): 155-177.
- Whitten, WK (1968-08-09). Estrus-inducing pheromone of male mice: transport by movement of air. Science 161 (841): 584-5.
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