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Metabolism

Main article: Fluid balance

Water intake is necessary for all life on Earth. Humans can survive for several weeks without food, but for only a few days without water. A constant supply is needed to replenish the fluids lost through normal physiological activities, such as respiration, perspiration and urination and prevent dehydration. In terms of mineral nutrients intake, it is unclear what the drinking water contribution is. However, inorganic minerals generally enter surface water and ground water via storm water runoff or through the Earth's crust. Treatment processes also lead to the presence of some mineral nutrients. Examples include fluoride, calcium, zinc, manganese, phosphate, and sodium compounds.[1] Water generated from the biochemical metabolism of nutrients provides a significant proportion of the daily water requirements for some arthropods and desert animals, but provides only a small fraction of a human's necessary intake. There are a variety of trace elements present in virtually all potable water, some of which play a role in metabolism. For example sodium, potassium and chloride are common chemicals found in small quantities in most waters, and these elements play a role (not necessarily major) in body metabolism. Other elements such as fluoride, while beneficial in low concentrations, can cause dental problems and other issues when present at high levels. Water is essential for the growth and maintenance of our bodies, as it is involved in a number of biological processes.

Requirement

The exact amount of water a human needs is highly individual, as it depends on the condition of the subject, the amount of physical exercise, and on the environmental temperature and humidity.[2] In the US, the reference daily intake (RDI) for water is 3.7 litres per day for human males older than 18, and 2.7 litres for human females older than 18[3] including water contained in food, beverages, and drinking water. Food contributes 0.5 to 1 litre, and the metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrates produces another 0.25 to 0.4 litres[4], which means that 2 to 3 litres of water for men and 1 to 2 litres of water for women should be taken in as fluid in order to meet the RDI. Because in general, RDI values incorporate a safety margin to account for individual variations, it does not mean that this amount is necessary for every person. The folk wisdom that everyone should drink two litres (68 ounces, or about eight 8-oz glasses) of water per day is not supported by scientific research. Various reviews of all the scientific literature on the topic performed in 2002 and 2008 could not find any solid scientific evidence that recommended drinking eight glasses of water per day.[5] [6] [7] For example, people in hotter climates will require greater water intake than those in cooler climates. An individual's thirst provides a better guide for how much water they require rather than a specific, fixed number. A more flexible guideline is that a normal person should urinate 4 times per day, and the urine should be a light yellow color. [How to reference and link to summary or text] Profuse sweating can increase the need for electrolyte (salt) replacement. Water intoxication (which results in hyponatremia), the process of consuming too much water too quickly, can be fatal.

The human kidneys will normally adjust to varying levels of water intake. If a person suddenly increases water intake, the kidneys will produce more diluted urine, even if the person did not happen to consume water excessively.[How to reference and link to summary or text] The kidneys will require time to adjust to the new water intake level. This can cause someone who drinks a lot of water to become dehydrated more easily than someone who routinely drinks less. Survival classes recommend that someone who expects to be in an environment with little water (such as a desert), not to drink water excessively, but rather to drink gradually decreasing amounts for several days before their trip to accustom the kidneys to making concentrated urine. Not using this method can, and has been known to be, fatal.[8]

Birds

Water is needed by many birds although their mode of excretion and lack of sweat glands reduces the physiological demands.[9] Some desert birds can obtain their water needs entirely from moisture in their food. They may also have other adaptations such as allowing their body temperature to rise, saving on moisture loss from evaporative cooling or panting.[10] Seabirds can drink seawater and have salt glands inside the head that eliminate excess salt out of the nostrils.[11]

