Wikia

Psychology Wiki

Vasoactive intestinal peptide

Talk0
34,142pages on
this wiki

Redirected from Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)


Vasoactive intestinal peptide
Symbol(s): VIP
Locus: 6 q24 -q27
EC number [1]
EntrezGene 7432
OMIM 192320
RefSeq NM_003381
UniProt P01282

Vasoactive intestinal peptide also known as the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide or VIP is a peptide hormone containing 28 amino acid residues. VIP is neuropeptide which belongs to a glucagon/secretin superfamily, the ligand of class II G protein-coupled receptors.[1] VIP is produced in many tissues of vertebrates including the gut, pancreas and suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus in the brain.[2][3] VIP stimulates contractility in the heart, causes vasodilation, increases glycogenolysis, lowers arterial blood pressure and relaxes the smooth muscle of trachea, stomach and gall bladder. In humans, the vasoactive intestinal peptide is encoded by the VIP gene.[4]

VIP has a half-life (t½) in the blood of about two minutes.


FunctionEdit

VIP has an effect on several tissues:

  • It is also found in the brain and some autonomic nerves. One region of the brain includes a specific area of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the location of the 'master circadian pacemaker'. The SCN coordinates daily timekeeping in the body and VIP plays a key role in communication between individual brain cells within this region. Further, VIP is also involved in synchronising the timing of SCN function with the environmental light-dark cycle. Combined, these roles in the SCN make VIP a crucial component of the mammalian circadian timekeeping machinery.
  • VIP provokes vaginal lubrication in normal women, doubling the total volume of lubrication produced in one study.[10]


BiosynthesisEdit

SecretionEdit

It is produced in many areas of the human body including the gut, pancreas and suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus in the brain.[2][3] In humans, the vasoactive intestinal peptide is encoded by the VIP gene.[4]

VIP has a half-life (T1/2) in the blood of about two minutes.

  • It is also found in the brain and some autonomic nerves. One region of the brain includes a specific area of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the location of the 'master circadian pacemaker'. The SCN coordinates daily timekeeping in the body and VIP plays a key role in communication between individual brain cells within this region. Further, VIP is also involved in synchronising the timing of SCN function with the environmental light-dark cycle. Combined, these roles in the SCN make VIP a crucial component of the mammalian circadian timekeeping machinery.

MetabolismEdit

PhysiologyEdit

PathologyEdit

VIP is overproduced in VIPoma.[5] Can be associated with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (Pituitary, parathyroid and pancreatic tumors). Symptoms are typically:

  • Profuse non-bloody/non-mucoid diarrhea (3L+) causing dehydration and the associated electrolyte disturbances such as hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis.
  • Lethargy and exhaustion may ensue


Treatment for deficiencyEdit

ChemistryEdit

Chemical synthesisEdit

Isolation and purificationEdit

Therapeutic useEdit

Administration and dosageEdit

PharmakineticsEdit

PharmacologyEdit

Analogues and derivativesEdit

Adverse effectsEdit

ToxicityEdit

See also Edit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Template:Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21439408
  2. 2.0 2.1 Fahrenkrug J, Emson PC (September 1982). Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide: functional aspects. Br. Med. Bull. 38 (3): 265–70.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Said SI (April 1986). Vasoactive intestinal peptide. J. Endocrinol. Invest. 9 (2): 191–200.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Linder S, Barkhem T, Norberg A, Persson H, Schalling M, Hökfelt T, Magnusson G (January 1987). Structure and expression of the gene encoding the vasoactive intestinal peptide precursor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (2): 605–9.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Bowen R. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide. Pathophysiology of the Endocrine System: Gastrointestinal Hormones. Colorado State University. URL accessed on 2009-02-06.
  6. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. General Practice Notebook. URL accessed on 2009-02-06.
  7. Bergman RA, Afifi AK, Heidger PM. Plate 6.111 Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP). Atlas of Microscopic Anatomy: Section 6 - Nervous Tissue. www.anatomyatlases.org. URL accessed on 2009-02-06.
  8. Sanders MJ, Amirian DA, Ayalon A, Soll AH (November 1983). Regulation of pepsinogen release from canine chief cells in primary monolayer culture. Am. J. Physiol. 245 (5 Pt 1): G641–6.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Kulick RS, Chaiseha Y, Kang SW, Rozenboim I, El Halawani ME (July 2005). The relative importance of vasoactive intestinal peptide and peptide histidine isoleucine as physiological regulators of prolactin in the domestic turkey. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 142 (3): 267–73.
  10. Ottesen B, Pedersen B, Nielsen J, Dalgaard D, Wagner G, Fahrenkrug J. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) provokes vaginal lubrication in normal women Peptides. 1987 Sep-Oct;8(5):797-800. PMID: 3432128

Further readingEdit


  • Fahrenkrug J (2002). Gut/brain peptides in the genital tract: VIP and PACAP. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. Suppl. 234: 35–9.
  • Delgado M, Pozo D, Ganea D (2004). The significance of vasoactive intestinal peptide in immunomodulation. Pharmacol. Rev. 56 (2): 249–90.
  • Conconi MT, Spinazzi R, Nussdorfer GG (2006). Endogenous ligands of PACAP/VIP receptors in the autocrine-paracrine regulation of the adrenal gland. Int. Rev. Cytol. 249: 1–51.
  • Hill JM (2007). Vasoactive intestinal peptide in neurodevelopmental disorders: therapeutic potential. Curr. Pharm. Des. 13 (11): 1079–89.
  • Gonzalez-Rey E, Varela N, Chorny A, Delgado M (2007). Therapeutical approaches of vasoactive intestinal peptide as a pleiotropic immunomodulator. Curr. Pharm. Des. 13 (11): 1113–39.
  • (1975) [Quaternary structure of rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen synthetase]. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 222 (4): 997–1000.
  • Kitamura K, Kangawa K, Kawamoto M, et al. (1992). Isolation and characterization of peptides which act on rat platelets, from a pheochromocytoma. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 185 (1): 134–41.
  • Glowa JR, Panlilio LV, Brenneman DE, et al. (1992). Learning impairment following intracerebral administration of the HIV envelope protein gp120 or a VIP antagonist. Brain Res. 570 (1-2): 49–53.
  • Theriault Y, Boulanger Y, St-Pierre S (1991). Structural determination of the vasoactive intestinal peptide by two-dimensional H-NMR spectroscopy. Biopolymers 31 (4): 459–64.
  • Gozes I, Giladi E, Shani Y (1987). Vasoactive intestinal peptide gene: putative mechanism of information storage at the RNA level. J. Neurochem. 48 (4): 1136–41.
  • Yamagami T, Ohsawa K, Nishizawa M, et al. (1988). Complete nucleotide sequence of human vasoactive intestinal peptide/PHM-27 gene and its inducible promoter. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 527: 87–102.
  • Bodner M, Fridkin M, Gozes I (1985). Coding sequences for vasoactive intestinal peptide and PHM-27 peptide are located on two adjacent exons in the human genome. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82 (11): 3548–51.
  • DeLamarter JF, Buell GN, Kawashima E, et al. (1985). Vasoactive intestinal peptide: expression of the prohormone in bacterial cells. Peptides 6 Suppl 1: 95–102.
  • Linder S, Barkhem T, Norberg A, et al. (1987). Structure and expression of the gene encoding the vasoactive intestinal peptide precursor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (2): 605–9.
  • Gotoh E, Yamagami T, Yamamoto H, Okamoto H (1989). Chromosomal assignment of human VIP/PHM-27 gene to 6q26----q27 region by spot blot hybridization and in situ hybridization. Biochem. Int. 17 (3): 555–62.
  • Yiangou Y, Di Marzo V, Spokes RA, et al. (1987). Isolation, characterization, and pharmacological actions of peptide histidine valine 42, a novel prepro-vasoactive intestinal peptide-derived peptide. J. Biol. Chem. 262 (29): 14010–3.
  • Gozes I, Bodner M, Shani Y, Fridkin M (1986). Structure and expression of the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) gene in a human tumor. Peptides 7 Suppl 1: 1–6.
  • Tsukada T, Horovitch SJ, Montminy MR, et al. (1985). Structure of the human vasoactive intestinal polypeptide gene. DNA 4 (4): 293–300.
  • Heinz-Erian P, Dey RD, Flux M, Said SI (1985). Deficient vasoactive intestinal peptide innervation in the sweat glands of cystic fibrosis patients. Science 229 (4720): 1407–8.
  • Bloom SR, Christofides ND, Delamarter J, et al. (1984). Diarrhoea in vipoma patients associated with cosecretion of a second active peptide (peptide histidine isoleucine) explained by single coding gene. Lancet 2 (8360): 1163–5.




