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Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome

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VKHS.jpg|
Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome
ICD-10 H208
ICD-9 364.24
OMIM [1]
DiseasesDB 13983
MedlinePlus [2]
eMedicine derm/739
MeSH {{{MeshNumber}}}
File:Poliosis VKHS.JPG

Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada syndrome (VKH syndrome) is a condition seen in humans and dogs involving various melanocyte-containing organs, characterized by uveitis (inflammation of the inside of the eye), poliosis (whitening of hair), vitiligo (loss of pigment in the skin), and meningitis, although dogs with this syndrome rarely develop meningitis. It is also known as uveodermatologic syndrome.

PathophysiologyEdit

VKH syndrome is an immune-mediated disease. The mechanism of the disease is thought to be T helper cell mediated autoimmune attack of melanocytes in the skin and uvea of dogs and humans, and in the central nervous system and inner ear of humans.[1]

In humans there is a higher rate of VKH syndrome in people of Asian, Latin, and Mediterranean descent.[2]

VKH syndrome in dogsEdit

In dogs VKH syndrome (often called VKH-like syndrome) most commonly affects young animals and is seen most commonly in the Akita Inu, but also in the Siberian Husky and Samoyed.[2] Uveitis usually occurs first and is often severe enough to cause blindness. VKH syndrome can also cause retinal detachment, cataracts, and glaucoma. Pigment partly disappears from the retinal pigment epithelium and iris. Skin lesions include loss of pigment and hair on the eyelids, nose, and lips. Symptoms and biopsy will confirm the diagnosis. Treatment is with immunosuppressive drugs such as prednisone and azathioprine. The prognosis is guarded.[2]

EponymEdit

It is named for Alfred Vogt, Yoshizo Koyanagi, and Einosuke Harada.[3][4][5][6]

ReferencesEdit

  1. Sigle K, McLellan G, Haynes J, Myers R, Betts D (2006). Unilateral uveitis in a dog with uveodermatologic syndrome. J Am Vet Med Assoc 228 (4): 543–8.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Gelatt, Kirk N. (ed.) (1999). Veterinary Ophthalmology, 3rd, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
  3. Who Named It synd/1072
  4. A Vogt. Frühzeitiges Ergrauen der Zilien und Bemerkungen über den sogenannten plötzlichen Eintritt dieser Veränderung. Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde, Stuttgart, 1906, 44: 228-242.
  5. Y. Koyanagi. Dysakusis, Alopecie und Poliosis bei schwerer Uveitis nicht traumatischen Ursprungs. Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde, Stuttgart, 1929, 82: 194-211.
  6. E. Harada. Clinical study of nonsuppurative choroiditis. A report of acute diffuse choroiditis. Acta Societatis ophthalmologicae Japonicae, 1926, 30: 356.


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