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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
The ventral respiratory group (VRG) is a column of neurons located in the ventrolateral region of the medulla, extending from the caudal facial nucleus to -400μm obex. The four cell groups of the VRG are the rostral nucleus retrofacialis, caudal nucleus retroambiguus, nucleus para-ambiguus, and the pre-Bötzinger complex.
The VRG contains both inspiratory and expiratory neurons. The VRG is secondarily responsible for initiation of inspiratory activity, after the dorsal respiratory group. The nucleus para-ambiguus is active during inspiration, while the nucleus retrofacialis and the nucleus retroambiguus are active during exhalation.
The VRG is responsible for motor control of inspiratory and expiratory muscles during exercise.
The pre-Botzinger complex is the hypothesized location of central respiratory rhythm pattern generation circuitry. It is currently unclear how this system regulates its output to effect motoneuron bursting, which in turn is responsible for inspiratory muscle innervation. Research into the function of the pre-Bötzinger complex is currently being studied by making use of the in vitro slice preparation.
Smith J, Ellenberger H, Ballanyi K, Richter D, Feldman J (1991). Pre-Bötzinger complex: a brainstem region that may generate respiratory rhythm in mammals. Science 254 (5032): 726-9.
Respiratory system, physiology: respiratory physiology
lung volumes - vital capacity - functional residual capacity - respiratory minute volume - closing capacity - dead space - spirometry - body plethysmography - peak flow meter - thoracic independent volume - bronchial challenge test
ventilation/perfusion ratio (V/Q) and scan - zones of the lung - gas exchange - pulmonary gas pressures - alveolar gas equation - hemoglobin - oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve (2,3-DPG, Bohr effect, Haldane effect) - carbonic anhydrase (chloride shift) - oxyhemoglobin - respiratory quotient - arterial blood gas - diffusion capacity - Dlco
|Control of respiration|
Brain: rhombencephalon (hindbrain)
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