Further readingEdit

SecretionEdit

  • Achord, J. L., & Achord, J. L. (1986). Secretin, cholecystokinin, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in pancreatic cholera. Annals of Internal Medicine, 105(4), 632.
  • Agoston, D. V., Conlon, J. M., Whittaker, V. P., Agoston, D. V., Conlon, J. M., & Whittaker, V. P. (1988). Selective depletion of the acetylcholine and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide of the guinea-pig myenteric plexus by differential mobilization of distinct transmitter pools. Experimental Brain Research, 72(3), 535-542.
  • Anderson, F. L., Kralios, A. C., Cluff, N., Hanson, G. R., Anderson, F. L., Kralios, A. C., et al. (1994). Vagal-induced tachycardia: release of vasoactive intestinal peptide and peptide HI. American Journal of Physiology, 267(5 Pt 2), H2019-2024.
  • Andersson, P. O., Bloom, S. R., Edwards, A. V., Jarhult, J., Andersson, P. O., Bloom, S. R., et al. (1982). Effects of stimulation of the chorda tympani in bursts on submaxillary responses in the cat. Journal of Physiology, 322, 469-483.
  • Andersson, P. O., Sjogren, C., Uvnas, B., Uvnas-Moberg, K., Andersson, P. O., Sjogren, C., et al. (1990). Urinary bladder and urethral responses to pelvic and hypogastric nerve stimulation and their relation to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the anaesthetized dog. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 138(3), 409-416.
  • Bani-Sacchi, T., Bartolini, G., Biliotti, G., Bani-Sacchi, T., Bartolini, G., & Biliotti, G. (1986). A multihormonal tumor of the pancreas producing neurotensin associated with the WDHA syndrome. Histology, histochemistry and origin. Histology & Histopathology, 1(2), 187-195.
  • Baranowska, B., & Baranowska, B. (1991). A marked decrease of vasoactive intestinal peptide release in obese patients. Metabolism: Clinical & Experimental, 40(4), 344-346.
  • Barraclough, M. A., Bloom, S. R., Barraclough, M. A., & Bloom, S. R. (1979). Vipoma of the pancreas: observations on the diarhrhea and circulatory disturbances. Archives of Internal Medicine, 139(4), 467-471.
  • Barragry, T. P., Wick, M. R., Delaney, J. P., Barragry, T. P., Wick, M. R., & Delaney, J. P. (1985). Pancreatic islet cell carcinoma with gastrin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide production. Archives of Surgery, 120(10), 1178-1181.
  • Basson, M. D., Fielding, L. P., Bilchik, A. J., Zucker, K. A., Ballantyne, G. H., Sussman, J., et al. (1989). Does vasoactive intestinal polypeptide mediate the pathophysiology of bowel obstruction? American Journal of Surgery, 157(1), 109-115.
  • Bateson, P. G., Buchanan, K. D., Stewart, D. M., Parks, T. G., Bateson, P. G., Buchanan, K. D., et al. (1980). The release of vasoactive intestinal peptide during altered mid-gut blood flow. British Journal of Surgery, 67(2), 131-134.
  • Bauer, F. E., Schulz, E., Janisch, H. D., von Kleist, D., Hampel, K. E., Bauer, F. E., et al. (1985). [Absence of effect of secretin and cholecystokinin on plasma concentrations of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and pancreatic glucagon]. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, 97(14), 603-605.
  • Beck, B., Villaume, C., Chayvialle, J. A., Gariot, P., Ulmer, M., Desalme, A., et al. (1984). Influence of caloric intake on gastric inhibitory polypeptide, VIP and gastrin release in man. Peptides, 5(2), 403-406.
  • Belai, A., Ralevic, V., Burnstock, G., Belai, A., Ralevic, V., & Burnstock, G. (1987). VIP release from enteric nerves is independent of extracellular calcium. Regulatory Peptides, 19(1-2), 79-89.
  • Bernard, P., Lebras, J., Pradel, J., Viguier, A. C., Curet, P., Grellet, J., et al. (1980). [Angiographic exploration of a case of a case of adrenal APUD adenoma secreting three hormones: VIP, catecholamines, and somatostatin (author's transl)]. Journal de Radiologie, 61(2), 121-124.
  • Besson, J., Rostene, W., Lhiaubet, A. M., Poussin, B., Rosselin, G., Besson, J., et al. (1983). Release of vasoactive intestinal peptide from rat jejuno-ileum in vitro. Effect of various depolarizing agents. Experientia, 39(7), 732-733.
  • Besson, J., Rotsztejn, W., Poussin, B., Lhiaubet, A. M., Rosselin, G., Besson, J., et al. (1982). Release of vasoactive intestinal peptide from rat brain slices by various depolarizing agents. Neuroscience Letters, 28(3), 281-285.
  • Bitar, K. N., Said, S. I., Weir, G. C., Saffouri, B., Makhlouf, G. M., Bitar, K. N., et al. (1980). Neural release of vasoactive intestinal peptide from the gut. Gastroenterology, 79(6), 1288-1294.
  • Bjorck, S., Fahrenkrug, J., Jivegard, L., Svanvik, J., Bjorck, S., Fahrenkrug, J., et al. (1986). Release of immunoreactive vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) from the gallbladder in response to vagal stimulation. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 128(4), 639-642.
  • Blair, A. W., Ahmed, S., Blair, A. W., & Ahmed, S. (1981). Presacral vipoma in a 16-month-old child. Acta Paediatrica Belgica, 34(2), 89-91.
  • Blank, M. A., Fuortes, M., Nyren, O., Jaffe, B. M., Blank, M. A., Fuortes, M., et al. (1991). Effect of endothelin-1 and vasoactive intestinal contractor on blood flow and output of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the feline colon. Life Sciences, 48(20), 1937-1944.
  • Blank, M. A., Kimura, K., Jaffe, B. M., Blank, M. A., Kimura, K., & Jaffe, B. M. (1988). Regulatory mechanisms in the luminal and portal release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide during vagal nerve stimulation in the cat. Regulatory Peptides, 23(1), 15-26.
  • Bloom, S. R., Edwards, A. V., Bloom, S. R., & Edwards, A. V. (1979). The relationship between release of vasoactive intestinal peptide in the salivary gland of the cat in response to parasympathetic stimulation and the atropine resistant vasodilatation [proceedings]. Journal of Physiology, 295, 35P-36P.
  • Bloom, S. R., Edwards, A. V., Bloom, S. R., & Edwards, A. V. (1980). Effects of autonomic stimulation on the release of vasoactive intestinal peptide from the gastrointestinal tract in the calf. Journal of Physiology, 299, 437-452.
  • Bloom, S. R., Edwards, A. V., Bloom, S. R., & Edwards, A. V. (1980). Vasoactive intestinal peptide in relation to atropine resistant vasodilatation in the submaxillary gland of the cat. Journal of Physiology, 300, 41-53.
  • Bloom, S. R., Edwards, A. V., Mitchell, S. J., Bloom, S. R., Edwards, A. V., & Mitchell, S. J. (1979). Release of vasoactive intestinal peptide from the gastrointestinal tract in response to autonomic stimulation in the calf [proceedings]. Journal of Physiology, 289, 47P.
  • Bloom, S. R., Lee, Y. C., Lacroute, J. M., Abbass, A., Sondag, D., Baumann, R., et al. (1983). Two patients with pancreatic apudomas secreting neurotensin and VIP. Gut, 24(5), 448-452.
  • Bloom, S. R., Yiangou, Y., Polak, J. M., Bloom, S. R., Yiangou, Y., & Polak, J. M. (1988). Vasoactive intestinal peptide secreting tumors. Pathophysiological and clinical correlations. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 527, 518-527.
  • Booth, I. W., Fenton, T. R., Milla, P. J., Harries, J. T., Booth, I. W., Fenton, T. R., et al. (1983). A pathophysiological study of the intestinal manifestations of a vasoactive intestinal peptide, calcitonin, and catecholamine-secreting tumour. Gut, 24(10), 954-959.
  • Brunet, J., Saudin, F., Cochat, P., Chayvialle, J. A., Descos, B., Treuner, J., et al. (1988). [Metastatic neuroblastoma with secondary hypersecretion of vasoactive intestinal peptide]. Pediatrie, 43(5), 415-417.
  • Brunt, L. M., Mazoujian, G., O'Dorisio, T. M., Wells, S. A., Jr., Brunt, L. M., Mazoujian, G., et al. (1994). Stimulation of vasoactive intestinal peptide and neurotensin secretion by pentagastrin in a patient with VIPoma syndrome. Surgery, 115(3), 362-369.
  • Burns, G., Baker, D. J., Brown, B. L., Dobson, P. R., Burns, G., Baker, D. J., et al. (1987). Effect of opioid peptides and potassium on the release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and thyrotropin releasing hormone from perifused rat hypothalami. Life Sciences, 40(10), 951-957.
  • Burns, G., Brown, B. L., Dobson, P. R., Burns, G., Brown, B. L., & Dobson, P. R. (1988). Diurnal variation in the effect of potassium depolarization on vasoactive intestinal polypeptide release from rat hypothalamus: a possible role for adrenaline. Journal of Endocrinology, 116(3), 335-341.
  • Calvo, J. J., De Carvalho, L. F., Gonzalez, R., Burnet, P. W., Ghatei, M. A., Bloom, S. R., et al. (1990). Effect of ACTH on VIP and galanin release from the pituitary. Endocrinology, 126(2), 1283-1287.
  • Chaen, T., Watanabe, N., Mogi, G., Mori, K., Takeyama, M., Chaen, T., et al. (1993). Substance P and vasoactive intestinal peptide in nasal secretions and plasma from patients with nasal allergy. Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology, 102(1 Pt 1), 16-21.
  • Chaiseha, Y., Youngren, O. M., el Halawani, M. E., Chaiseha, Y., Youngren, O. M., & el Halawani, M. E. (1997). Dopamine receptors influence vasoactive intestinal peptide release from turkey hypothalamic explants. Neuroendocrinology, 65(6), 423-429.
  • Chaiseha, Y., Youngren, O. M., El Halawani, M. E., Chaiseha, Y., Youngren, O. M., & El Halawani, M. E. (1998). Vasoactive intestinal peptide secretion by turkey hypothalamic explants. Biology of Reproduction, 59(3), 670-675.
  • Chayvialle, J. A., Miyata, M., Rayford, P. L., Thompson, J. C., Chayvialle, J. A., Miyata, M., et al. (1980). Release of vasoactive intestinal peptide by distention of the proximal stomach in dogs. Gut, 21(9), 745-749.
  • Cheung, C. Y., & Cheung, C. Y. (1988). Ontogeny of adrenal VIP content and release from adrenocortical cells in the ovine fetus. Peptides, 9(1), 107-111.
  • Chijiiwa, Y., Misawa, T., Ibayashi, H., Chijiiwa, Y., Misawa, T., & Ibayashi, H. (1986). Evidence of local mechanism involvement in vasoactive intestinal polypeptide release from canine small intestine. Gastroenterology, 90(6), 1877-1881.
  • Christiansen, J., Bech, A., Fahrenkrug, J., Holst, J. J., Lauritsen, K., Moody, A. J., et al. (1979). Fat-induced jejunal inhibition of gastric acid secretion and release of pancreatic glucagon, enteroglucagon, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in man. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 14(2), 161-166.

C*ollin, P. P., Schmidt, M., Bensoussan, A., Blanchard, H., Desjardins, J. G., Collin, P. P., et al. (1979). Neurogenic tumors and VIP-induced diarrhea. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 14(5), 525-526.

