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Social Processes: Methodology · Types of test

The WHO-Five Well-being Index was derived from a larger rating scale developed for a WHO project on quality of life in patients suffering from diabetes (WHO 1990). During the first psychometric evaluation, 10 of the original 28 items were selected due to the homogeneity they had shown across the various European countries participating in this study [1]

Because positive psychological well-being has to include positively worded items only, these 10 items were then reduced to five items (WHO-Five) which still covered positive mood (good spirits, relaxation), vitality (being active and waking up fresh and rested), and general interests (being interested in things)[2] [3]


  1. Bech P, Gudex C, Staehr Johansen K. The WHO (Ten) Well-Being Index: Validation in Diabetes. Psychother Psychosom 1996; 65: 183-190
  2. Bech P. Quality of life in the psychiatric patient. London: Mosby-Wolfe 1998
  3. Bech P. Male depression: stress and aggression as pathways to major depression. In: Dawson A and Tylee A (eds.) Depression: Social and economic timebomb. London: BMJ Books 2001, pp 63-66

Further readingEdit

  • Bech P. Rating scales for psychopathology, health status and quality of life. A compendium on documentation in accordance with the DSM-III-R and WHO systems. Springer: Berlin 1993.
  • World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe and the International Diabetes Federation, Europe. Diabetes mellitus in Europe: a problem at all ages and in all countries. A model for prevention and self care. Meeting. Giorn Ital Diabetol 1990; 10 (suppl).

External linksEdit

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