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(New page: {{BioPsy}} '''Warren Sturgis McCulloch''' (November 16, 1899September 24, 1969) was an American neurophysiologist and cybernetician. ...)
 
 
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{{BioPsy}}
'''Warren Sturgis McCulloch''' ([[November 16]], [[1899]][[September 24]], [[1969]]) was an [[United States|American]] neurophysiologist and [[cybernetics|cybernetician]].
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'''Warren Sturgis McCulloch''' (November 16, 1898 – September 24, 1969) was an American neurophysiologist and [[cybernetics|cybernetician]], known for his work on the foundation for certain brain theories and his contribution to the cybernetics movement.<ref name = "KA04"> Ken Aizawa (2004), "[http://philosophy.uwaterloo.ca/MindDict/mcculloch.html McCulloch, Warren Sturgis]". In: Dictonary of the Philosophy of Mind. Retrieved 17 may 2008.</ref>
   
Warren Sturgis McCulloch was born in [[Orange, New Jersey|Orange]], [[New Jersey]] and studied at [[Yale University|Yale]] (philosophy and psychology, A.B. degree in 1921) and [[Columbia University|Columbia]] (psychology, M.A. degree in 1923). Receiving his MD in 1927 from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York he undertook an internship at [[Bellevue Hospital]], [[New York]] before returning to academia in 1934.
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== Biography ==
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Warren Sturgis McCulloch was born in Orange, New Jersey, in 1898. He attended Haverford College and studied philosophy and psychology at [[Yale University|Yale]], where he received an A.B. degree in 1921. He continued to study psychology at [[Columbia University|Columbia]] and received a M.A. degree in 1923. Receiving his MD in 1927 from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in [[New York]], he undertook an internship at Bellevue Hospital, New York, before returning to academia in 1934.
   
He is remembered for his work with [[Dusser de Barenne]] ([[Yale University|Yale]]) and later [[Walter Pitts]] ([[University of Chicago]]) which provided the foundation for certain brain theories in a number of classic papers, including "[[A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity]]" (1943) and "How We Know Universals: The Perception of Auditory and Visual Forms" (1947), both in the ''[[Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics]]''. In the 1943 paper they attempted to demonstrate that a [[Turing machine]] program could be implemented in a finite network of ''formal'' [[neuron]]s, (in the event, the Turing Machine contains their model of the brain, but the converse is not true; see S.C. Kleene, "Representations of Events in Nerve Nets and Finite Automata") that the neuron was the base logic unit of the brain. In the 1947 paper they offered approaches to designing "nervous nets" to recognize visual inputs despite changes in orientation or size.
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He worked at the Laboratory for Neurophysiology at Yale University from 1934 to 1941, before moving to the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Illinois, Chicago.
   
From 1952 he worked at the [[Massachusetts Institute of Technology|MIT]] [[Research Laboratory of Electronics]], working primarily on [[neural network]] modelling. His team examined the visual system of the [[frog]] in consideration of McCulloch's 1947 paper, discovering that the eye provides the brain with information that is already, to a degree, organized and interpreted, instead of simply transmitting an image. McCulloch also posited the concept of "poker chip" [[reticular formation]]s as to how the brain deals with contradictory information in a democratic, [[somatotopical]] neural network. His principle of [http://stinet.dtic.mil/oai/oai?&verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=AD0651207 "Redundancy of Potential Command"] was developed by [[Heinz von Foerster|von Forster]] and [[Gordon Pask|Pask]] in their study of [[Self-organization]].
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From 1952 he worked at the [[Massachusetts Institute of Technology|MIT]] Research Laboratory of Electronics. He also worked at Yale University and later at the [[University of Chicago]].
   
He was a founder member of the [[American Society for Cybernetics]] and its first president during 1967–1968. He was a mentor to the British [[operations research]] pioneer [[Stafford Beer]].
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He was a founding member of the [[American Society for Cybernetics]] and its second president during 1967–1968. He was a mentor to the British [[operations research]] pioneer [[Stafford Beer]].
   
He met [[Alan Turing]] once, but Turing dismissed him as a 'charlatan'.
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Warren McCulloch had a remarkable range of interests and talents. In addition to his scientific contributions he wrote poetry (sonnets), and he designed and engineered buildings and a dam at his farm in Old Lyme, Connecticut. He died in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1969.
   