  • Contreras, L. N., Budd, D., Yen, T. S., Thomas, C., Tyrrell, J. B., Contreras, L. N., et al. (1991). Adrenal ganglioneuroma-pheochromocytoma secreting vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Western Journal of Medicine, 154(3), 334-337.
  • Cooney, D. R., Voorhess, M. L., Fisher, J. E., Brecher, M., Karp, M. P., Jewett, T. C., et al. (1982). Vasoactive intestinal peptide producing neuroblastoma. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 17(6), 821-825.
  • Davies, R. P., Slavotinek, J. P., Dorney, S. F., Davies, R. P., Slavotinek, J. P., & Dorney, S. F. (1990). VIP secreting tumours in infancy. A review of radiological appearances. Pediatric Radiology, 20(7), 504-508.
  • Devine, B. L., Carmichael, H. A., Russell, R. I., Joffe, S. N., Devine, B. L., Carmichael, H. A., et al. (1978). Cyclical release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) from a pancreatic islet cell apudoma. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 54(634), 566-570.
  • Dobrzanska, A., Rowecka-Trzebicka, R., Socha, J., Stodulski, J., Wozniewicz, B., Dobrzanska, A., et al. (1983). [VIPoma as a cause of chronic diarrhea in a 3-year-old boy]. Pediatria Polska, 58(1), 103-107.
  • Doi, R., Tsukada, T., Doi, R., & Tsukada, T. (2006). [Vasoactive intestinal peptide-producing tumor (ViPoma)]. Nippon Rinsho - Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine, Suppl 3, 358-362.
  • Dorney, S. F., Kamath, K. R., Shulkes, A. A., Middleton, A. W., Dorney, S. F., Kamath, K. R., et al. (1984). Watery diarrhoea and a vasoactive intestinal peptide secreting ganglioneuroma. Medical Journal of Australia, 140(2), 97-99.
  • Eklund, S., Fahrenkrug, J., Jodal, M., Lundgren, O., Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O. B., Sjoqvist, A., et al. (1980). Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, 5-hydroxytryptamine and reflex hyperaemia in the small intestine of the cat. Journal of Physiology, 302, 549-557.
  • Eklund, S., Sjoqvist, A., Fahrenkrug, J., Jodal, M., Lundgren, O., Eklund, S., et al. (1988). Somatostatin and methionine-enkephalin inhibit cholera toxin-induced jejunal net fluid secretion and release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the cat in vivo. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 133(4), 551-557.
  • El Shafie, M., Samuel, D., Klippel, C. H., Robinson, M. G., Cullen, B. J., El Shafie, M., et al. (1983). Intractable diarrhea in children with VIP-secreting ganglioneuroblastomas. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 18(1), 34-36.
  • Emson, P. C., Fahrenkrug, J., Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O. B., Jessell, T. M., Iversen, L. L., Emson, P. C., et al. (1978). Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP): vesicular localization and potassium evoked release from rat hypothalamus. Brain Research, 143(1), 174-178.
  • Fahrenkrug, J., Galbo, H., Holst, J. J., Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O. B., Fahrenkrug, J., Galbo, H., et al. (1978). Influence of the autonomic nervous system on the release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide from the porcine gastrointestinal tract. Journal of Physiology, 280, 405-422.
  • Fahrenkrug, J., Haglund, U., Jodal, M., Lundgren, O., Olbe, L., de Muckadell, O. B., et al. (1978). Nervous release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the gastrointestinal tract of cats: possible physiological implications. Journal of Physiology, 284, 291-305.
  • Fahrenkrug, J., Ottesen, B., Fahrenkrug, J., & Ottesen, B. (1982). Nervous release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide from the feline uterus: pharmacological characteristics. Journal of Physiology, 331, 451-460.
  • Fahrenkrug, J., Pedersen, J. H., Fahrenkrug, J., & Pedersen, J. H. (1986). Cosecretion of peptide histidine methionine (PHM) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in patients with VIP-producing tumors. Peptides, 7(5), 717-721.
  • Fahrenkrug, J., Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O. B., Holst, J. J., Jensen, S. L., Fahrenkrug, J., Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O. B., et al. (1979). Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in vagally mediated pancreatic secretion of fluid and HCO3. American Journal of Physiology, 237(6), E535-540.
  • Faurel, J. P., Bernard, P., Saigot, T., Bousquet, O., Sarrazin, A., Faurel, J. P., et al. (1982). [A case of VIP and somatostatin-secreting phaeochromocytoma (author's transl)]. Nouvelle Presse Medicale, 11(19), 1483-1485.
  • Feliciano, L., Henning, R. J., Feliciano, L., & Henning, R. J. (1998). Vagal nerve stimulation releases vasoactive intestinal peptide which significantly increases coronary artery blood flow. Cardiovascular Research, 40(1), 45-55.
  • Fisher, B. M., MacPhee, G. J., Davies, D. L., McPherson, S. G., Brown, I. L., Goldberg, A., et al. (1987). A case of watery diarrhoea syndrome due to an adrenal phaeochromocytoma secreting vasoactive intestinal polypeptide with coincidental autoimmune thyroid disease. Acta Endocrinologica, 114(3), 340-344.
  • Fox-Threlkeld, J. A., McDonald, T. J., Cipris, S., Woskowska, Z., Daniel, E. E., Fox-Threlkeld, J. A., et al. (1991). Galanin inhibition of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide release and circular muscle motility in the isolated perfused canine ileum. Gastroenterology, 101(6), 1471-1476.
  • Fox-Threlkeld, J. E., Manaka, H., Manaka, Y., Cipris, S., Daniel, E. E., Fox-Threlkeld, J. E., et al. (1991). Stimulation of circular muscle motility of the isolated perfused canine ileum: relationship to VIP output. Peptides, 12(5), 1039-1045.
  • Gaspo, R., Yamaguchi, N., de Champlain, J., Gaspo, R., Yamaguchi, N., & de Champlain, J. (1995). Correlation between neural release of VIP and adrenomedullary catecholamine secretion in vivo. American Journal of Physiology, 268(6 Pt 2), R1449-1455.
  • Gavalda, A., Benyassi, A., Arancibia, S., Armario, A., Gavalda, A., Benyassi, A., et al. (1993). Chronic but not acute exposure to stress is associated with hypothalamic vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) release into median eminence. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 5(4), 421-425.
