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Personal and cultural valuesEdit

Each individual has a core of underlying values that contribute to our system of beliefs, ideas and/or opinions (see value in semiotics). Integrity in the application of a "value" ensures its continuity and this continuity separates a value from beliefs, opinion and ideas. In this context a value (e.g. Truth or Equality or Greed) is the core from which we operate or react. Societies have values that are shared among many of the participants in that culture. Individuals' values typically are largely but not entirely in agreement with their culture's values.

These values can be grouped into four categories:

A personal or cultural value is an absolute or relative ethical value, the assumption of which can be the basis for ethical action. A value system is a set of consistent values and measures. A principle value is a foundation upon which other values and measures of integrity are based. Those values which are not physiologically determined and normally considered objective, such as a desire to avoid physical pain, seek pleasure, etc., are considered subjective, vary across individuals and cultures and are in many ways aligned with belief and belief systems. Types of values include ethical/moral value, doctrinal/ideological (religious, political) values, social values, and aesthetic values. It is debated whether some values which are not clearly physiologically determined are intrinsic such as altruism and whether some such as acquisitiveness should be valued as vices or virtues. Values have typically been studied in sociology; anthropology; social psychology; moral philosophy and business ethics.

Values can be defined as broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of action or outcomes. As such, values reflect a person’s sense of right and wrong or what “ought” to be. “Equal rights for all”, "Excellence deserves admiration", and “People should be treated with respect and dignity” are representative of values. Values tend to influence attitudes and behavior. For example, if you value equal rights for all and you go to work for an organization that treats its managers much better than it does its workers, you may form the attitude that the company is an unfair place to work; consequently, you may not produce well or may perhaps leave the company. It is likely that if the company had a more egalitarian policy, your attitude and behaviors would have been more positive.

Personal valuesEdit

According to Morris Massey values are formed during three significant periods: 1. Imprint period from birth to 7 years. 2. Modelling period from 8 –14 years. 3. Socialization period from 15 –21 years.

Personal Values provide an internal reference for what is good, beneficial, important, useful, beautiful, desirable, constructive, etc. Values generate behaviour[citation needed] and help solve common human problems for survival by comparative rankings of value; the results of which provide answers to questions of why people do what they do and in what order they choose to do them.

Over time the public expression of personal values, that groups of people find important in their day-to-day lives, lay the foundations of law, custom and tradition. Personal Values in this way exist in relation to cultural values, either in agreement with or divergent from prevailing norms.[citation needed] A culture is a social system that shares a set of common values, in which such values permit social expectations and collective understandings of the good, beautiful, constructive, etc. Without normative personal values there would be no cultural reference against which to measure the virtue of individual values and so culture identity would disintegrate.

Wyatt Woodsmall points out that “'Criteria' are used to refer to 'the standards on which an evaluation is based'.”[citation needed] Values relate then to what one wants and in what order one wants them, criteria can only refer to the evidences for achieving values and act as a comparative standard that one applies in order to evaluate whether goals have been met / values satisfied.

Values are obtained in many different ways. The most important piece for building values is a persons family. Family is responsible for teaching children what is right and wrong long before there are other influences. As a child starts school, school helps some to shape the values of children. Then there is religion that the family introduces a child to that plays a role in teaching the right and wrong behaviors.

Cultural values Edit

File:Inglehart Values Map.svg
Cultures have values that are largely shared by their members. The values of a society can often be identified by noting which people receive honor or respect. In the US, for example, professional athletes at the top levels in some sports are honored (in the form of monetary payment) more than college professors. Surveys show that voters in the United States would be reluctant to elect an atheist as a president, suggesting that belief in God is a value. There is a difference between values clarification and cognitive moral education. Values clarification is, "helping people clarify what their lives are for and what is worth working for. Students are encouraged to define their own values and understand others' values."[1] Cognitive moral education is based on the belief that students should learn to value things like democracy and justice as their moral reasoning develops."[1] educationist "Chaveen Dissanayake" says personal and cultural values can be varied by the living standards of a man.

Values are related to the norms of a culture, but they are more global and abstract than norms. Norms are rules for behavior in specific situations, while values identify what should be judged as good or evil. Flying the national flag on a holiday is a norm, but it reflects the value of patriotism. Wearing dark clothing and appearing solemn are normative behaviors at a funeral. In certain cultures they reflect the values of respect and support of friends and family. Different cultures reflect different values. "Over the last three decades, traditional-age college students have shown an increased interest in personal well-being and a decreased interest in the welfare of others."[1] Values seemed to have changed, affecting the beliefs, and attitudes of college students.

Members take part in a culture even if each member's personal values do not entirely agree with some of the normative values sanctioned in the culture. This reflects an individual's ability to synthesize and extract aspects valuable to them from the multiple subcultures they belong to.

If a group member expresses a value that is in serious conflict with the group's norms, the group's authority may carry out various ways of encouraging conformity or stigmatizing the non-conforming behavior of its members. For example, imprisonment can result from conflict with social norms that have been established as law.{clarify}

Besides, Institutions in the Global Economy can genuinely respect values which are of three kinds based on a “triangle of coherence”.[2] On one side, it lies today within the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as in the second side within the United Nations - particularly the Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - providing a framework for global legitimacy through accountability. On the third side, the expertise of member-driven international organizations and civil society depends on the incorporation of flexibilities in the rules, so as to preserve the expression of identity in a globalized world. Nonetheess, in a warlike econonomic competition, differing visions contradicts, particularly on culture. Hence a movie is an artistic creation in Europe, and then benefits from special treatment, while it is only a mere entertainment in the U.S. whatever his own artistic performance. Even within the fragmented Europe, interventionist policies based on the notion of “cultural exception” get opposed to the policy of the “cultural specificity” on the liberal Anglo-Saxon side. Indeed, in international law, films are traditionally seen as property, and the content of television programs is defined as a service. Consequently cultural interventionist policies get opposed to Anglo-Saxon liberal position, causing failures in international negotiations[3]

Some values (a virtue is a character trait valued as being good) recognized in various Western cultures of the world include:


See alsoEdit

External linksEdit

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