Wernicke encephalopathy is a severe syndrome characterised by ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, confusion and loss of short-term memory. It is linked to damage to the medial thalamic nuclei, mammillary bodies, periaqueductal, and periventricular brainstem nuclei , and superior cerebellar vermis. in the brain, and is the result of inadequate intake or absorption of thiamine (Vitamin B1) coupled with continued carbohydrate ingestion. The most common cause of an onset is severe alcoholism, but it may occur due to other causes of malnutrition. Other causes of thiamine deficiency may be found in patients with carcinoma, chronic gastritis, or continuous vomiting. 
Wernicke encephalopathy onsets acutely, and usually presents with nystagmus, gaze palsies, ophthalmoplegia (especially of the abducens nerve, CN VI), gait ataxia, confusion, and short-term memory loss.
The classic triad for this disease is encephalopathy, ophthalmoplegia, and ataxia. Untreated, this condition may progress to Korsakoff's psychosis or coma. Despite its name, Wernicke's encephalopathy is not related to damage of the speech and language interpretation area named Wernicke's area (see Wernicke's aphasia). Instead the pathological changes in Wernicke's encephalopathy are concentrated in the mammillary bodies, cranial nerve nuclei III, IV, VI and VIII, as well as the thalamus, hypothalamus, periaquiductal grey, cerebellar vermis and the dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve. The ataxia and ophthalmoparesis relate to lesions in the oculomotor (ie IIIrd, IVth, and VIth nerves) and vestibular (ie VIIIth nerve) nuclei.
Treatment includes an intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) injection of thiamine, as well as the active exclusion of central nervous system (CNS) diseases or other metabolic disturbances. Patients are usually dehydrated, and so rehydration to restore blood volume should be started. If the condition is treated early, recovery may be rapid and complete.
If the patient is hypoglycaemic (common in alcoholism), a glucose infusion should always be preceded with thiamine infusion. Glucose depletes thiamine stores in the brain, acutely worsening Wernicke's encephalopathy.
- Karl Wernicke
- Wernicke's aphasia
- Human brain
- Korsakoff's syndrome
- Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
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