  • Gerkema, M. P., Shinohara, K., Kimura, F., Gerkema, M. P., Shinohara, K., & Kimura, F. (1999). Lack of circadian patterns in vasoactive intestinal polypeptide release and variability in vasopressin release in vole suprachiasmatic nuclei in vitro. Neuroscience Letters, 259(2), 107-110.
  • Goiny, M., Uvnas-Moberg, K., Goiny, M., & Uvnas-Moberg, K. (1986). Effects of dopaminomimetics on the secretion of VIP-like immunoreactivity in conscious dogs. Peptides, 7 Suppl 1, 221-224.
  • Granot, E., Deckelbaum, R. J., Schiller, M., Okon, E., Goder, K., Landau, H., et al. (1983). Vasoactive intestinal peptide-secreting tumor appearing as growth failure. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 137(12), 1203-1204.
  • Greczi, K., Kuronya, P., Krutsay, M., Greczi, K., Kuronya, P., & Krutsay, M. (1995). [Vasoactive polypeptide-producing pancreatic carcinoma]. Orvosi Hetilap, 136(37), 2009-2011.
  • Gwynne, R. M., Ellis, M., Sjovall, H., Bornstein, J. C., Gwynne, R. M., Ellis, M., et al. (2009). Cholera toxin induces sustained hyperexcitability in submucosal secretomotor neurons in guinea pig jejunum. Gastroenterology, 136(1), 299-308.e294.
  • Hansen, L. P., Lund, H. T., Fahrenkrug, J., Sogaard, H., Hansen, L. P., Lund, H. T., et al. (1980). Vasocative intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-producing ganglioneuroma in a child with chronic diarrhea. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, 69(3), 419-424.
  • Harty, R. F., Jain, D. K., McGuigan, J. E., Harty, R. F., Jain, D. K., & McGuigan, J. E. (1988). Mechanisms of vasoactive intestinal peptide release in short-term culture of vasoactive intestinal peptide-producing tumor. Gastroenterology, 94(2), 513-518.
  • Herrera, M. F., Stone, E., Deitel, M., Asa, S. L., Herrera, M. F., Stone, E., et al. (1992). Pheochromocytoma producing multiple vasoactive peptides. Archives of Surgery, 127(1), 105-108.
  • Hill, P., Thijssen, J. H., Garbaczewski, L., Koppeschaar, H. P., de Waard, F., Hill, P., et al. (1986). VIP and prolactin release in response to meals. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 21(8), 958-960.
  • Honma, S., Katsuno, Y., Tanahashi, Y., Abe, H., Honma, K., Honma, S., et al. (1998). Circadian rhythms of arginine vasopressin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide do not depend on cytoarchitecture of dispersed cell culture of rat suprachiasmatic nucleus. Neuroscience, 86(3), 967-976.
  • Hotta, H., Ito, H., Matsuda, K., Sato, A., Tohgi, H., Hotta, H., et al. (1991). Age-related changes in rates of basal secretion of immunoreactive vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and dopamine into pituitary stalk blood from the hypothalamus in anesthetized male rats. Japanese Journal of Physiology, 41(2), 317-325.
  • Humphrey, C. S., Fischer, J. E., Humphrey, C. S., & Fischer, J. E. (1978). Peptidergic versus purinergic nerves. Lancet, 1(8060), 390.
  • Iida, Y., Nose, O., Kai, H., Okada, A., Mori, T., Lee, P. K., et al. (1980). Watery diarrhoea with a vasoactive intestinal peptide-producing ganglioneuroblastoma. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 55(12), 929-936.
  • Inoue, T., Kato, Y., Koshiyama, H., Yanaihara, N., Imura, H., Inoue, T., et al. (1988). Galanin stimulates the release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide from perifused hypothalamic fragments in vitro and from periventricular structures into the cerebrospinal fluid in vivo in the rat. Neuroscience Letters, 85(1), 95-100.
  • Iselin, C. E., Martin, J. L., Magistretti, P. J., Ferrero, J. D., Iselin, C. E., Martin, J. L., et al. (1988). Stimulation by nicotine of enteric inhibitory nerves and release of vasoactive intestinal peptide in the taenia of the guinea-pig caecum. European Journal of Pharmacology, 148(2), 179-186.
  • Ito, Z., & Ito, Z. (1977). [WDHA syndrome (watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and achlorhydria)]. Nippon Rinsho - Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine, 35 Suppl 1, 896-897.
  • Jakober, B., Kloppel, G., Schafmayer, A., Eggstein, M., Jakober, B., Kloppel, G., et al. (1984). [Hormone active tumor with production of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide]. Medizinische Welt, 35(1-2), 85-91.
  • Jensen, S. L., Aggestrup, S., Fahrenkrug, J., Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O. B., Sanchez Almeyra, R., Jensen, S. L., et al. (1990). [Electric stimulation of the autonomic nervous system and vasoactive intestinal peptide and substance P release on the lower esophageal sphincter]. Acta Gastroenterologica Latinoamericana, 20(3), 131-136.
  • Jenssen, T. G., Burhol, P. G., Jorde, R., Jenssen, T. G., Burhol, P. G., & Jorde, R. (1985). Release of gastrointestinal regulatory peptides after a soap enema. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 20(6), 762-766.
  • Judge, D. M., Demers, L. M., Nahrwold, D. L., Dickman, P. S., Petrokubi, R. J., Trapukdi, S., et al. (1977). Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and gastrin-producing islet cell carcinoma. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 101(5), 262-265.
  • Kaji, H., Chihara, K., Minamitani, N., Kodama, H., Yanaihara, N., Fujita, T., et al. (1983). Release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide into the cerebrospinal fluid of the fourth ventricle of the rat: involvement of cholinergic mechanism. Brain Research, 269(2), 303-310.
  • Kaneko, T., Okuya, S., Kaneko, T., & Okuya, S. (1986). [WDHA (watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and achlorhydria) syndrome]. Nippon Rinsho - Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine, 44(7), 1645-1649.
  • Kaplan, S. J., Holbrook, C. T., McDaniel, H. G., Buntain, W. L., Crist, W. M., Kaplan, S. J., et al. (1980). Vasoactive intestinal peptide secreting tumors of childhood. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 134(1), 21-24.
  • Kawanaka, M., Ohiwa, N., Toyooka, K., Matsuoka, T., Mori, T., Kakishita, E., et al. (1978). [A syndrome of watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and hypochlorhydria caused by vasoactive-intestinal-polypeptide producing tumor (author's transl)]. Nippon Naika Gakkai Zasshi - Journal of Japanese Society of Internal Medicine, 67(12), 1546-1554.
