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  • Variable ratio reinforcement (VR) schedules deliver reinforcement after a random number of responses (based upon a predetermined average)
    • Example: VR3 = on average, every third response is reinforced
    • Lab example: VR10 = on average, a rat is reinforced for each 10 bar presses
    • Real world example: VR37 = a roulette player betting on specific numbers will win on average one every 37 tries (on a U.S. roulette wheel, this would be VR38)

Comparision with variable interval reinforcementEdit

Neuroscience aspectsEdit

ReferencesEdit

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DissertationsEdit

  • Ahearn, W. H. (1992). Fixed-ratio versus tri-valued variable-ratio schedules: A critical test between geometric averaging and range as predictive descriptors of choice: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Albert, J. (1984). Behavior of the pigeon under self-yoked interval and ratio schedules of reinforcement: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bonem, E. J. (1989). The highest local density of reinforcement controls overall post-reinforcement pause duration on ratio schedules: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Borden, B. L. (1974). Resistance to extinction as a function of schedules of direct or vicarious reinforcement and amount of acquisition training: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Colotla, V. A. (1976). Analysis of schedule-induced drinking with ratio schedules of reinforcement: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Cross, S. M. (1978). A comparison of three response elimination procedures with institutionalized moderately retarded individuals following variable-ratio reinforcement training: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hellenthal, L. B. (1977). Behavioral contrast in the pigeon with multiple variable-ratio reinforcement schedules: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Johnson, T. A. (1977). A comparison of three response-elimination techniques among gerontological subjects: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Lande, S. D. (1979). An interresponse time analysis of variable-ratio punishment with pigeons: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Leibowitz, J. M. (1974). The effectiveness of two variants of the differential reinforcement paradigm in an alternative response context as a function of schedule of reinforcement and reinforcement history: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Mawhinney, T. C. (1976). An experimental analysis of the differing predictions of individual work behavior from operant and expectancy models: Performance of adults on continuous and variable ratio schedules of reinforcement: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Motheral, M. S. (1983). Optimal allocation of behavior: Ratio schedules: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Murray, V. D. (1975). Behavior modification: A comparison of a fixed-ratio with a variable-ratio schedule of reinforcement on adolescents in a residential setting: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Palmer, M. L. (2008). Normative characteristics of radial and ulnar grip strength and their ratio. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Peele, D. B. (1983). Factors contributing to the response rates maintained by variable-ratio and variable-interval schedules of reinforcement: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Pierre, P. J. (1995). The effect of caudate and nucleus accumbens lesions on the dynamic organization of progressive ratio responding. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Pratsinak, G. J. (1979). The effects of schedule-correlated stimuli on weight gain: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Reid, E. B. (1974). Response preference in children as a function of stimuli correlated with reinforcement: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Stephens, K. R. (1980). Preference reversal: Effects of ratio and reinforcement parameters: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Tremont, P. J. (1982). Behavioral variability under schedules of intermittent reinforcement: Dissertation Abstracts International.

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