Warren McCulloch had a remarkable range of interests and talents. In addition to his scientific contributions he wrote poetry ([[sonnet]]s), and he designed and engineered buildings and a dam at his farm in [[Old Lyme]], Connecticut. He died in [[Cambridge, Massachusetts|Cambridge]] in 1969. His papers now reside in the manuscripts collection of the [[American Philosophical Society]].
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== Work ==
  +
He is remembered for his work with [[Dusser de Barenne]] from [[Yale University|Yale]] and later with [[Walter Pitts]] from the [[University of Chicago]]. Here he provided the foundation for certain brain theories in a number of classic papers, including "A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity" (1943) and "How We Know Universals: The Perception of Auditory and Visual Forms" (1947), both published in the Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics. The former is "widely credited with being a seminal contribution to neural network theory, the theory of automata, the theory of computation, and cybernetics".<ref name = "KA04"/>
   
==References==
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=== Neural network modelling ===
* ''New York Times'' (1969), Obituaries, September 25.
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In the 1943 paper they attempted to demonstrate that a [[Turing machine]] program could be implemented in a finite network of ''formal'' [[neuron]]s, (in the event, the Turing Machine contains their model of the brain, but the converse is not true<ref>see: S.C. Kleene, "Representations of Events in Nerve Nets and Finite Automata"</ref>) that the neuron was the base logic unit of the brain. In the 1947 paper they offered approaches to designing "nervous nets" to recognize visual inputs despite changes in orientation or size.
* McCulloch, Warren S. (1965), ''Embodiments of Mind'', MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
 
   
  +
From 1952 he worked at the [[Massachusetts Institute of Technology|MIT]] Research Laboratory of Electronics, working primarily on [[neural network]] modelling. His team examined the visual system of the [[frog]] in consideration of McCulloch's 1947 paper, discovering that the eye provides the brain with information that is already, to a degree, organized and interpreted, instead of simply transmitting an image.
   
{{Template:Systems}}
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=== Reticular formation ===
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McCulloch also posited the concept of "poker chip" [[reticular formation]]s as to how the brain deals with contradictory information in a democratic, somatotopical neural network. His principle of "Redundancy of Potential Command"<ref>[http://stinet.dtic.mil/oai/oai?&verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=AD0651207 Some Mechanisms For A Theory of the Reticular Formation<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> was developed by [[Heinz von Foerster|von Forster]] and [[Gordon Pask|Pask]] in their study of [[Self-organization]].{{Citation needed|date=May 2008}}
   
[[Category:1899 births|MacCulloch, Warren Sturgis]]
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== Publications ==
[[Category:1969 deaths|MacCulloch, Warren Sturgis]]
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McCulloch wrote a book and several articles:<ref>His papers now reside in the manuscripts collection of the [[American Philosophical Society]].</ref>
[[Category:Neuroscientists|Warren McCulloch]]
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* 1965, ''Embodiments of Mind''. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
[[Category:People from New Jersey|McCulloch, Warren Sturgis]]
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* 1993, ''The complete works of Warren S. McCulloch''. Intersystems Publications: Salinas, CA.
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Articles, a selection:
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* 1943, "A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity". With: [[Walter Pitts]]. In: ''Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics'' Vol 5, pp 115–133.
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* 1945, "A Heterarchy of Values Determined by the Topology of Nervous Nets". In: ''Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics'', 7, 1945, 89-93.
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* 1959, [http://jerome.lettvin.info/lettvin/Jerome/WhatTheFrogsEyeTellsTheFrogsBrain.pdf "What The Frog's Eye Tells The Frog's Brain"]. With [[Jerome Lettvin]], [[Humberto Maturana|H.R. Maturana]] and W.H. Pitts In: ''Proc. of the I. R. E.'' Vol 47 (11).
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* 1969, [http://www.cyberneticians.com/materials/mcculloch-recollections.pdf. "Recollections of the Many Sources of Cybernetics"], publiced in: ASC FORUM Volume VI, Number 2 -Summer 1974.
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Papers Published by the Chicago Literary Club:
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* 1945, [http://www.chilit.org/Published%20Papers/48.%20McCulloch%20--%20Word.PDF "One Word After Another"].
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* 1959, [http://www.chilit.org/Published%20Papers/56.%20McCulloch%20--%20Delusion.PDF "The Past of a Delusion"].
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* 1959, [http://www.chilit.org/Published%20Papers/66.%20McCulloch%20--%20Natural%20Fit.PDF "The Natural Fit"].
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== References ==
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{{Reflist}}
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== Further reading ==
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* ''New York Times'' (1969), Obituaries, September 25.
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* Crevier, Daniel (1993), ''AI: The Tumultuous Search for Artificial Intelligence'', BasicBooks, New York, NY.
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{{Cybernetics}}
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{{DEFAULTSORT:Macculloch, Warren Sturgis}}
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[[Category:1899 births]]
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[[Category:1969 deaths]]
 
[[Category:Cyberneticists]]
 
[[Category:Cyberneticists]]
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[[Category:History of artificial intelligence]]
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[[Category:Neuroscientists]]
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[[Category:Systems scientists]]
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Warren Sturgis McCulloch (November 16, 1898 – September 24, 1969) was an American neurophysiologist and cybernetician, known for his work on the foundation for certain brain theories and his contribution to the cybernetics movement.[1]

Biography Edit

Warren Sturgis McCulloch was born in Orange, New Jersey, in 1898. He attended Haverford College and studied philosophy and psychology at Yale, where he received an A.B. degree in 1921. He continued to study psychology at Columbia and received a M.A. degree in 1923. Receiving his MD in 1927 from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York, he undertook an internship at Bellevue Hospital, New York, before returning to academia in 1934.