See also

References

  1. World Health Organization (WHO). Geneva, Switzerland. Joyce Morrissey Donohue, Charles O. Abernathy, Peter Lassovszky, George Hallberg. "The contribution of drinking-water to total dietary intakes of selected trace mineral nutrients in the United States." Draft, August 2004.
  2. Maton, Anthea bj; Jean Hopkins, Charles William McLaughlin, Susan Johnson, Maryanna Quon Warner, David LaHart, Jill D. Wright (1993). Human Biology and Health, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall.
  3. US daily reference intake values
  4. Swedish DFA (in Swedish)
  5. Research debunks health value of guzzling water. Reuters, April 2008.
  6. H. Valtin, Drink at least eight glasses of water a day." Really? Is there scientific evidence for "8 × 8"? Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 283: R993-R1004, 2002.
  7. Dan Negoianu and Stanley Goldfarb. Just add water. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 19: 1041-1043, 2008.
  8. Man Dies of Thirst During Survival Test, San Francisco Chronicle, May 2, 2007
  9. Engel, Sophia Barbara (2005). Racing the wind: Water economy and energy expenditure in avian endurance flight, University of Groningen.
  10. Tieleman, B.I. (January 1999). The role of hyperthermia in the water economy of desert birds. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 72 (1): 87–100.
  11. Schmidt-Nielsen, Knut (1 May 1960). The Salt-Secreting Gland of Marine Birds. Circulation 21 (5): 955–967.

