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A vagotomy is a surgical procedure that is performed only in humans. It is resection (removal of, or at least severing) of part of the vagus nerve. It is not to be confused with vasectomy.

For weight lossEdit

The use of vagotomy to treat obesity is being studied.[1][2] Early results show an average of 18% weight loss.[3] Vagotomy may have an impact upon ghrelin.[4]

For ulcersEdit

The operation was popular up until the mid-1990s as a way of treating peptic ulcer disease, and preventing its recurrence. It was thought that peptic ulcer disease was due to excess secretion of the acid environment in the stomach, or at least that peptic ulcer disease was made worse by hyperacidity. Vagotomy was a way to reduce the acidity of the stomach, by denervating the peptic cells that produce acid. This was done with the hope that it would treat or prevent peptic ulcers. It also had the effect of reducing or eliminating symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux in those who suffered from it.

The incidence of vagotomy decreased following the discovery by Barry Marshall and Robin Warren that Helicobacter pylori is responsible for most peptic ulcers. The first-line treatment for peptic ulcer disease, if due to H. pylori, is "triple therapy": 2 antibiotics (clarithromycin and amoxicillin or metronidazole) and a proton pump inhibitor (e.g. omeprazole). However, in chronic ulceration or in gastric outlet obstruction there is still an important role for truncal vagotomy.[How to reference and link to summary or text]

TypesEdit

A plain vagotomy is a very destructive procedure, since all the parasympathetic supply from the stomach to the left side of the transverse colon relies on the vagus nerves. The gut will still function without vagus supply, but not as well.

Vagotomy technique was therefore improved by restricting resection to only those branches that go to the stomach (selective vagotomy),[5] and further by selecting only those branches that appear to supply peptic cells (highly selective vagotomy).

Humans have two vagus nerves, whose fibres decussate and intermingle around the stomach. Accordingly, a vagotomy operates on both nerves simultaneously and in practice there is no need or way to make a distinction between them.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Could nerve-snipping spur weight loss? - USATODAY.com.
  2. VCU Surgical Weight Loss Center.
  3. Research into 20 minute nerve cutting procedure results in average 18% weight loss
  4. Williams DL, Grill HJ, Cummings DE, Kaplan JM (December 2003). Vagotomy dissociates short- and long-term controls of circulating ghrelin. Endocrinology 144 (12): 5184–7.
  5. Jordan PH, Thornby J (September 1994). Twenty years after parietal cell vagotomy or selective vagotomy antrectomy for treatment of duodenal ulcer. Final report. Ann. Surg. 220 (3): 283–93; discussion 293–6.

