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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
|Voiced pharyngeal fricative|
|Voiced pharyngeal approximant|
The voiced pharyngeal approximant or fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʕ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is ?\.
Although traditionally placed in the fricative row of the IPA chart, ⟨ʕ⟩ is usually an approximant. The IPA symbol itself is ambiguous, but no language is known to have a distinct fricative and approximant at this place of articulation. The approximant is sometimes specified as ⟨ʕ̞⟩ or as ⟨ɑ̯⟩.
Features of the voiced pharyngeal approximant/fricative:
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the central–lateral dichotomy does not apply.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
Pharyngeal consonants are not widespread. Sometimes, a pharyngeal approximant develops from a uvular approximant, as with the rhotic of Danish when it precedes [ɑ]. Many languages claiming to have pharyngeal fricatives or approximants turn out on closer inspection to have epiglottal consonants instead. For example, the candidate ʕ sound in Arabic and standard Hebrew (not modern Hebrew — Israelis of eastern European background generally pronounce this as a glottal stop) has been variously described as a voiced epiglottal fricative, an epiglottal approximant, or a pharyngealized glottal stop.
|Berber||Kabyle||ɛemmi||[ʕəmːi]||'my (paternal) uncle '||represented as ⟨â⟩ in most other Berber languages|
|Hebrew||עִבְרִית||align="center"|[ʕivˈɾit]||'Hebrew language'||Oriental pronunciation; more commonly pronounced Template:IPAblink. See Modern Hebrew phonology|
|Kurdish||‘ewr||[ʕɑwr]||'cloud'||Both Sorani and Kurmanji dialects have this sound|
|Somali||caadi||[ʕaːdi]||'normal'||See Somali phonology|
|Syriac||Turoyo||ܐܰܪܥܳܐ||[arʕo]||'earth (planet)'||ʕ is often not pronounced in Eastern Syriac varieties.|
- Bonafont, Door Rosa (2006), Guia de conversa universitaria amazic-catala/Tamazight-Takatalant amalal usiwel asdawan, University of Barcelona, http://books.google.com/books?id=cG4F8x62X4EC&dq
- Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996), The Sounds of the World's Languages, Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 0-631-19815-6
- Thelwall, Robin (1990), "Illustrations of the IPA: Arabic", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 20 (2): 37–41
International Phonetic Alphabet
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