Further reading

  • Anderson, W. M., & Dawson, J. (1967). Water Distribution in Affective Disorders: Journal of Psychosomatic Research 11(3) 1967, 291-298.
  • Ashida, S. (1968). The Effects of Water and Food Deprivation on the Heart Rate of Rats: Psychonomic Science Vol 11(7) 1968, 245-246.
  • Baenninger, R. (1968). Fighting by Betta Splendens; Effects on Aggressive Displaying by Conspecifics: Psychonomic Science Vol 10(5) 1968, 185-186.
  • Bartoshuk, L. M. (1968). Water Taste in Man: Perception & Psychophysics 3(1-B) 1968, 69-72.
  • Beck, R. C. (1967). Clearance of Ingested Sucrose Solutions from the Stomach and Intestine of the Rat: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 64(2) Oct 1967, 243-249.
  • Beck, R. C., & Brooks, C. I. (1967). Water Preference as a Function of Water Deprivation: Psychological Reports 21(3) 1967, 911-912.
  • Besch, N. F., & Van Dyne, G. C. (1967). Effects of Septal Lesions Varying in Locus and Size Upon Consummatory Behavior in the Rat: Psychonomic Bulletin 1(2) 1967, 25-26.
  • Boice, R., & Boice, C. (1968). Water Intake Following Capture and Deprivation in Southwestern Rodents: Psychonomic Science Vol 12(3) 1968, 104.
  • Bokert, E. G. (1968). The Effects of Thirst and a Related Verbal Stimulus on Dream Reports: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bolles, R. C. (1968). Anticipatory General Activity in Thirsty Rats: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 65(3, Pt 1) Jun 1968, 511-513.
  • Booth, D. A. (1968). Effects of Intrahypothalamic Glucose Injection on Eating and Drinking Elicited by Insulin: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 65(1) Feb 1968, 13-16.
  • Boshka, S. C., & Weisman, H. M. (1967). Apparatus Note: on the Preparation of Glass Drinking Tubes for Measurement of Consumed Volume in Animal Research: Psychological Record 17(2) 1967, 249-250.
  • Brookshire, K. H. (1967). Inversion of Discrete Trial Water-Saline Preference as a Function of Prior Drinking Experience: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 63(1) Feb 1967, 24-27.
  • Brookshire, K. H. (1967). Reinforcement Value of Water and Hypotonic Saline in Discrete Trial Situations: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 63(1) Feb 1967, 145-148.
  • Bruvold, W. H. (1968). Scales for Rating the Taste of Water: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 52(3) Jun 1968, 245-253.
  • Burks, C. D. (1967). Drinking Response Distributions Associated with a 4% Sucrose Ffi Food Schedule: Psychonomic Science Vol 8(1) 1967, 13-14.
  • Campbell, B. A., & Lynch, G. S. (1968). Influence of Hunger and Thirst on the Relationship between Spontaneous Activity and Body Temperature: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 65(3, Pt 1) Jun 1968, 492-498.
  • Capretta, P. J. (1967). Effects of Hunger and Thirst Levels During Sugar and Sugar-Saccharin Consumption on Later Preferences: Psychonomic Science Vol 9(7-B) 1967, 441-442.
  • Carey, R. J. (1967). Independence of Effects of Septal Ablations on Water Intake and Response Inhibition: Psychonomic Science Vol 8(1) 1967, 3-4.
  • Clark, R. H., & Bremner, F. J. (1967). Toward an Electro-Physiological Identification of a Primary Drive Factor: Psychonomic Science Vol 8(3) 1967, 113-114.
  • Cohen, J. S., & Stettner, L. J. (1968). Effect of Deprivation Level on Responses to Novel Alleys in Albino Rats: Psychonomic Science Vol 11(3) 1968, 103-104.
  • Collier, G., Levitsky, D., & Weinberg, C. (1968). Body Weight Loss as a Measure of Motivation in Thirsty Guinea Pigs: Psychonomic Science Vol 10(1) 1968, 27-28.
  • Corbit, J. (1967). Effect of Hypervolemia on Drinking in the Rat: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 64(2) Oct 1967, 250-255.
  • Coury, J. N. (1967). Neural Correlates of Food and Water Intake in the Rat: Science 156(3783) 1967, 1763-1765.
  • Coury, J. N. (1967). Neural Correlates of Food Intake in the Rat: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Crow, L. T. (1968). Maintenance and Measurement of Water-Regulatory Variables through Controlled Feeding: Psychological Reports 22(3, PT 3) 1968, 1125-1128.
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  • Essig, C. G. (1968). Increased Water Consumption Following Forced Drinking of Alcohol in Rats: Psychopharmacologia 12(4) 1968, 333-337.
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  • Feider, A. (1967). Feedback Control of Carbachol-Induced Drinking: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 64(2) Oct 1967, 336-338.
  • Fuller, J. L., & Cooper, C. W. (1967). Saccharin Reverses the Effect of Food Deprivation Upon Fluid Intake in Mice: Animal Behaviour 15(4) 1967, 403-408.
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  • Hawkins, T. D. (1967). Effects on Schedule-Induced Polydipsia and Variable-Interval Bar-Press Performance: Psychonomic Bulletin 1(2) 1967, 34.
  • Hsiao, S. (1967). Saline Drinking Effects on Food and Water Intake in Rats: Psychological Reports 21(3) 1967, 1025-1028.
  • Hsiao, S., & Rasmussen, C. (1968). Why Does a Variety of Measures of Thirst Yield Different Results? an Explanation Developed by Studying the Effect of an Aversive Factor on Liquid Intake of Rats: Psychonomic Science Vol 10(3) 1968, 97-98.
