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'''Visual area V3''' is a term used to refer to the region of cortex located immediately in front of V2. To date, some controversy exists regarding the exact extent of this area, with some researchers proposing that this is in fact a complex of two or three functional subdivisions. For example, David Van Essen and others (1986) have proposed that the existence of a "dorsal V3" in the upper part of the cerebral hemisphere, which is dinstinct from the "ventral V3" (or ventral posterior area, VP) located in the lower part of the brain. Dorsal and ventral V3 have distinct connections with other parts of the brain, appear different in sections stained with a variety of methods, and contain neurons that respond to different combinations of visual stimulus (for example, colour-selective neurons are more common in the ventral V3).
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'''Visual area V3''' is a term used to refer to the region of cortex located immediately in front of [[V2]]. To date, some controversy exists regarding the exact extent of this area, with some researchers proposing that this is in fact a complex of two or three functional subdivisions. For example, David Van Essen and others (1986) have proposed that the existence of a "dorsal V3" in the upper part of the cerebral hemisphere, which is dinstinct from the "ventral V3" (or ventral posterior area, VP) located in the lower part of the brain. Dorsal and ventral V3 have distinct connections with other parts of the brain, appear different in sections stained with a variety of methods, and contain neurons that respond to different combinations of visual stimulus (for example, colour-selective neurons are more common in the ventral V3).
   
Dorsal V3 is normally considered to be part of the dorsal stream, receiving inputs from [[V2]] and from the primary visual area and projecting to the posterior [[parietal cortex]]. It may be anatomically located in [[Brodmann area 19]]. Debate exists as to whether there are also adjacent areas 3A and 3B. Recent work with fMRI has suggested that area V3/V3A may play a role in the processing of global motion <ref name="Braddick2001">{{cite journal | author=Braddick, OJ, O'Brian, JMD, et al | year=2001 | title=Brain areas sensitive to visual motion. | journal=Perception | volume=30 | pages=61-72}}</ref> Other studies prefer to consider dorsal V3 as part of a larger area, named the [[dorsomedial area]] (DM), which contains a representation of the entire visual field. Neurons in area DM respond to coherent motion of large patterns covering extensive portions of the visual field (Lui and collaborators, 2006).
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[[Image:Ventral-dorsal streams.svg|thumb|right|300px|The [[dorsal stream]] (green) and [[ventral stream]] (purple) are shown. They originate from primary visual cortex.]]
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Dorsal V3 is normally considered to be part of the [[dorsal stream]], receiving inputs from [[V2]] and from the [[primary visual area]] and projecting to the posterior [[parietal cortex]]. It may be anatomically located in [[Brodmann area 19]]. Debate exists as to whether there are also adjacent areas 3A and 3B. Recent work with fMRI has suggested that area V3/V3A may play a role in the processing of global motion <ref name="Braddick2001">{{cite journal | author=Braddick, OJ, O'Brian, JMD, et al | year=2001 | title=Brain areas sensitive to visual motion. | journal=Perception | volume=30 | pages=61-72}}</ref> Other studies prefer to consider dorsal V3 as part of a larger area, named the [[dorsomedial area]] (DM), which contains a representation of the entire visual field. Neurons in area DM respond to coherent motion of large patterns covering extensive portions of the visual field (Lui and collaborators, 2006).
   
 
Ventral V3 (VP) has much weaker connections from the primary visual area, and stronger connections with the [[inferior temporal cortex]]. While earlier studies proposed that VP only contained a representation of the upper part of the visual field (above the point of fixation), more recent work indicates that this area is more extensive than previously appreciated, and like other visual areas it may contain a complete visual representation. The revised, more extensive VP is referred to as the ventrolateral posterior area (VLP) by Rosa and Tweedale (2000).
 
Ventral V3 (VP) has much weaker connections from the primary visual area, and stronger connections with the [[inferior temporal cortex]]. While earlier studies proposed that VP only contained a representation of the upper part of the visual field (above the point of fixation), more recent work indicates that this area is more extensive than previously appreciated, and like other visual areas it may contain a complete visual representation. The revised, more extensive VP is referred to as the ventrolateral posterior area (VLP) by Rosa and Tweedale (2000).

