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Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale

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Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales are a valid and reliable test to measure a person's adaptive level of functioning. Vineland-II forms aidmkjbùjh b* in diagnosing and classifying mental retardation and other disorders, such as autism, Asperger Syndrome, and developmental delays. As with the current Vineland, the content and scales of Vineland-II were organized within a three domain structure: Communication, Daily Living, and Socialization. This structure corresponds to the three broad Domains of adaptive functioning recognized by the American Association of Mental Retardation (AAMR, 2002): Conceptual, Practical, and Social. In addition, Vineland-II offers a Motor Skills Domain and an optional Maladaptive Behavior Index to provide more in-depth information

The VABS are useful in assessing an individual’s daily functioning. They can be used as an evaluation and diagnostic tool for individuals who are mentally retarded or individuals with other handicaps. They can also be used to develop individual educational, rehabilitative, and social work treatment programs and can monitor progress during such a program. Finally, the VABS can be used in research in which the development and functioning of handicapped and non-handicapped individuals are investigated

Adaptive behaviors are everyday living skills such as walking, talking, getting dressed, going to school, going to work, preparing a meal, cleaning the house, etc. They are skills that a person learns in the process of adapting to his/her surroundings. Since adaptive behaviors are for the most part developmental, it is possible to describe a person's adaptive behavior as an age-equivalent score. An average five-year-old, for example, would be expected to have adaptive behavior similar to that of other five-year-olds.

Behavior problems, often called maladaptive behaviors, are behaviors that interfere with everyday activities. Good adaptive behavior and a lack of behavior problems promote independence at home, at school, and in the community. Behavior problems are much more difficult to quantify than adaptive behaviors are, because they are not very developmental and because their expression varies more from day-to-day and from setting-to-setting. Behavior problems do not increase or decrease steadily with age. Nevertheless they can be measured reliably.

The purpose of measuring adaptive and maladaptive behavior is usually either for diagnosis or for program planning. The diagnosis of mental retardation, for example, requires deficits in both cognitive ability and adaptive behavior, occurring before age 18. Adaptive behavior assessment is also used to determine the type and amount of special assistance that people with disabilities may need. This assistance might be in the form of home-based support services for infants and children and their families, special education and vocational training for young people, and supported work or special living arrangements such as personal care attendants, group homes, or nursing homes for adults. Adaptive behavior assessments are often used in preschool and special education programs for determining eligibility, for program planning, and for assessing outcomes.


Psychometrics

Ages:Survey Interview Form, Parent/Caregiver Rating Form, Expanded Interview Form—0 through 90; Teacher Rating Form—3 through 21-11

Administration Time: Survey Interview and Parent/Caregiver Rating Forms 20-60 minutes


Scores/Interpretation:

Vinelandchart1


Domain and Adaptive Behavior Composite—Standard scores (M = 100, SD = 15), percentile ranks, adaptive levels, age equivalents


Subdomain—V-scale score (M = 15, SD = 3), Adaptive levels, age equivalents; Survey Interview, Parent/Caregiver Rating Form, Expanded Interview Form—V-scale score, maladaptive levels for the optional Maladaptive Behavior Index

Reliability

Reliability: 1) Split half-reliability: Internal reliability tests of both the Survey and Expanded Forms were performed on caregivers of children under age 19. The Survey Form split half coefficients for the age groups under 3 ranged from .82 to .95 for the Domains and .96 to .98 for the Adaptive Behavior Composite; the Expanded Form split half coefficients ranged from .90 to .97 for the Domains and .98 to .99 for the Composite. (2) Test-retest reliability (mean of 17 days between tests): The Survey Form reliability coefficients for caregivers of children between the ages of 6 months and 2 years, 11 months ranged from .78 to .92 for the Domains and .90 for the Adaptive Behavior Composite. There were no test-retest reliability tests for the Expanded Form. (3) Interrater reliability: The Survey Form interrater reliability coefficients, with a mean of 8 days between the interviews of caregivers of children ages 6 months to 18 years, 11 months, ranged from .62 to .78 for the Domains and was .74 for the Adaptive Behavior Composite. There were no interrater reliability tests for the Expanded Form.

