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A urinalysis (or "UA") is an array of tests performed on urine and one of the most common methods of medical diagnosis. A part of a urinalysis can be performed by using urine dipsticks, in which the test results can be read as color changes.
A typical medical urinalysis usually includes:
- a description of color and appearance.
- specific gravity - normally 1.010 to 1.030. This test detects ion concentration of the urine. Small amounts of protein or ketoacidosis tend to elevate results of the specific gravity.
- pH - normally 4.8 to 7.5.
- ketone bodies - normally negative (absent)
- protein - normally negative (absent)
- glucose - normally negative (absent)
- RBC number
- WBC number
- hCG - normally absent, this hormone appears in the urine of pregnant women. Home pregnancy tests commonly detect this substance.
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