  • Hulse, S. H. (1967). Licking in Rats: Some Effects of Stimulus Intensity on the Unconditioned Reflex: Psychonomic Bulletin 1(2) 1967, 34.
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  • Huston, J. P. (1968). Extinction under Intracranial and Conventional Reinforcement: Effect of a Correlated Counter: Psychonomic Science Vol 11(1) 1968, 25-26.
  • Irwin, S., Banuazizi, A., Kalsner, S., & Curtis, A. (1968). One Trial Learning in the Mouse: I. Its Characteristics and Modification by Experimental-Seasonal Variables: Psychopharmacologia 12(4) 1968, 286-302.
  • Jackson, D. E. (1967). Excessive Drinking in the Rat: Excessive or Normal? : Psychological Reports 20(3, PT 1) 1967, 740.
  • Kakolewski, J. W., Cox, V. C., & Valenstein, E. S. (1968). The Consumption of a Saccharin-Glucose Solution by Satiated and Food-Deprived Immature Rats: Psychonomic Science Vol 11(9) 1968, 317-318.
  • Kelly, T. L., Neri, D. F., Grill, J. T., Ryman, D., Hunt, P. D., Dijk, D.-J., et al. (1999). Nonentrained circadian rhythms of melatonin in submariners scheduled to an 18-hour day: Journal of Biological Rhythms Vol 14(3) Jun 1999, 190-196.
  • Khavari, K. A. (1967). Suppression of Drinking by Parenteral Administration of Carbachol: Psychonomic Science Vol 9(11) 1967, 599-600.
  • Kissileff, H. R. (1967). The Control of Water Intake in the Rat Recovered from Lateral Hypothalamic Lesions: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kutscher, C. (1967). Inhibition of Drinking in Thirsty Rats by Food Deprivation: Measures of Potential Internal Stimuli: Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association 2 1967, 113-114.
  • Kutscher, C. L., Stillman, R. D., & Weiss, I. P. (1968). Food-Restriction Polydipsia in Hamsters: Psychonomic Science Vol 11(7) 1968, 243-244.
  • Leiken, S. J., & Caplan, H. (1967). Psychogenic Polydipsia: American Journal of Psychiatry 123(12) 1967, 1573-1576.
  • Levitt, R. A. (1968). Anticholinergic Brain Stimulation and Thirst Induced by 23 Hour Water Deprivation: Psychonomic Science Vol 12(1) 1968, 21-22.
  • Levitt, R. A., Krikstone, B., & Fisher, A. E. (1967). Spreading Depression and Thirst: Psychonomic Bulletin 1(2) 1967, 23.
  • Lubar, J. F., Boyce, B. A., & Schaefer, C. F. (1968). Etiology of Polydipsia and Polyuria in Rats with Septal Lesions: Physiology & Behavior 3(2) 1968, 289-292.
  • Macphail, E. M. (1968). Effects of Intracranial Cholinergic Stimulation in Rats on Drinking, Eeg, and Heart Rate: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 65(1) Feb 1968, 42-49.
  • McFarland, D. J. (1967). Phase Relationships between Feeding and Drinking in the Barbary Dove: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 63(2) Apr 1967, 208-213.
  • Mietkiewski, K., & Kozik, M. A. (1967). Neurosecretory Activity of Rabbit Hypothalamic Nuclei after Insulin Shock: Polish Endocrinology 18(3-4) 1967, 127-138.
  • Miles, R. C. (1967). Effects of Extreme Deprivation on Probability and Rate Measures of Learned Performance: Psychonomic Bulletin 1(2) 1967, 34.
  • Miller, N. E., & Carmona, A. (1967). Modification of a Visceral Response, Salivation in Thirsty Dogs, by Instrumental Training with Water Reward: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 63(1) Feb 1967, 1-6.
  • Mogenson, G. J., & Stevenson, J. A. (1967). Drinking Induced by Electrical Stimulation of the Lateral Hypothalamus: Experimental Neurology 17(2) 1967, 119-127.
  • Morrison, S. D. (1968). Regulation of Water Intake by Rats Deprived of Food: Physiology & Behavior 3(1) 1968, 75-81.
  • Morrow, J. E., & Smithson, B. L. (1968). Learning in an Invertebrate with a Positive Reinforcement of Water: Psychological Reports 22(3, PT 2) 1968, 1203-1204.
  • Myers, R. D., & Cicero, T. J. (1968). Are the Cerebral Ventricles Involved in Thirst Produced by a Cholinergic Substance? : Psychonomic Science Vol 10(3) 1968, 93-94.
  • Myznikov, I. L. (1995). Information model of adaptation development: Human Physiology Vol 21(4) Jul-Aug 1995, 352-355.
  • Oatley, K. (1967). Drinking in Response to Salt Injections at Different Times of Day: Psychonomic Science Vol 9(7-B) 1967, 439-440.
  • Owings, D. H., Haerer, H. A., & Lockard, R. B. (1967). Sucrose Intake Functions of Rat and Cockroach for Single and Six Solution Presentations: Psychonomic Science Vol 7(3) 1967, 125-127.
  • Parker, S. W., & Feldman, S. M. (1967). Effect of Mesencephalic Lesions on Feeding Behavior in Rats: Experimental Neurology 17(3) 1967, 313-326.
  • Phillips, A. G., & Mogenson, G. J. (1968). Effects of Unilateral Hypothalamic Lesions on Drinking and Self-Stimulation in the Rat: Psychonomic Science Vol 10(9) 1968, 307-308.
  • Pizzi, W. J., & Lorens, S. A. (1967). Effects of Lesions in the Amygdalo-Hippocampo-Septal System on Food and Water Intake in the Rat: Psychonomic Science Vol 7(5) 1967, 187-188.
  • Reynierse, J. H., & Spanier, D. (1968). Excessive Drinking in Rats' Adaptation to the Schedule of Feeding: Psychonomic Science Vol 10(3) 1968, 95-96.
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