He worked at the Laboratory for Neurophysiology at Yale University from 1934 to 1941, before moving to the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Illinois, Chicago.

From 1952 he worked at the MIT Research Laboratory of Electronics. He also worked at Yale University and later at the University of Chicago.

He was a founding member of the American Society for Cybernetics and its second president during 1967–1968. He was a mentor to the British operations research pioneer Stafford Beer.

Warren McCulloch had a remarkable range of interests and talents. In addition to his scientific contributions he wrote poetry (sonnets), and he designed and engineered buildings and a dam at his farm in Old Lyme, Connecticut. He died in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1969.

Work Edit

He is remembered for his work with Dusser de Barenne from Yale and later with Walter Pitts from the University of Chicago. Here he provided the foundation for certain brain theories in a number of classic papers, including "A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity" (1943) and "How We Know Universals: The Perception of Auditory and Visual Forms" (1947), both published in the Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics. The former is "widely credited with being a seminal contribution to neural network theory, the theory of automata, the theory of computation, and cybernetics".[1]

Neural network modelling Edit

In the 1943 paper they attempted to demonstrate that a Turing machine program could be implemented in a finite network of formal neurons, (in the event, the Turing Machine contains their model of the brain, but the converse is not true[2]) that the neuron was the base logic unit of the brain. In the 1947 paper they offered approaches to designing "nervous nets" to recognize visual inputs despite changes in orientation or size.

From 1952 he worked at the MIT Research Laboratory of Electronics, working primarily on neural network modelling. His team examined the visual system of the frog in consideration of McCulloch's 1947 paper, discovering that the eye provides the brain with information that is already, to a degree, organized and interpreted, instead of simply transmitting an image.

Reticular formation Edit

McCulloch also posited the concept of "poker chip" reticular formations as to how the brain deals with contradictory information in a democratic, somatotopical neural network. His principle of "Redundancy of Potential Command"[3] was developed by von Forster and Pask in their study of Self-organization.[citation needed]

Publications Edit

McCulloch wrote a book and several articles:[4]

  • 1965, Embodiments of Mind. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
  • 1993, The complete works of Warren S. McCulloch. Intersystems Publications: Salinas, CA.

Articles, a selection:

Papers Published by the Chicago Literary Club:

References Edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Ken Aizawa (2004), "McCulloch, Warren Sturgis". In: Dictonary of the Philosophy of Mind. Retrieved 17 may 2008.
  2. see: S.C. Kleene, "Representations of Events in Nerve Nets and Finite Automata"
  3. Some Mechanisms For A Theory of the Reticular Formation
  4. His papers now reside in the manuscripts collection of the American Philosophical Society.

Further reading Edit

  • New York Times (1969), Obituaries, September 25.
  • Crevier, Daniel (1993), AI: The Tumultuous Search for Artificial Intelligence, BasicBooks, New York, NY.
Edit General subfields and scientists in Cybernetics
K1 Polycontexturality, Second-order cybernetics
K2 Catastrophe theory, Connectionism, Control theory, Decision theory, Information theory, Semiotics, Synergetics, Sociosynergetics, Systems theory
K3 Biological cybernetics, Biomedical cybernetics, Biorobotics, Computational neuroscience, Homeostasis, Medical cybernetics, Neuro cybernetics, Sociocybernetics
Cyberneticians William Ross Ashby, Claude Bernard, Valentin Braitenberg, Ludwig von Bertalanffy, George S. Chandy, Joseph J. DiStefano III, Heinz von Foerster, Charles François, Jay Forrester, Buckminster Fuller, Ernst von Glasersfeld, Francis Heylighen, Erich von Holst, Stuart Kauffman, Sergei P. Kurdyumov, Niklas Luhmann, Warren McCulloch, Humberto Maturana, Horst Mittelstaedt, Talcott Parsons, Walter Pitts, Alfred Radcliffe-Brown, Robert Trappl, Valentin Turchin, Francisco Varela, Frederic Vester, John N. Warfield, Kevin Warwick, Norbert Wiener


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