Further readingEdit

Key textsEdit

BooksEdit

PapersEdit

  • Anika, S. M., Houpt, T. R., & Houpt, K. A. (1977). Satiety elicited by cholecystokinin in intact and vagotomized rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 19(6) Dec 1977, 761-766.
  • Anika, S. M., Houpt, T. R., & Houpt, K. A. (1979). Recovery from disordered drinking by vagotomized rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 22(3) Mar 1979, 605-607.
  • Atweh, S. F., Murrin, L. C., & Kuhar, M. J. (1978). Presynaptic localization of opiate receptors in the vagal and accessory optic systems: An autoradiographic study: Neuropharmacology Vol 17(1) Jan 1978, 65-71.
  • Ball, G. G. (1974). Vagotomy: Effect on electrically elicited eating and self-stimulation in the lateral hypothalamus: Science Vol 184(4135) Apr 1974, 484-485.
  • Bellinger, L. L., & Williams, F. E. (1983). Suppressive effects of naloxone on food and water intake in vagotomized rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 30(2) Feb 1983, 273-278.
  • Bernstein, I. L. (1996). Neural mediation of food aversions and anorexia induced by tumor necrosis factor and tumors: Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews Vol 20(1) Spr 1996, 177-181.
  • Berrios, N., & et al. (1979). Insulogenic mediation of schedule induced polydipsia? : Physiology & Behavior Vol 23(2) Aug 1979, 237-240.
  • Billewicz-Stankiewicz, J., Gorny, D., & Zajaczkowska, M. (1972). Secretory and vascular changes in the rat stomach after compulsory swimming and vagotomy: Acta Physiologica Polonica Vol 23(2) 1972, 249-253.
  • Booth, D. A. (1972). Modulation of the feeding response to peripheral insulin, 2-deoxyglucose or 3-0-methyl glucose injection: Physiology & Behavior Vol 8(6) Jun 1972, 1069-1076.
  • Cabanac, M., & Dardashti, M. (1999). Emotional fever in rats persists after vagotomy: Physiology & Behavior Vol 67(3) Sep 1999, 347-350.
  • Clarkson, D. B., & et al. (1982). Naloxone decreases consumption of liquid and solid sucrose in vagotomized rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 29(5) Nov 1982, 927-930.
  • Contreras, R. J., & Kosten, T. (1981). Changes in salt intake after abdominal vagotomy: Evidence for hepatic sodium receptors: Physiology & Behavior Vol 26(4) Apr 1981, 575-582.
  • Corley, K. C., & et al. (1979). Myocardial dysfunction and pathology associated with environmental stress in squirrel monkey: Effect of vagotomy and propranolol: Psychophysiology Vol 16(6) Nov 1979, 554-560.
  • Cox, J. E., Kelm, G. R., Meller, S. T., & Randich, A. (2004). Suppression of food intake by GI fatty acid infusions: Roles of celiac vagal afferents and cholecystokinin: Physiology & Behavior Vol 82(1) Aug 2004, 27-33.
  • Cox, J. E., Kelm, G. R., Meller, S. T., Spraggins, D. S., & Randich, A. (2004). Truncal and hepatic vagotomy reduce suppression of feeding by jejunal lipid infusions: Physiology & Behavior Vol 81(1) Mar 2004, 29-36.
  • Cox, J. E., & Smith, G. P. (1986). Sham feeding in rats after ventromedial hypothalamic lesions and vagotomy: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 100(1) Feb 1986, 57-63.
  • Cox, J. E., Tyler, W. J., Randich, A., Kelm, G. R., & Meller, S. T. (2001). Celiac vagotomy reduces suppression of feeding by jejunal fatty acid infusions: Neuroreport: For Rapid Communication of Neuroscience Research Vol 12(6) May 2001, 1093-1096.
  • Davis, J. D., & Booth, D. A. (1974). Vagotomy in the rat reduces meal size of diets containing fat: Physiology & Behavior Vol 12(4) Apr 1974, 685-688.
  • Davis, J. D., Smith, G. P., & Kung, T. M. (1994). Abdominal vagotomy alters the structure of the ingestive behavior of rats ingesting liquid diets: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 108(4) Aug 1994, 767-779.
  • Davis, J. D., Smith, G. P., & Kung, T. M. (1995). Abdominal vagotomy attenuates the inhibiting effect of mannitol on the ingestive behavior of rats: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 109(1) Feb 1995, 161-167.
  • Davis, J. D., Smith, G. P., & Kung, T. M. (1995). Cholecystokinin changes the duration but not the rate of licking in vagotomized rats: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 109(5) Oct 1995, 991-996.
  • di Bella, L., Tarozzi, G., Rossi, M. T., & Scalera, G. (1981). Behavioral patterns proceeding from liver thermoreceptors: Physiology & Behavior Vol 26(1) Jan 1981, 53-59.