Latest revision as of 09:42, February 18, 2007

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See:Visual cortex for overview of complete visual area of the brain


Visual area V3 is a term used to refer to the region of cortex located immediately in front of V2. To date, some controversy exists regarding the exact extent of this area, with some researchers proposing that this is in fact a complex of two or three functional subdivisions. For example, David Van Essen and others (1986) have proposed that the existence of a "dorsal V3" in the upper part of the cerebral hemisphere, which is dinstinct from the "ventral V3" (or ventral posterior area, VP) located in the lower part of the brain. Dorsal and ventral V3 have distinct connections with other parts of the brain, appear different in sections stained with a variety of methods, and contain neurons that respond to different combinations of visual stimulus (for example, colour-selective neurons are more common in the ventral V3).

Ventral-dorsal streams
The dorsal stream (green) and ventral stream (purple) are shown. They originate from primary visual cortex.
Dr Joe KiffAdded by Dr Joe Kiff

Dorsal V3 is normally considered to be part of the dorsal stream, receiving inputs from V2 and from the primary visual area and projecting to the posterior parietal cortex. It may be anatomically located in Brodmann area 19. Debate exists as to whether there are also adjacent areas 3A and 3B. Recent work with fMRI has suggested that area V3/V3A may play a role in the processing of global motion [1] Other studies prefer to consider dorsal V3 as part of a larger area, named the dorsomedial area (DM), which contains a representation of the entire visual field. Neurons in area DM respond to coherent motion of large patterns covering extensive portions of the visual field (Lui and collaborators, 2006).

Ventral V3 (VP) has much weaker connections from the primary visual area, and stronger connections with the inferior temporal cortex. While earlier studies proposed that VP only contained a representation of the upper part of the visual field (above the point of fixation), more recent work indicates that this area is more extensive than previously appreciated, and like other visual areas it may contain a complete visual representation. The revised, more extensive VP is referred to as the ventrolateral posterior area (VLP) by Rosa and Tweedale (2000).


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  1. Braddick, OJ, O'Brian, JMD, et al (2001). Brain areas sensitive to visual motion.. Perception 30: 61-72.

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Telencephalon (cerebrum, cerebral cortex, cerebral hemispheres) - edit

primary sulci/fissures: medial longitudinal, lateral, central, parietoöccipital, calcarine, cingulate

frontal lobe: precentral gyrus (primary motor cortex, 4), precentral sulcus, superior frontal gyrus (6, 8), middle frontal gyrus (46), inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area, 44-pars opercularis, 45-pars triangularis), prefrontal cortex (orbitofrontal cortex, 9, 10, 11, 12, 47)

parietal lobe: postcentral sulcus, postcentral gyrus (1, 2, 3, 43), superior parietal lobule (5), inferior parietal lobule (39-angular gyrus, 40), precuneus (7), intraparietal sulcus

occipital lobe: primary visual cortex (17), cuneus, lingual gyrus, 18, 19 (18 and 19 span whole lobe)

temporal lobe: transverse temporal gyrus (41-42-primary auditory cortex), superior temporal gyrus (38, 22-Wernicke's area), middle temporal gyrus (21), inferior temporal gyrus (20), fusiform gyrus (36, 37)

limbic lobe/fornicate gyrus: cingulate cortex/cingulate gyrus, anterior cingulate (24, 32, 33), posterior cingulate (23, 31),
isthmus (26, 29, 30), parahippocampal gyrus (piriform cortex, 25, 27, 35), entorhinal cortex (28, 34)

subcortical/insular cortex: rhinencephalon, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, lateral ventricles, septum pellucidum, ependyma, internal capsule, corona radiata, external capsule

hippocampal formation: dentate gyrus, hippocampus, subiculum

basal ganglia: striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen), lentiform nucleus (putamen, globus pallidus), claustrum, extreme capsule, amygdala, nucleus accumbens

Some categorizations are approximations, and some Brodmann areas span gyri.

Sensory system - Visual system - edit
Eye | Optic nerve | Optic chiasm | Optic tract | Lateral geniculate nucleus | Optic radiation | Visual cortex
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