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Vanilmandelic acid

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Vanilmandelic acid
Vanilmandelic acid
General
Systematic name  ?
Other names  ?
Molecular formula  ?
SMILES  ?
Molar mass  ?.?? g/mol
Appearance  ?
CAS number [?-?-?]
Properties
Density and phase  ? g/cm³, ?
Solubility in water  ? g/100 ml (?°C)
Melting point  ?°C (? K)
Boiling point  ?°C (? K)
Acidity (pKa)  ?
Basicity (pKb)  ?
Chiral rotation [α]D  ?°
Viscosity  ? cP at ?°C
Structure
Molecular shape  ?
Coordination
geometry
 ?
Crystal structure  ?
Dipole moment  ? D
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
Main hazards  ?
NFPA 704
Flash point  ?°C
R/S statement R: ?
S: ?
RTECS number  ?
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
Related compounds
Other anions  ?
Other cations  ?
Related ?  ?
Related compounds  ?
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references


Vanillyl mandelic acid (VMA) is an end-stage metabolite of the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine. It is produced via intermediary metabolites.

VMA is found in the urine, along with other catecholamine metabolites, including homovanillic acid (HVA), metanephrine, and normetanephrine. In timed urine tests the quantity excreted (usually per 24 hours) is assessed along with creatinine clearance, and the quantity of cortisols, catecholamines, and metanephrines excreted is also measured.

File:Noradrenaline breakdown.svg
Norepinephrine degradation. Vanillylmandelic acid is shown at top right. Enzymes are shown in boxes.[1]

Clinical significance Edit

Urinary VMA is elevated in patients with tumors that secrete catecholamines.[2]

These urinalysis tests are used to diagnose an adrenal gland tumor called pheochromocytoma, a tumor of catecholamine-secreting chromaffin cells. These tests may also be used to diagnose neuroblastomas, and to monitor treatment of these conditions.

Norepinephrine is metabolised into normetanephrine and VMA. Norepinephrine is one of the hormones produced by the adrenal glands, which are found on top of the kidneys. These hormones are released into the blood during times of physical or emotional stress, which are factors that may skew the results of the test. [citation needed]

References Edit

  1. Figure 11-4 in: Rod Flower; Humphrey P. Rang; Maureen M. Dale; Ritter, James M. (2007). Rang & Dale's pharmacology, Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
  2. Magera MJ, Thompson AL, Matern D, Rinaldo P (May 2003). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of vanillylmandelic acid in urine. Clin. Chem. 49 (5): 825–6.

Template:Tumor markers

{{Navbox | name = Neurotransmitter metabolism intermediates | title = Neurotransmitter metabolic intermediates | state = autocollapse|

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