  • Eng, R., Gold, R. M., & Sawchenko, P. E. (1978). Hypothalamic hypoactivity prevented but not reversed by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy: Physiology & Behavior Vol 20(5) May 1978, 637-641.
  • Eng, R., Gold, R. M., & Wade, G. N. (1979). Ovariectomy-induced obesity is not prevented by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy in rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 22(2) Feb 1979, 353-356.
  • Fletcher, P. J., & Burton, M. J. (1985). The anorectic action of peripherally administered 5-HT is enhanced by vagotomy: Physiology & Behavior Vol 34(6) Jun 1985, 861-866.
  • Funk, D., Post, R. M., & Pert, A. (1997). Role of central dopaminergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic projections in the behavioral responses elicited by thyrotropin-releasing hormone in rats: Psychopharmacology Vol 133(4) Oct 1997, 356-362.
  • Furedy, J. J., Randall, D. C., Fitzovich, D. E., & Shulhan, D. (1989). Human Pavlovian HR-decelerative conditioning with negative tilt as US: Evidence of vagal and sympathetic influences on the UR in dogs: International Journal of Psychophysiology Vol 7(1) Mar 1989, 25-33.
  • Geiselman, P. J., Martin, J. R., VanderWeele, D. A., & Novin, D. (1980). Multivariate analysis of meal patterning in intact and vagotomized rabbits: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 94(2) Apr 1980, 388-399.
  • Gerendai, I., Drago, F., Continella, G., & Scapagnini, U. (1984). Effects of mastectomy and vagotomy on grooming behavior of the rat: Possible involvement of prolactin: Physiology & Behavior Vol 33(1) Jul 1984, 1-4.
  • Giavelli, A., Astorga, L., & Santibanez-H, G. (1977). Effects of cardiac vagotomy on heart rate conditioned responses in cats: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis Vol 37(3) 1977, 179-190.
  • Gonzalez, M. F., & Deutsch, J. A. (1981). Vagotomy abolishes cues of satiety produced by gastric distension: Science Vol 212(4500) Jun 1981, 1283-1284.
  • Gortz, L., Bjorkman, A. C., Andersson, H., & Kral, J. G. (1990). Truncal vagotomy reduces food and liquid intake in man: Physiology & Behavior Vol 48(6) Dec 1990, 779-781.
  • Haroutunian, V., & Campbell, B. A. (1982). Neural control of the heart-rate-orienting response in preweanling rats: Behavioral & Neural Biology Vol 36(1) Sep 1982, 24-39.
  • Jerome, C., & Smith, G. P. (1982). Gastric or coeliac vagotomy decreases drinking after peripheral angiotensin II: Physiology & Behavior Vol 29(3) Sep 1982, 533-536.
  • Jerome, C., & Smith, G. P. (1982). Gastric vagotomy inhibits drinking after hypertonic saline: Physiology & Behavior Vol 28(2) Feb 1982, 371-374.
  • Jerome, C., & Smith, G. P. (1984). Development of the drinking deficit to hypertonic saline in rats after abdominal vagotomy: Physiology & Behavior Vol 32(5) May 1984, 819-821.
  • Johnstone, E. C., Allan, J. G., Geraghty, B. P., & Russell, R. I. (1974). Psychiatric disturbance and postvagotomy diarrhoea: Journal of Psychosomatic Research Vol 18(3) Jun 1974, 205-208.
  • Kassil, V. G., Vataeva, L. A., & Makukhina, G. V. (1998). Role of the vagus nerves in neophobia and conditioned-reflex taste aversion: Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology Vol 28(6) Nov-Dec 1998, 678-685.
  • Keifer, S. W., Cabral, R. J., Rusiniak, K. W., & Garcia, J. (1980). Ethanol-induced flavor aversions in rats with subdiaphragmatic vagotomies: Behavioral & Neural Biology Vol 29(2) Jun 1980, 246-254.
  • Khasar, S. G., Isenberg, W. M., Miao, F. J. P., Gear, R. W., Green, P. G., & Levine, J. D. (2001). Gender and Gonadal Hormone Effects on Vagal Modulation of Tonic Nociception: The Journal of Pain Vol 2(2) Apr 2001, 91-100.
  • Khasar, S. G., Miao, F. J. P., Janig, W., & Levine, J. D. (1998). Vagotomy-induced enhancement of mechanical hyperalgesia in the rat is sympathoadrenal-mediated: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 18(8) Apr 1998, 3043-3049.
  • Kiefer, S. W., Rusiniak, K. W., Garcia, J., & Coil, J. D. (1981). Vagotomy facilitates extinction of conditioned taste aversions in rats: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 95(1) Feb 1981, 114-122.
  • King, B. M., & et al. (1978). Hyperphagia and obesity following ventromedial hypothalamic lesions in rats with subdiaphragmatic vagotomy: Physiology & Behavior Vol 20(5) May 1978, 643-651.
  • Kraly, F. S. (1978). Abdominal vagotomy inhibits osmotically induced drinking in the rat: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 92(6) Dec 1978, 999-1013.
  • Kraly, F. S., & Gibbs, J. (1980). Vagotomy fails to block the satiating effect of food in the stomach: Physiology & Behavior Vol 24(5) May 1980, 1007-1010.
  • Kraly, F. S., Gibbs, J., & Smith, G. P. (1975). Disordered drinking after abdominal vagotomy in rats: Nature Vol 258(5532) Nov 1975, 226-228.
  • Kraly, F. S., Jerome, C., & Smith, G. P. (1986). Specific postoperative syndromes after total and selective vagotomies in the rat: Appetite Vol 7(1) Mar 1986, 1-17.
  • Kraly, F. S., & June, K. R. (1982). A vagally mediated histaminergic component of food-related drinking in the rat: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 96(1) Feb 1982, 89-104.
  • Kraly, F. S., & Miller, L. A. (1982). Histamine-elicited drinking is dependent upon gastric vagal afferents and peripheral angiotensin II in the rat: Physiology & Behavior Vol 28(5) May 1982, 841-846.
  • Kraly, F. S., Smith, G. P., & Carty, W. J. (1978). Abdominal vagotomy disrupts food-related drinking in the rat: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 92(2) Apr 1978, 196-203.
  • Lemaire, M., Barneoud, P., Bohme, G. A., Piot, O., Haun, F., Roques, B. P., et al. (1994). CCK-A and CCK-B receptors enhance olfactory recognition via distinct neuronal pathways: Learning & Memory Vol 1(3) Sep-Oct 1994, 153-164.
  • Levine, A. S., & Morley, J. E. (1982). Peripherally administered somatostatin reduces feeding by a vagal mediated mechanism: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 16(6) Jun 1982, 897-902.
  • Li, B.-H., & Rowland, N. E. (1995). Effects of vagotomy on cholecystokinin- and dexfenfluramine-induced Fos-like immunoreactivity in the rat brain: Brain Research Bulletin Vol 37(6) 1995, 589-593.
  • Lorenz, D. N. (1983). Effects of gastric filling and vagotomy on ingestion, nipple attachment, and weight gain by suckling rats: Developmental Psychobiology Vol 16(6) Nov 1983, 469-483.
  • Lorenz, D. N., Ellis, S. B., & Epstein, A. N. (1982). Differential effects of upper gastrointestinal fill on milk ingestion and nipple attachment in the suckling rat: Developmental Psychobiology Vol 15(4) Jul 1982, 309-330.
  • Lorenz, D. N., & Goldman, S. A. (1982). Vagal mediation of the cholecystokinin satiety effect in rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 29(4) Oct 1982, 599-604.
  • Louis-Sylvestre, J., Giachetti, I., & le Magnen, J. (1983). Vagotomy abolishes the differential palatability of food: Appetite Vol 4(4) Dec 1983, 295-299.
  • MacIsaac, L., & Geary, N. (1985). Partial liver denervations dissociate the inhibitory effects of pancreatic glucagon and epinephrine on feeding: Physiology & Behavior Vol 35(2) Aug 1985, 233-237.
  • Maixner, W., & et al. (1982). Factors influencing the altered pain perception in the spontaneously hypertensive rat: Brain Research Vol 237(1) Apr 1982, 137-145.
  • Martin, J. R., Cheng, F. Y., & Novin, D. (1978). Acquisition of learned taste aversion following bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy in rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 21(1) Jul 1978, 13-17.
  • Martin, J. R., Geiselman, P. J., & Novin, D. (1979). Drinking to intracellular dehydration following vagotomy in rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 23(3) Sep 1979, 527-537.
  • Martin, J. R., Geiselman, P. J., & Novin, D. (1982). Feeding pattern of rabbits following intraduodenal glucose infusions as a function of caloric load, fasting interval, and vagal denervation: Physiological Psychology Vol 10(2) Jun 1982, 273-279.
  • Martin, J. R., & Novin, D. (1981). Response to dipsogenic stimuli after abdominal vagotomy in rats: Physiological Psychology Vol 9(2) Jun 1981, 181-186.
  • Martin, J. R., & Novin, D. (1982). Visceral control of drinking in rats: Physiological Psychology Vol 10(3) Sep 1982, 350-354.
  • Miao, F. J.-P., Green, P., Benowitz, N., & Levine, J. D. (2003). Vagal modulation of spinal nicotine-induced inhibition of the inflammatory response mediated by descending antinociceptive controls: Neuropharmacology Vol 45(5) Oct 2003, 605-611.
  • Moran, T. H., Robinson, P. H., & McHugh, P. R. (1985). The pyloric cholecystokinin receptor: A site of mediation for satiety? : Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Vol 448 Jul 1985, 621-623.
  • Moreira, A. C., & Krieger, D. T. (1982). The effects of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on circadian corticosterone rhythmicity in rats with continuous or restricted food access: Physiology & Behavior Vol 28(5) May 1982, 787-790.
  • Murai, S., & Ogura, Y. (1978). Effects of atropine and vagotomy on vocalization of the rabbit: Japanese Journal of Pharmacology Vol 28(2) Apr 1978, 331-334.
  • Nogueira, P. J. C., Tomaz, C., & Williams, C. L. (1994). Contribution of the vagus nerve in mediating the memory-facilitating effects of substance P: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 62(2) Jun 1994, 165-169.
  • Novin, D., Sanderson, J., & Gonzalez, M. (1979). Feeding after nutrient infusions: Effects of hypothalamic lesions and vagotomy: Physiology & Behavior Vol 22(1) Jan 1979, 107-113.
  • Opsahl, C. A., & Powley, T. L. (1977). Body weight and gastric acid secretion in rats with subdiaphragmatic vagotomy and lateral hypothalamic lesions: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 91(6) Dec 1977, 1284-1296.
  • Powley, T. L., MacFarlane, B. A., Markell, M. S., & Opsahl, C. A. (1978). Different effects of vagotomy and atropine on hypothalamic stimulation-induced feeding: Behavioral & Neural Biology Vol 23(3) Jul 1978, 306-325.
  • Rezek, M., Schneider, K., & Novin, D. (1975). Regulation of food intake after vagotomy, coeliactomy, and a combination of both procedures: Physiology & Behavior Vol 15(5) Nov 1975, 517-522.
  • Rezek, M., Vanderweele, D. A., & Novin, D. (1975). Stages in the recovery of feeding following vagotomy in rabbits: Behavioral Biology Vol 14(1) May 1975, 75-84.
  • Ritter, S., Dinh, T. T., & Friedman, M. I. (1994). Induction of Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-li) and stimulation of feeding by 2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol (2,5-AM) require the vagus nerve: Brain Research Vol 646(1) May 1994, 53-64.
  • Rowland, N. (1980). Impaired drinking to angiotensin II after subdiaphragmatic vagotomy in rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 24(6) Jun 1980, 1177-1180.
  • Rowland, N., & Engle, D. J. (1978). Hypothalamic hyperphagia prevented by prior subdiaphragmatic vagotomy: Insulin hyperphagia is unaffected: Physiology & Behavior Vol 21(5) Nov 1978, 685-689.
  • Sanderson, J. D., & Vanderweele, D. A. (1975). Analysis of feeding patterns in normal and vagotomized rabbits: Physiology & Behavior Vol 15(3) Sep 1975, 357-364.
  • Savory, C. J., & Hodgkiss, J. P. (1984). Influence of vagotomy in domestic fowls on feeding activity, food passage, digestibility and satiety effects of two peptides: Physiology & Behavior Vol 33(6) Dec 1984, 937-944.
  • Sawchenko, P. E., & Gold, R. M. (1981). Effects of gastric vs complete subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on hypothalamic hyperphagia and obesity: Physiology & Behavior Vol 26(2) Feb 1981, 281-292.
  • Sawchenko, P. E., Gold, R. M., & Alexander, J. (1981). Effects of selective vagotomies on knife cut-induced hypothalamic obesity: Differential results on lab chow vs high-fat diets: Physiology & Behavior Vol 26(2) Feb 1981, 293-300.
  • Sawchenko, P. E., Gold, R. M., & Ferrazano, P. A. (1977). Abolition by selective gastric vagotomy of the influence of water temperature on water intake: Mediation via enhanced gastric clearance: Physiology & Behavior Vol 18(6) Jun 1977, 1055-1059.
  • Sclafani, A., Aravich, P. F., & Landman, M. (1981). Vagotomy blocks hypothalamic hyperphagia in rats on a chow diet and sucrose solution, but not on a palatable mixed diet: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 95(5) Oct 1981, 720-734.
  • Sclafani, A., Aravich, P. F., & Landman, M. (1983). Vagotomy Blocks Hypothalamic Hyperphasia in Rats on a Chow Diet and Sucrose Solution, but Not on a Palatable Mixed Diet: Correction: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 97(2) Apr 1983, 269.
  • Sclafani, A., & Kramer, T. H. (1985). Aversive effects of vagotomy in the rat: A conditioned taste aversion analysis: Physiology & Behavior Vol 34(5) May 1985, 721-725.
  • Sclafani, A., & Lucas, F. (1996). Abdominal vagotomy does not block carbohydrate-conditioned flavor preferences in rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 60(2) Aug 1996, 447-453.
  • Shaw, M. J., & et al. (1985). Cholecystokinin octapeptide action on gastric emptying and food intake in normal and vagotomized man: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Vol 448 Jul 1985, 640-641.
  • Shillabeer, G., & Davison, J. S. (1985). Increased food intake in the rat caused by proglumide, the cholecystokinin antagonist: An effect abolished by vagotomy: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Vol 448 Jul 1985, 648-650.
  • Simansky, K. J., Jerome, C., Santucci, A., & Smith, G. P. (1982). Chronic hypodipsia to intraperitoneal and subcutaneous hypertonic saline after vagotomy: Physiology & Behavior Vol 28(2) Feb 1982, 367-370.
  • Smith, R. G., & Andrews, M. L. (1983). Spastic dysphonia: A perceptual test of recurrent laryngeal nerve section: Journal of Communication Disorders Vol 16(1) Feb 1983, 19-30.
  • Snowdon, C. T., & Wampler, R. S. (1974). Effects of lateral hypothalamic lesions and vagotomy on meal patterns in rats: Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 87(3) Sep 1974, 399-409.
  • Snowdon, C. T., & Wampler, R. S. (1979). Weight and regulatory deficits in vagotomized rats: A reexamination: Behavioral & Neural Biology Vol 26(3) Jul 1979, 342-353.
  • Storlien, L. H., Martin, G. M., & Bellingham, W. P. (1979). Body weight regulation over the estrous cycle of the rat: Basal insulin levels and effect of vagotomy: Behavioral & Neural Biology Vol 27(1) Sep 1979, 87-95.
  • Taylor, I. L., Garcia, R., & Elashoff, J. (1985). Effects of vagotomy on satiety induced by gastrointestinal hormones in the rat: Physiology & Behavior Vol 34(6) Jun 1985, 957-961.
  • Tien, D., Ohara, P. T., Larson, A. A., & Jasmin, L. (2003). Vagal afferents are necessary for the establishment but not the maintenance of kainic acid-induced hyperalgesia in mice: Pain Vol 102(1-2) Mar 2003, 39-49.
  • Tordoff, M. G., & Novin, D. (1982). Celiac vagotomy attenuates the ingestive responses to epinephrine and hypertonic saline but not insulin, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, or polyethylene glycol: Physiology & Behavior Vol 29(4) Oct 1982, 605-613.
  • Tung, C. S., Yin, T. H., Wayner, M. J., & Barone, F. C. (1980). Effects of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on schedule induced drinking and schedule dependent lever pressing: Physiology & Behavior Vol 25(5) Nov 1980, 745-751.
  • Turek, V. F., Olster, D. H., Ettenberg, A., & Carlisle, H. J. (2005). The behavioral thermoregulatory response of febrile female rats is not attenuated by vagotomy: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 80(1) Jan 2005, 115-121.
  • Vanderweele, D. A. (1993). Insulin and satiety from feeding in pancreatic-normal and diabetic rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 54(3) Sep 1993, 477-485.
  • VanderWeele, D. A., Geiselman, P. J., & Novin, D. (1979). Pancreatic glucagon, food deprivation and feeding in intact and vagotomized rabbits: Physiology & Behavior Vol 23(1) Jul 1979, 155-158.
  • Wampler, R. S., & Snowdon, C. T. (1979). Development of VMH obesity in vagotomized rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 22(1) Jan 1979, 85-93.
  • Warne, J. P., Horneman, H. F., Akana, S. F., Foster, M. T., & Dallman, M. F. (2008). Insulin and the constituent branches of the hepatic vagus interact to modulate hypothalamic and limbic neuropeptide mRNA expression differentially: Journal of Neuroendocrinology Vol 20(9) Sep 2008, 1067-1077.
  • Woods, S. C., & Bernstein, I. L. (1980). Cephalic insulin response as a test for completeness of vagotomy to the pancreas: Physiology & Behavior Vol 24(3) Mar 1980, 485-488.
  • Yamashita, J., Nagase, H., York, D. A., & Bray, G. A. (1994). Effects of clenbuterol, a !b-sub-2-adrenoceptor agonist, on macronutrient selection in rats: Physiology & Behavior Vol 56(2) Aug 1994, 251-255.
  • Zimmer, L. J., Meliza, L., & Hsiao, S. (1976). Effects of cervical and subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on osmotic and volemic thirst: Physiology & Behavior Vol 16(6) Jun 1976, 665-670.


Additional materialEdit

BooksEdit

PapersEdit

DissertationsEdit

  • Coil, J. D. (1978). Neural substrates of the unconditioned stimulus in conditioned taste aversion: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Opsahl, C. A. (1976). Autonomic components of the lateral hypothalamic lesion syndrome: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Rezek, M. (1975). The role of neural and humoral gastrointestinal signals in the regulation of food intake: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Sawchenko, P. E. (1980). Vagal mediation of hypothalamic hyperphagia and obesity: Dissertation Abstracts International.


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