  • Kiliaan, A. J., Scholten, G., Groot, J. A., Kiliaan, A. J., Scholten, G., & Groot, J. A. (1997). Exocytotic release of vasoative intestinal polypeptide and serotonin from mucosal nerve fibres and endocrine cells of the intestine of the goldfish (Carassius auratus) and the tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus): an ultrastructural study. Histochemical Journal, 29(1), 45-51.
  • Krejs, G. J., & Krejs, G. J. (1987). VIPoma syndrome. American Journal of Medicine, 82(5B), 37-48.
  • Kudo, K., Kitajima, S., Munakata, H., Yagihashi, S., Kudo, K., Kitajima, S., et al. (1982). WDHA syndrome caused by VIP-producing ganglioneuroblastoma. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 17(4), 426-428.
  • Leonardi, R., Toffoli, C., Rigamonti, L., Rigamonti, D., Gambassi, G., Greco, A., et al. (1981). [Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in digestive processes in the Verner Morrison syndrome]. Minerva Medica, 72(26), 1707-1711.
  • Li, J. T., Peng, S. Y., Liu, Y. B., Fang, H. Q., Wu, Y. L., Wang, X. B., et al. (2004). [Diagnosis and treatment of vasoactive intestinal peptide-secreting-tumors: one case report and 15 years review in China]. Chung-Hua Wai Ko Tsa Chih [Chinese Journal of Surgery], 42(9), 524-527.
  • Long, R. G., Bryant, M. G., Yuille, P. M., Polak, J. M., Bloom, S. R., Long, R. G., et al. (1981). Mixed pancreatic apudoma with symptoms of excess vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and insulin: improvement of diarrhoea with metoclopramide. Gut, 22(6), 505-511.
  • Lundberg, J. M., Anggard, A., Fahrenkrug, J., Lundberg, J. M., Anggard, A., & Fahrenkrug, J. (1981). Complementary role of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and acetylcholine for cat submandibular gland blood flow and secretion. I. VIP release. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 113(3), 317-327.
  • Lundberg, J. M., Anggard, A., Fahrenkrug, J., Lundberg, J. M., Anggard, A., & Fahrenkrug, J. (1981). Complementary role of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and acetylcholine for cat submandibular gland blood flow and secretion. II. Effects of cholinergic antagonists and VIP antiserum. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 113(3), 329-336.
  • Lundberg, J. M., Fahrenkrug, J., Larsson, O., Anggard, A., Lundberg, J. M., Fahrenkrug, J., et al. (1984). Corelease of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and peptide histidine isoleucine in relation to atropine-resistant vasodilation in cat submandibular salivary gland. Neuroscience Letters, 52(1-2), 37-42.
  • Manaka, H., Manaka, Y., Kostolanska, F., Fox, J. E., Daniel, E. E., Manaka, H., et al. (1989). Release of VIP and substance P from isolated perfused canine ileum. American Journal of Physiology, 257(2 Pt 1), G182-190.
  • Manfredi, R., Vezzadini, P., Fanti, M. P., Chiodo, F., Manfredi, R., Vezzadini, P., et al. (1994). Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) secretion and refractory diarrhea in patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex (ARC). Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 26(1), 55-57.
  • Martinez, C., Delgado, M., Abad, C., Gomariz, R. P., Ganea, D., Leceta, J., et al. (1999). Regulation of VIP production and secretion by murine lymphocytes. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 93(1-2), 126-138.
  • Masel, S. L., Brennan, B. A., Turner, J. H., Cullingford, G. L., Cullen, D. J., Masel, S. L., et al. (2000). Pancreatic vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-oma as a cause of secretory diarrhoea. Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 15(4), 457-460.
  • Matsuo, Y., & Matsuo, Y. (1978). [WDHA (watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and achlorhydria) syndrome]. Nippon Rinsho - Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine, Suppl, 2224-2225.
  • Misawa, T., Aramaki, J., Chijiiwa, Y., Kabemura, T., Nasu, T., Nawata, H., et al. (1990). Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide response to ethanol in dogs. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, 161(1), 49-54.
  • Modlin, I. M., Bloom, S. R., Mitchell, S., Modlin, I. M., Bloom, S. R., & Mitchell, S. (1978). VIP: the cause of the watery diarrhoea syndrome. Advances in Experimental Medicine & Biology, 106, 195-201.
  • Modlin, I. M., Bloom, S. R., Mitchell, S., Modlin, I. M., Bloom, S. R., & Mitchell, S. (1979). VIP and the WDHA syndrome. Gastroenterology, 76(5 Pt 1), 1078-1079.
  • Modlin, I. M., Shulkes, A., Lamers, C., Walsh, J. H., Modlin, I. M., Shulkes, A., et al. (1979). Release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide from the pancreas. Surgical Forum, 30, 405-407.
  • Nakamura, W., Honma, S., Shirakawa, T., Honma, K., Nakamura, W., Honma, S., et al. (2001). Regional pacemakers composed of multiple oscillator neurons in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus. European Journal of Neuroscience, 14(4), 666-674.
  • Nigawara, K., Suzuki, T., Onodera, T., Fukui, K., Togashi, S., Funyu, T., et al. (1987). [Watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, achlorhydria syndrome due to recurrent malignant pheochromocytoma]. Nippon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi - Folia Endocrinologica Japonica, 63(8), 923-933.
  • Nowak, T. V., Chey, W. W., Chang, T. M., Weisbruch, J. P., Fouquet, G., Nowak, T. V., et al. (1995). Effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus on release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide from rodent small intestine. Digestive Diseases & Sciences, 40(4), 828-836.
  • Oberg, K., Bostrom, H., Fahrenkrug, J., Dymling, J. F., Shaffalitsky de Muckadell, O. B., Lundqvist, G., et al. (1979). Streptozotocin treatment of a pancreatic tumour producing VIP and gastrin associated with Verner-Morrison syndrome. Acta Medica Scandinavica, 206(3), 223-227.
  • Ozawa, Y., Shishiba, Y., Ozawa, Y., & Shishiba, Y. (1982). [Mechanism of diarrhea and WDHA syndrome]. Nippon Rinsho - Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine, 40(5), 1151-1157.
  • Pais, S. O., & Pais, S. O. (1978). Angiographic demonstration of a vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-secreting pheochromocytoma in a patient with WDHA syndrome. AJR American Journal of Roentgenology, 130(1), 172-174.
  • Parkman, H. P., Malet, P. F., Ogorek, C. P., Burke, D. R., Deveney, C. W., Parkman, H. P., et al. (1988). Preoperative localization of a vasoactive intestinal peptide-secreting tumor by transhepatic portal venous sampling. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 83(5), 559-563.
