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Individual differences |
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Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
| Blotched Blue-tongued Lizard, Tiliqua nigrolutea|
Blotched Blue-tongued Lizard, Tiliqua nigrolutea
Vertebrates are members of the subphylum Vertebrata, chordates with backbones or spinal columns. The grouping sometimes includes the hagfish, which have no vertebrae, but are genetically quite closely related to lampreys, which do have vertebrae. For this reason, the sub-phylum is sometimes referred to as "Craniata", as all members do possess a cranium. About 58,000 species of vertebrates have been described. Vertebrata is the largest subphylum of chordates, and contains many familiar groups of large land animals. Vertebrates comprise cyclostomes, bony fish, sharks and rays, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds. Extant vertebrates range in size from the carp species Paedocypris, at as little as 7.9 mm (0.3 inch), to the Blue Whale, at up to 33 m (110 ft).
Anatomy and morphologyEdit
One characteristic of the subphylum are that all members have muscular systems that mostly consist of paired masses, as well as a central nervous system which is partly located inside the backbone (if one is present). The defining characteristic of a vertebrate is considered the backbone or spinal cord, a brain case, and an internal skeleton, but the latter do not hold true for lampreys, and the former is arguably present in some other chordates. Rather, all vertebrates are most easily distinguished from all other chordates by having a clearly identifiable head, that is, sensory organs – especially eyes are concentrated at the fore end of the body and there is pronounced cephalization. Compare the lancelets which have a mouth but not a well-developed head, and have light-sensitive areas along their entire back.
Vertebrates originated about 500 million years ago during the Cambrian explosion, which is part of the Cambrian period. The earliest known vertebrate is Myllokunmingia. According to recent molecular analysis Myxini (hagfish) also belong to Vertebrates. Others consider them a sister group of Vertebrates in the common taxon of Craniata. Another early vertebrate is Haikouichthys ercaicunensis, also from the Chengjiang fauna Chengjiang million years ago .
Taxonomy and classificationEdit
Classification after Janvier (1981, 1997), Shu et al. (2003), and Benton (2004).
- Subphylum Vertebrata
- Superclass Osteichthyes (bony fish)
- Superclass Tetrapoda (four-limbed vertebrates)
See also Edit
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Kuraku et al. (December 1999). Monophyly of Lampreys and Hagfishes Supported by Nuclear DNA–Coded Genes. Journal of Molecular Evolution DOI:10.1007/PL00006595 49: 729.
- ↑ Jonathan E.M. Baillie, et al. (2004). A Global Species Assessment. World Conservation Union.
- ↑ Richard Fox (2004). Branchiostoma.
- ↑ Shu et al. (November 4 1999). Lower Cambrian vertebrates from south China. Nature 402: 42–46.
- ↑ Benton, Michael J. (2004-11-01). Vertebrate Palaeontology, Third Edition, 455 pp., Blackwell Publishing.
- ↑ Douglas Harper, Historian. vertebra. Online Etymology Dictionary. Dictionary.com..
- Tree of Life
- Tunicates and not cephalochordates are the closest living relatives of vertebrates
- Vertebrate Pests chapter in United States Environmental Protection Agency and University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences National Public Health Pesticide Applicator Training Manual
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