Internal consistency: Survey Form: Split half means for Domains .83 to .90; for Adaptive Behavior Composite .94 Expanded Form: Split half means for Domains .91 to .95; for Adaptive Behavior Composite .97 Classroom Edition: Coefficient Alpha means for Domains .80 to .95; for Adaptive Behavior Composite .98

Test - Retest:Survey Form: Means for Domains .81 to .86; for Adaptive Behavior Composite .88 (N=484)

Interrater: urvey Form: Correlations between two different interviewers, for Domains .62 to .78; for Adaptive Behavior Composite .74 (N=160)

The manual provides extensive data regarding reliability

Validity

Validity: (1) Content validity included a literature review and field tests with caregivers. (2) Criterion-related validity: The correlations between the Adaptive Behavior Composite and the original VABS unadjusted Social Quotient and Silverstein’s Deviation Social Quotient (which corrects for inconsistencies in the Social Quotient) among caregivers of children between ages 6 months and 18 years, were both .55. Comparisons between the total of the raw scores for the four domains of the revised VABS and the original VABS yielded a correlation of .97 in a sample of mentally retarded adults and an age-adjusted partial correlation of .88 in a sample of hearing-impaired children. The correlation between the VABS and the Adaptive Behavior Inventory for Children, ages 5 to 11, was .58, and correlations between the revised VAB four domains and the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale, Part I, domains fell between .40 and .70. Correlations between VABS and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised, two intelligence tests, ranged from .07 to .52 and .12 to .37, respectively. The differential magnitudes of these correlations is said to support the assumption that adaptive behavior scales and intelligence and achievement scales measure different areas of functioning.

Construct: (1) Developmental progressions of raw scores with age.

(2) Principal components analyses of Domain standard scores; Principal factor analyses of Subdomain raw scores.


Concurrent: Correlations between the Vineland and other adaptive behavior scales (Vineland Social Maturity Scale, Adaptive Behavior Inventory for Children, AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale); Correlations between the Vineland and intelligence tests of intelligence (K-ABC) and vocabulary (PPVT-R).

Clinical samples: upplementary norms are provided for the following special groups:

ambulatory and nonambulatory mentally retarded adults in residential facilities; ambulatory mentally retarded adults in residential facilities; nonambulatory mentally retarded adults in residential facilities; mentally retarded adults in nonresidential facilities; emotionally disturbed children in residential facilities; visually handicapped children in residential facilities; hearing impaired children in residential facilities.

The manuel provides extensive data on validity.

Research using

There is a significant amount of research that uses the Vineland as a measure. For example, one study found that children with Complex Trauma and a diagnosis of Reactive attachment disorder showed significant developmental delays as measured by the Vineland[1]

See also

References

  1. Becker-Weidman, A., (2009) Effects of Early Maltreatment on Development: A Descriptive study using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II, Child Welfare Journal, 88(2).

Further reading

Books

  • Charlop-Christy, M. H., & Kelso, S. E. (1999). Autism. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Papers

  • Anderson, V. A., Catroppa, C., Rosenfeld, J., Haritou, F., & Morse, S. A. (2000). Recovery of memory function following traumatic brain injury in pre-school children: Brain Injury Vol 14(8) Aug 2000, 679-692.
  • Bensberg, G. J., & Irons, T. (1986). A comparison of the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale within a sample of persons classified as moderately and severely mentally retarded: Education & Training of the Mentally Retarded Vol 21(3) Sep 1986, 220-228.
  • Berry-Kravis, E., Sumis, A., Hervey, C., Nelson, M., Porges, S. W., Weng, N., et al. (2008). Open-label treatment trial of lithium to target the underlying defect in fragile X syndrome: Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics Vol 29(4) Aug 2008, 293-302.
  • Cabrera, P., Grimes-Gaa, L., and Thyer, B. A. (1999). Social work assessment of adaptive functioning using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales: Issues of Reliability and Validity. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 2(4): 33-50. doi: 10.1300/J137v02n04_03
  • Carpentieri, S., & Morgan, S. B. (1996). Adaptive and intellectual functioning in autistic and nonautistic retarded children: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders Vol 26(6) Dec 1996, 611-620.
  • Collacott, R. A., & Cooper, S. A. (1995). Urine fetish in a man with learning disabilities: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research Vol 39(2) Apr 1995, 145-147.
  • Dacey, C. M., Nelson, W. M., III, & Stoeckel, J. (1999). Reliability, criterion-related validity and qualitative comments of the Fourth Edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale with a young adult population with intellectual disability: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research Vol 43(3) Jun 1999, 179-184.
  • Di Nuovo, S. F., & Buono, S. (2007). Psychiatric syndromes comorbid with mental retardation: Differences in cognitive and adaptive skills: Journal of Psychiatric Research Vol 41(9) Nov 2007, 795-800.
  • Donkervoort, M., Roebroeck, M., Wiegerink, D., van der Heijden-Maessen, H., & Stam, H. (2007). Determinants of functioning of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy: Disability and Rehabilitation: An International, Multidisciplinary Journal Vol 29(6) Mar 2007, 453-463.
  • Dunlap, W. R., & Sands, D. I. (1990). Classification of the hearing impaired for independent living using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale: American Annals of the Deaf Vol 135(5) Dec 1990, 384-388.
  • Eikeseth, S. (2006). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale in a Sample of Norwegian Second-Grade Children: A Preliminary Study: Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening Vol 43(10) Oct 2006, 1036-1039.
  • Evans, D. W., Hodapp, R. M., & Zigler, E. (1995). Mental and chronological age as predictors of age-appropriate leisure activity in children with mental retardation: Mental Retardation Vol 33(2) Apr 1995, 120-127.
  • Evans, M. A., & Wodar, S. (1997). Maternal sensitivity to vocabulary development in specific language-impaired and language-normal preschoolers: Applied Psycholinguistics Vol 18(3) Sep 1997, 243-256.
  • Field, T., Lasko, D., Mundy, P., Henteleff, T., & et al. (1997). Brief report: Autistic children's attentiveness and responsivity improve after touch therapy: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders Vol 27(3) Jun 1997, 333-338.
  • Fisch, G. S. (2001). Adaptive behavior in children with autism: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders Vol 31(2) Apr 2001, 249.
  • Fombonne, E., & Achard, S. (1993). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale in a sample of normal French children: A research note: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry Vol 34(6) Sep 1993, 1051-1058.
  • Freeman, B. J. (2001). "Adaptive behavior in children with autism": Reply: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders Vol 31(2) Apr 2001, 249-250.
  • Freeman, B. J., Del'Homme, M., Guthrie, D., & Zhang, F. (1999). Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale scores as a function of age and initial IQ in 210 autistic children: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders Vol 29(5) Oct 1999, 379-384.
  • Freeman, B. J., Ritvo, E. R., Yokota, A., Childs, J., & et al. (1988). WISC--R and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale scores in autistic children: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 27(4) Jul 1988, 428-429.
  • Frey, K. S., Greenberg, M. T., & Fewell, R. R. (1989). Stress and coping among parents of handicapped children: A multidimensional approach: American Journal on Mental Retardation Vol 94(3) Nov 1989, 240-249.
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  • Hansen, R. L., Hughes, G. G., & Ahlfors, C. E. (1991). Neonatal bilirubin exposure and psychoeducational outcome: Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics Vol 12(5) Oct 1991, 287-293.
  • Hundert, J., Mahoney, B., Mundy, F., & Vernon, M. L. (1998). A descriptive analysis of developmental and social gains of children with severe disabilities in segregated and inclusive preschools in Southern Ontario: Early Childhood Research Quarterly Vol 13(1) Mar 1998, 49-65.
  • Hundert, J., Morrison, L., Mahoney, W., Mundy, F., & Vernon, M. L. (1997). Parent and teacher assessments of the developmental status of children with severe, mild/moderate, or no developmental disabilities: Topics in Early Childhood Special Education Vol 17(4) Win 1997, 419-434.
  • Jonas, R., Asarnow, R. F., LoPresti, C., Yudovin, S., Koh, S., Wu, J. Y., et al. (2005). Surgery for symptomatic infant-onset epileptic encephalopathy with and without infantile spasms: Neurology Vol 64(4) Feb 2005, 746-750.
  • Jonas, R., Nguyen, S., Hu, B., Asarnow, R. F., LoPresti, C., Curtiss, S., et al. (2004). Cerebral hemispherectomy: Hospital course, seizure, developmental, language, and motor outcomes: Neurology Vol 62(10) May 2004, 1712-1721.
  • Kamphaus, R. W. (1987). Defining the construct of adaptive behavior by the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales: Journal of School Psychology Vol 25(1) Spr 1987, 97-100.
  • Kerby, D. S., Wentworth, R., & Cotten, P. D. (1989). Measuring adaptive behavior in elderly developmentally disabled clients: Journal of Applied Gerontology Vol 8(2) Jun 1989, 261-267.
  • Kobe, F. H., Mulick, J. A., Rash, T. A., & Martin, J. (1994). Nonambulatory persons with profound mental retardation: Physical, developmental, and behavioral characteristics: Research in Developmental Disabilities Vol 15(6) Nov-Dec 1994, 413-423.
  • Langenbacher, D., Nield, T., & Kanne Poulson, M. (2001). Neurodevelopmental outcome of ECMO survivors at five years of age: The potential for academic and motor difficulties: The Journal of Special Education Vol 35(3) Fal 2001, 156-160.
  • Legoff, D. B., & Sherman, M. (2006). Long-term outcome of social skills intervention based on interactive LEGOCopyright play: Autism Vol 10(4) Jul 2006, 317-329.
  • Lerer, E., Levi, S., Salomon, S., Darvasi, A., Yirmiya, N., & Ebstein, R. P. (2008). Association between the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and autism: Relationship to Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and cognition: Molecular Psychiatry Vol 13(10) Oct 2008, 980-988.
  • Limperopoulos, C., Bassan, H., Sullivan, N. R., Soul, J. S., Robertson, R. L., Jr., Moore, M., et al. (2008). Positive screening for autism in ex-preterm infants: Prevalence and risks factors: Pediatrics Vol 121(4) Apr 2008, 758-765.
  • Marcon, R. A. (1992). Differential effects of three preschool models on inner-city 4-year-olds: Early Childhood Research Quarterly Vol 7(4) Dec 1992, 517-530.
  • Matson, J. L., Terlonge, C., Gonzalez, M. L., & Rivet, T. (2006). An evaluation of social and adaptive skills in adults with bipolar disorder and severe/profound intellectual disability: Research in Developmental Disabilities Vol 27(6) Nov-Dec 2006, 681-687.
  • McCallum, R. S., Helm, H. W., & Sanderson, C. E. (1986). Local norming and validation of an adaptive behavior screening instrument: Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol 46(3) Fal 1986, 709-718.
  • McGovern, C. W., & Sigman, M. (2005). Continuity and change from early childhood to adolescence in autism: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry Vol 46(4) Apr 2005, 401-408.
  • Msall, M. E. (2005). Measuring functional skills in preschool children at risk for neurodevelopmental disabilities: Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews Vol 11(3) 2005, 263-273.
  • Oakland, T., & Houchins, S. (1985). A review of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Survey Form: Journal of Counseling & Development Vol 63(9) May 1985, 585-586.
  • Phelps, L., & Cottone, J. W. (1999). Long-term developmental outcomes of prenatal cocaine exposure: Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment Vol 17(4) Dec 1999, 343-353.
  • Phelps, L., Wallace, N. V., & Bontrager, A. (1997). Risk factors in early child development: Is prenatal cocaine/polydrug exposure a key variable? : Psychology in the Schools Vol 34(3) Jul 1997, 245-252.
  • Raggio, D. J., & Massingale, T. W. (1990). Comparability of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale--Survey Form with infants evaluated for developmental delay: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 71(2) Oct 1990, 415-418.
  • Rosenbaum, P., Saigal, S., Szatmari, P., & Hoult, L. (1995). Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales as a summary of functional outcomes of extremely low-birthweight children: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology Vol 37(7) Jul 1995, 577-586.
  • Ross, G., & Weinberg, S. (2006). Is there a relationship between language delays and behavior and socialization problems in toddlers? : Journal of Early Childhood and Infant Psychology Vol 2 2006, 101-116.
  • Schatz, J., & Hamdan-Allen, G. (1995). Effects of age and IQ on adaptive behavior domains for children with autism: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders Vol 25(1) Feb 1995, 51-60.
  • Shevell, M., Majnemer, A., Platt, R. W., Webster, R., & Birnbaum, R. (2005). Developmental and Functional Outcomes at School Age of Preschool Children With Global Developmental Delay: Journal of Child Neurology Vol 20(8) Aug 2005, 648-654.
  • Shevell, M., Majnemer, A., Platt, R. W., Webster, R., & Birnbaum, R. (2005). Developmental and functional outcomes in children with global developmental delay or developmental language impairment: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology Vol 47(10) Oct 2005, 678-683.
  • Sholle-Martin, S., & Alessi, N. E. (1988). Adaptive functioning in children hospitalized for psychiatric disturbances: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 27(5) Sep 1988, 636-641.
  • Stevens, F. I. (1986). Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales: Classroom Edition: Journal of Counseling & Development Vol 65(2) Oct 1986, 112-113.
  • Tucker, C. M., Brady, B. A., Harris, Y. R., Fraser, K., & et al. (1993). The association of selected parent behaviors with the adaptive and maladaptive functioning of Black children and White children: Child Study Journal Vol 23(1) 1993, 39-55.
  • Tyminski, R. F., & Moore, P. J. (2008). The impact of group psychotherapy on social development in children with pervasive development disorders: International Journal of Group Psychotherapy Vol 58(3) Jul 2008, 363-379.
  • Unruh, R. P., & Dupree, M. (1998). An examination of the CATM blocks and block pattern intervention: Journal of Instructional Psychology Vol 25(2) Jun 1998, 134-138.
  • Verhoog, J., Fuijkschot, J., Willemsen, M., Ketelaar, M., Rotteveel, J., & Gorter, J. W. (2008). Sjogren-Larsson syndrome: Motor performance and everyday functioning in 17 patients: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology Vol 50(1) Jan 2008, 38-43.
  • Ware, L. M., Novotny, E. S., & Coyne, L. (2001). A therapeutic nursery evaluation study: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic Vol 65(4) Nov 2001, 522-548.
  • Webster, R. I., Majnemer, A., Platt, R. W., & Shevell, M. I. (2004). The predictive value of a preschool diagnosis of developmental language impairment: Neurology Vol 63(12) Dec 2004, 2327-2331.
  • Yirmiya, N., Rosenberg, C., Levi, S., Salomon, S., Shulman, C., Nemanov, L., et al. (2006). Association between the arginine vasopressin 1a receptor (AVPR1a) gene and autism in a family-based study: Mediation by socialization skills: Molecular Psychiatry Vol 11(5) May 2006, 488-494.

Dissertations

  • Bobrovitz, C. D. (2006). Adaptation of Chinese-born adopted children. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Carrubba, R. K. (1998). A comparison of the benefits to adult adjustment by graduation from special school placement and integrated class placement for students with mental retardation. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Deem, J. W. (1998). Inter-rater reliability, sensitivity to student growth, and concurrent validity of the Competent Learner Repertoire Assessment Level 2. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Della Nebbia, C. L. (1997). Mild isolated ventriculomegaly: Developmental outcome and parenting stress. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Fees, M. S. (1998). The impact of early life experiences on subsequent adaptive and problem behaviors in maltreated children. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Ferguson Smith, A. (2006). The predictive contributions of spatial planning to adaptive and cognitive function in children diagnosed with brain tumors. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Gangarosa, M. E. (1998). Temperament and behavior outcomes in preschool survivors of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Grande, M. D. (2006). Children with pervasive developmental disorders participating in group therapy: A longitudinal study on socialization, personality types and theory of mind. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Hanzel, E. P. (2003). Assessment of cognitive abilities in high-functioning children with autistic disorder: A comparison of the wisc-iii and the leiter-r. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Hooshyar, N. T. (1997). Psychosocial, demographic, and environmental correlates of mother's speech directed to children with Down syndrome and language impairment. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Iceman Sands, D. J. (1988). Criteria validity of the National Independent Living Skills Screening Instrument utilizing the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale--Survey Form: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kay, S. F. (2002). The relationship between sensory processing and self care for children with autism ages two to four. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Kennedy, L. P. (1997). The impact of one special education preschool program on adaptive behavior and parental stress. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Krusch, D. A. (2004). Effects of repeated secretin administration on a subset of children with pervasive developmental disorder. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Lassiter, S. M. (1999). Staff perceptions of the quality of life for individuals with mental retardation living in an institutional setting and for those living in a community setting. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Lefort, J. M. (2006). Validation of an interactive measure of adaptive functioning as a supplement to current interview-based methods of assessment of adaptive behaviors in individuals with mild to moderate mental retardation. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • McCartney, A. J. (1987). The Vineland Social Maturity Scale and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale with Mississippi's mentally retarded citizens: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Paleo, S. (2005). Preschool treatment of autism spectrum disorders: Analysis of a combined approach. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Shiba, K. E. (1995). The impact of formal and informal goal setting on development of students with mental retardation. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Taylor, M. S. (2008). Describing the adaptive behavior of children with Down syndrome who received early intervention measured by the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales: A trend analysis. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Torres-Hostos, L. R. (2005). Psychological status of Hispanic and non-Hispanic mothers of mentally retarded and mentally ill children. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Tsoubris, K. T. (1998). Relationship between prenatal cocaine exposure and behavioral patterns among preschool children with disabilities. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.

External links

[[1]] Link to Pearson Assessments

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