  • Pederson, R., O'Dorisio, T., Howe, B., McIntosh, C., Mueller, M., Brown, J., et al. (1981). Vagal release of IR-VIP and IR-gastrin from the isolated perfused rat stomach. Molecular & Cellular Endocrinology, 23(2), 225-231.
  • Quak, S. H., Prabhakaran, K., Kwok, R., O'Reilly, A. P., Quak, S. H., Prabhakaran, K., et al. (1988). Vasoactive intestinal peptide secreting tumours in children: a case report with literature review. Australian Paediatric Journal, 24(1), 55-58.
  • Reid, A. M., Shulkes, A., Titchen, D. A., Reid, A. M., Shulkes, A., & Titchen, D. A. (1985). Gastric and intestinal release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the milk-fed lamb. Regulatory Peptides, 12(1), 43-50.
  • Rescorla, F. J., Vane, D. W., Fitzgerald, J. F., West, K. W., Grosfeld, J. L., Rescorla, F. J., et al. (1988). Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-secreting ganglioneuromatosis affecting the entire colon and rectum. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 23(7), 635-637.
  • Reubi, J. C., Heitz, P. U., Gyr, K., Reubi, J. C., Heitz, P. U., & Gyr, K. (1987). Vasoactive intestinal peptide producing tumour contains high density of somatostatin receptors. Lancet, 1(8535), 741-742.
  • Rodriguez, M. M., Regalado, J. J., Zaleski, C. G., Thomas, C., Tamer, A. M., Rodriguez, M. M., et al. (2000). Chronic watery diarrhea in a 22-month-old girl. Journal of Pediatrics, 136(2), 262-265.
  • Rolandi, E., Reggiani, E., Franceschini, R., Arras, G. B., Cataldi, A., de Lucia, F., et al. (1988). Prolactin release induced by physical exercise is independent from peripheral vasoactive intestinal polypeptide secretion. Annals of Clinical Research, 20(6), 428-430.
  • Sackel, S. G., Manson, J. E., Harawi, S. J., Burakoff, R., Sackel, S. G., Manson, J. E., et al. (1985). Watery diarrhea syndrome due to an adrenal pheochromocytoma secreting vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Digestive Diseases & Sciences, 30(12), 1201-1207.
  • Said, S. I., & Said, S. I. (1976). Evidence for secretion of vasoactive intestinal peptide by tumours of pancreas, adrenal medulla, thyroid and lung: support for the unifying APUD concept. Clinical Endocrinology, 5 Suppl, 201S-204S.
  • Sakaguchi, A., Tajiri, T., Shima, Y., Nishi, S., Nishioka, S., Yataka, I., et al. (1982). [An autopsy case of WDHA syndrome]. Nippon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi - Japanese Journal of Gastroenterology, 79(10), 1991-1994.
  • Sakio, H., Okuda, C., Yoshida, Y., Said, S. I., Sakio, H., Okuda, C., et al. (1980). [Release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide during acute hypoxia and acute respiratory acidosis (author's transl)]. Kokyu to Junkan - Respiration & Circulation, 28(10), 1161-1166.
  • Sanchez-Vicente, C., Rodriguez-Nodal, F., Minguela, A., Garcia, L. J., San Roman, J. I., Calvo, J. J., et al. (1995). Cholinergic pathways are involved in secretin and VIP release and the exocrine pancreatic response after intraduodenally perfused acetic and lactic acids in the rat. Pancreas, 10(1), 93-99.
  • Sandstrom, R., Alhava, E. M., Poikolainen, E., Puittinen, J., Soimakallio, S., Sandstrom, R., et al. (1981). Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) secreting tumour of the pancreas. Annales Chirurgiae et Gynaecologiae, 70(3), 124-127.
  • Sandstrom, R., Alhava, E. M., Poikolainen, E., Puittinen, J., Soimakallio, S., Sandstrom, R., et al. (1981). [Vipoma of the pancreas]. Duodecim, 97(6), 335-339.
  • Sano, T., Saito, H., Inaba, H., Hizawa, K., Saito, S., Yamanoi, A., et al. (1983). Immunoreactive somatostatin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in adrenal pheochromocytoma. An immunochemical and ultrastructural study. Cancer, 52(2), 282-289.
  • Santavirta, N., Konttinen, Y. T., Tornwall, J., Segerberg, M., Santavirta, S., Matucci-Cerinic, M., et al. (1997). Neuropeptides of the autonomic nervous system in Sjogren's syndrome. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 56(12), 737-740.
  • Sarkar, D. K., & Sarkar, D. K. (1989). Evidence for prolactin feedback actions on hypothalamic oxytocin, vasoactive intestinal peptide and dopamine secretion. Neuroendocrinology, 49(5), 520-524.
  • Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O. B., Fahrenkrug, J., Holst, J. J., Lauritsen, K. B., Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O. B., Fahrenkrug, J., et al. (1977). Release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) by intraduodenal stimuli. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 12, 793-799.
  • Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O. B., Fahrenkrug, J., Holst, J. J., Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O. B., Fahrenkrug, J., & Holst, J. J. (1977). Release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) by electric stimulation of the vagal nerves. Gastroenterology, 72(2), 373-375.
  • Schmidt, P., Rasmussen, T. N., Holst, J. J., Schmidt, P., Rasmussen, T. N., & Holst, J. J. (1993). Release of immunoreactive somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), and galanin during propulsive complexes in isolated pig ileum. Peptides, 14(2), 215-220.
  • Sheu, H. W., Chou, S. Y., Yang, K. C., Kao, C. R., Yang, T. L., Shih, C. C., et al. (1989). Pancreatic vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-secreting tumor: report of a case. Taiwan i Hsueh Hui Tsa Chih - Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 88(9), 931-935.
  • Shimatsu, A., Kato, Y., Matsushita, N., Katakami, H., Ohta, H., Yanaihara, N., et al. (1983). Effect of prostaglandin E1 on vasoactive intestinal polypeptide release from the hypothalamus and on prolactin secretion from the pituitary in rats. Endocrinology, 113(6), 2059-2064.
  • Shimatsu, A., Kato, Y., Matsushita, N., Katakami, H., Ohta, H., Yanaihara, N., et al. (1983). Serotonin stimulates vasoactive intestinal polypeptide release from rat hypothalamus in vitro. Brain Research, 264(1), 148-151.
  • Shimatsu, A., Kato, Y., Matsushita, N., Ohta, H., Kabayama, Y., Yanaihara, N., et al. (1984). Prostaglandin D2 stimulates vasoactive intestinal polypeptide release into rat hypophysial portal blood. Peptides, 5(2), 395-398.
