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File:Grammostola.rosea.with.hair.patch.jpg

Urticating hairs are one of the primary defense mechanisms used by some New World tarantulas and lepidopteran caterpillars. This term refers to the barbed hairs that cover the dorsal and posterior surface of the tarantula's or caterpillar's abdomen. Many tarantula species will frequently kick hairs off their abdomens, directing them toward potential attackers. These hairs can embed themselves in the other animal's skin or eyes, thus inducing physical irritation. Urtica is Latin for "nettle".

DevelopmentEdit

Urticating hairs do not appear at birth but form with each consecutive molt, outwardly presenting themselves around areas of more dark hairs on the upper back part of the abdomen of juveniles, widening from molt to molt, but in elder ages merging with the main tone of abdominal coloration. Urticating hairs do not cover the entire opisthosoma and are distinct from abdominal hairs.

TypesEdit

There are six different types of urticating hair known in tarantulas (M. Overton, 2002). They are all different in shape and size.

  • Type I (0.2–0.6 mm)
  • Type II (0.5–1.5 mm)
  • Type III (0.3–1.2 mm)
  • Type IV (0.06–0.2 mm)
  • Type V
  • Type VI

Each type of urticating hair is believed to target different enemies. Defined targets for some hair types are unknown.

Type II is usually not kicked off by the tarantula, rather delivered by direct contact. However, there is at least one aviculariine species - Avicularia versicolor - which can kick type II urticating hairs off the abdomen, similarly to species from the subfamily Theraphosinae[1]. Tarantulas from the genera Avicularia, Pachistopelma and Iridopelma possess Type II hairs. (Toni Hoover, 1997)

Type III urticating hairs are most efficient for defence against vertebrates and invertebrates.

Types III and IV are the most irritant to mammalian predators.

Types particular to speciesEdit

File:Brachypelma smithi, urticating hairs.JPG

Not all urticating hair types are exhibited by each species of tarantula.

Type II urticating hairs can be found in the genera Avicularia, Iridopelma and Pachistopelma (subfamily Aviculariinae).

Type I and III urticating hairs are representative on Lasiodora and Acanthoscurria, excluding Grammostola (exhibits types III and IV).

Type III urticating hair is typically found on the species of Theraphosa spp., Nhandu spp., Megaphoboema spp., Sericopelma spp., Eupalaestrus spp., Proshapalopus spp., Brachypelma spp., Cyrtopholis spp., Iracema spp. and other genera of subfamily Theraphosinae (Rick West, 2002).

Type V urticating hair is typical of the species of genus Ephebopus. They are located on the pedipalps. They are much shorter and lighter in contrast with other types of urticating hair. These are easily thrown by the spider into the air (Marshal and Uetz, 1990).

Type VI urticating hair is found in the genus Hemirrhagus (F. Perez-Miles, 1998).

According to Vellard (1936) and Buecherl (1951), genera with the most urticating hairs are Lasiodora, Grammostola and Acanthoscurria.

Defensive behavior utilizing urticating hairsEdit

New World tarantulas will at the moment of danger, turn toward the attacker and briskly rub their hind legs against the opisthosoma throwing the urticating hairs in the direction of the enemy. The cloud of small hairs will get into the mucous membrane of small mammals and cause edema, which can be fatal. The latest studiesTemplate:Which suggest these hairs cause both mechanical and chemical harm to the skin and membranes.

Reaction and the degree of irritation to a defensive urticating hair barrage can vary tremendously, based on the species in question. Some, such as those of the Chilean rose hair (Grammastola rosea) and the pinktoe tarantula (Avicularia avicularia), are fairly mild and innocuous to humans. Others, such as those of the Brazilian giant white knee tarantula (Acanthoscurria geniculata), are moderately irritating. Still others, such as the Goliath Birdeater (Theraphosa blondi), are far more severe. These hairs can result in painful rashes, and have been likened to sharp shards of fiberglass.

After a defensive maneuver, an urticating hair lobbing tarantula will have a bald spot on its abdominal region.

Families of Lepidoptera with urticating hairsEdit

File:Euchaetes.JPG

There are species with urticating hairs in at least eleven Lepidopteran families: the Arctiidae (tiger moths), Anthelidae (lappet moths), Bombycidae, Eupterotidae (bag shelter moths), Lasiocampidae, Limacodidae, Lymantriidae (tussock moths), Megalopygidae, Noctuidae, Notodontidae (processionary caterpillars), Nymphalidae, and Saturniidae (Matheson 1950, Riley and Johannsen 1938, Roth and Eisner 1962, Wirtz 1984). Some adults may also have urticating scales.

Human reactions to urticating hair contactEdit

File:Urticating.hairs.reaction.jpg

In humans a defensive cloud of urticating hairs can cause allergic skin reactions which can manifest as inflammation, rash and/or itching. The reactions can last for several hours or days. A chemical influence upon the skin and mucous membranes explains the different reactions of people to urticating hairs (Rick West, 2002).

It seems likely the hairs cause an accumulative reaction in people.

A solution of 2–2.5% hydrocortisone cream applied to the affected area may help relieve the symptoms.

A more serious consequence is urticating hair in the eyes. Ophthalmia nodosa, an irritation reaction, can result when the barbed hairs lodge in the cornea[2]. In this case it is necessary to immediately wash the eye thoroughly with copious amounts of cold water and see an ophthalmologist. Handlers are advised to wear eye protection[2].

Urticating hair as territorial markingsEdit

Urticating hair is not just thrown at an enemy as a first line defense, but is also used as an indication of territory. It can be found on and around the burrow entrance and in webbing for protection (for example, some of Theraphosinae subfamily species include these hairs in cocoon silk).

Urticating hair can also be found protecting tarantula egg sacs (Avicularia spp. and Theraphosa blondi respectively). This is thought to discourage fly larvae from consuming their eggs and young.


ReferencesEdit

  • Matheson R. 1950. Medical Entomology. (2nd ed.). Comstock Publications, Ithaca, New York. 612 p.
  • Riley WA, Johannsen OA. 1938. Medical Entomology; a Survey of Insects and Allied Forms Which Affect the Health of Man and Animals. McGraw-Hill, New York. 483 p.
  • Roth LM, Eisner T. 1962. Chemical defenses of arthropods. Annual Review of Entomology 7: 107-136.
  • Wirtz RA. 1984. Allergic and toxic reactions to non-stinging arthropods. Annual Review of Entomology 29: 47-69.

NotesEdit

  1. Bertani, R., Boston, T., Evenou, Y., & Guadanucci, J. P. L. 2003. Release of urticating hairs by Avicularia versicolor (Walckenaer, 1837) (Araneae, Theraphosidae). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 12 (9): 395-398.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Norris JH, Carrim ZI, Morrell AJ. 2010. "Spiderman's Eye," The Lancet, Volume 375, Issue 9708, Page 92.

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