  • Shulman, D. I., McClenathan, D. T., Harmel, R. P., Qualman, S. J., O'Dorisio, T. M., Shulman, D. I., et al. (1996). Ganglioneuromatosis involving the small intestine and pancreas of a child and causing hypersecretion of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, 22(2), 212-218.
  • Silva, P., Stoff, J. S., Solomon, R. J., Lear, S., Kniaz, D., Greger, R., et al. (1987). Atrial natriuretic peptide stimulates salt secretion by shark rectal gland by releasing VIP. American Journal of Physiology, 252(1 Pt 2), F99-103.
  • Sjoqvist, A., Fahrenkrug, J., Jodal, M., Lundgren, O., Sjoqvist, A., Fahrenkrug, J., et al. (1983). Effect of apamin on release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) from the cat intestines. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 119(1), 69-76.
  • Sjoqvist, A., Fahrenkrug, J., Jodal, M., Lundgren, O., Sjoqvist, A., Fahrenkrug, J., et al. (1988). The effect of splanchnic nerve stimulation and neuropeptide Y on cholera secretion and release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the feline small intestine. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 133(3), 289-295.
  • Sjoqvist, A., Fahrenkrug, J., Sjoqvist, A., & Fahrenkrug, J. (1986). Sympathetic nerve activation decreases the release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide from the feline intestine. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 127(4), 419-423.
  • Sjoqvist, A., Fahrenkrug, J., Sjoqvist, A., & Fahrenkrug, J. (1987). Release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide anally of a local distension of the feline small intestine. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 130(3), 433-438.
  • Smith, S. L., Branton, S. A., Avino, A. J., Martin, J. K., Klingler, P. J., Thompson, G. B., et al. (1998). Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide secreting islet cell tumors: a 15-year experience and review of the literature. Surgery, 124(6), 1050-1055.
  • Takano, M., Takano, Y., Yaksh, T. L., Takano, M., Takano, Y., & Yaksh, T. L. (1993). Release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) from rat spinal cord: modulation by alpha 2 agonists. Peptides, 14(2), 371-378.
  • Taylor, A. R., Chulajata, D., Jones, D. H., Whitwam, J. G., Taylor, A. R., Chulajata, D., et al. (1977). Adrenal tumour secreting vasoactive intestinal peptide and noradrenaline. Anaesthesia, 32(10), 1012-1016.
  • Thomas, M. L., Lamb, G. H., Barraclough, M. A., Thomas, M. L., Lamb, G. H., & Barraclough, M. A. (1976). Angiographic demonstration of a pancreatic "vipoma" in the WDHA syndrome. AJR American Journal of Roentgenology, 127(6), 1037-1039.
  • Thomason, J. W., Martin, R. S., Fincher, M. E., Thomason, J. W., Martin, R. S., & Fincher, M. E. (2000). Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy: the definitive technique for characterizing vasoactive intestinal peptide-secreting tumors. Clinical Nuclear Medicine, 25(9), 661-664.
  • Tiedemann, K., Pritchard, J., Long, R., Bloom, S. R., Tiedemann, K., Pritchard, J., et al. (1981). Intractable diarrhoea in a patient with vasoactive intestinal peptide-secreting neuroblastoma. Attempted control by somatostatin. European Journal of Pediatrics, 137(2), 217-219.
  • Tillotson, L. G., Lodestro, C., Hocker, M., Wiedenmann, B., Newcomer, C. E., Reid, L. M., et al. (2001). Isolation, maintenance, and characterization of human pancreatic islet tumor cells expressing vasoactive intestinal peptide. Pancreas, 22(1), 91-98.
  • Tolia, V., Dubois, R. S., Philippart, A. I., Kagalwalla, A., Watts, F. B., Jr., Chang, C. H., et al. (1983). A case of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide secreting ganglioneuroma complicated by parasitic infestations. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 78(12), 799-801.
  • Tominaga, K., Inouye, S. I., Okamura, H., Tominaga, K., Inouye, S. I., & Okamura, H. (1994). Organotypic slice culture of the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus: sustenance of cellular architecture and circadian rhythm. Neuroscience, 59(4), 1025-1042.
  • Tomita, S., & Tomita, S. (1982). [Studies on VIP release and its mechanism in normal subjects and patients with various diseases (author's transl)]. Nippon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi - Japanese Journal of Gastroenterology, 79(3), 798-807.
  • Uvnas-Moberg, K., Goiny, M., Blomquist, L. E., Elwin, C. E., Uvnas-Moberg, K., Goiny, M., et al. (1984). Release of VIP-like immunoreactivity in response to dopamine agonists, insulin hypoglycemia and feeding in conscious dogs. Peptides, 5(2), 399-402.
  • Voorhess, M. L., & Voorhess, M. L. (1980). Functioning tumors. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 134(1), 14-15.
  • Wallin, C., Grupcev, G., Emas, S., Theodorsson, E., Hellstrom, P. M., Wallin, C., et al. (1995). Release of somatostatin, neurotensin and vasoactive intestinal peptide upon inhibition of gastric acid secretion by duodenal acid and hyperosmolal solutions in the conscious rat. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 154(2), 193-203.
  • Wang, J. Y., Yaksh, T. L., Go, V. L., Wang, J. Y., Yaksh, T. L., & Go, V. L. (1985). Studies on the in vivo release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) from the cerebral cortex: effects of cortical, brainstem and somatic stimuli. Brain Research, 326(2), 317-334.
  • Watanobe, H., Sasaki, S., Watanobe, H., & Sasaki, S. (1995). Effect of thyroid status on the prolactin-releasing action of vasoactive intestinal peptide in humans: comparison with the action of thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Neuroendocrinology, 61(2), 207-212.
  • Watson, K. J., Shulkes, A., Smallwood, R. A., Douglas, M. C., Hurley, R., Kalnins, R., et al. (1985). Watery diarrhea-hypokalemia-achlorhydria syndrome and carcinoma of the esophagus. Gastroenterology, 88(3), 798-803.
  • Wesley, J. R., Vinik, A. I., O'Dorisio, T. M., Glaser, B., Fink, A., Wesley, J. R., et al. (1982). A new syndrome of symptomatic cutaneous mastocytoma producing vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Gastroenterology, 82(5 Pt 1), 963-967.
  • Weyman, C., Dolson, L., Kedar, A., Weyman, C., Dolson, L., & Kedar, A. (1993). Secretion of vasointestinal peptide by a primary liver tumor with rhabdoid features. Journal of Surgical Oncology, 54(4), 267-270.

Wolfe, M. M., Misbin, R. I., Gardner, D. F., McGuigan, J. E., Wolfe, M. M., Misbin, R. I., et al. (1983). Enteric release of vasoactive intestinal peptide after a peptone meal in the dog. Regulatory Peptides, 5(2), 103-109.

  • Woltering, E. A., O'Dorisio, T. M., Mekhjian, H. S., Ellison, E. C., Dyben, T., Howe, B. A., et al. (1986). The response of a non-functional VIP- and somatostatin-containing tumour to tolbutamide in vitro. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - Supplement, 119, 129-135.
  • Wu, H. G., Jiang, B., Zhou, E. H., Shi, Z., Shi, D. R., Cui, Y. H., et al. (2008). Regulatory mechanism of electroacupuncture in irritable bowel syndrome: preventing MC activation and decreasing SP VIP secretion. Digestive Diseases & Sciences, 53(6), 1644-1651.
  • Yamaguchi, K., Abe, K., Yamaguchi, K., & Abe, K. (1979). [Clinical aspects of gut hormone-producing tumors (author's transl)]. Horumon to Rinsho - Clinical Endocrinology, 27(12), 1363-1378.

Yang, Z. D., Ning, M. F., Yang, H. B., Yang, Z. D., Ning, M. F., & Yang, H. B. [Watery diarrhea-hypokalemia-achlorhydria syndrome due to retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma: a case report]. Chung-Hua Wai Ko Tsa Chih [Chinese Journal of Surgery], 25(9), 514-516.

  • Yasunami, Y., Funakoshi, A., Ryu, S., Shinozaki, H., Jimi, A., Miyazaki, K., et al. (1994). In vitro release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and pancreatic polypeptide from human VIPoma cells and its inhibition by somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995). Surgery, 115(6), 713-717.
  • Yeh, C. N., Chen, M. F., Chen, T. C., Yeh, C. N., Chen, M. F., & Chen, T. C. (2001). Surgical treatment of pancreatic vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-secreting tumor: a case report. Hepato-Gastroenterology, 48(38), 421-423.


External linksEdit


|}

Target-derived NGF, BDNF, NT-3

|}


|}

Target-derived NGF, BDNF, NT-3

|}


<1-- de:Vasoaktives intestinales Peptid es:Péptido vasoactivo intestinal -->

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki