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US Army Beta Test

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The US Army Beta Test was developed firstly by Roger Thomas Lennon in 1917 as an intelligence measure for assessing US army recruits who were illiterate.

Arthur Sinton Otis developed it further to improve cost and time efficiency. The results were published in 1921 and included the relative performance of recruits of different national origins.

The Army Alpha was a version of the test developed for use with those who were more literate.

The Army Beta is a non-verbal complement of the Army alpha—a group-administered test that was developed by Robert Yerkes and six other committee members to evaluate some 1.5 million military recruits in the United States during World War I. It was used for the purpose of evaluating illiterate, unschooled and foreign speaking army recruits. It has been recognized as an archetype of future cognitive ability tests.[1] The time to administer the test was 50 to 60 minutes and was generally administered to 100 - 200 men in a group (.[2] The test was discontinued after WWI [3]

StructureEdit

The Army Beta is divided into 7 tests. Army recruits are asked to complete each test as quickly as they possibly can. The materials needed for this test are a blackboard frame, blackboard chart and cardboard pieces.

Test 1Edit

This test assessed the ability of army recruits to trace the path of a maze. In order to administer this, the administrator has a demonstrator trace a maze in front of the recruits slowly with a crayon. While doing so, the demonstrator would at one point purposefully make a mistake and wait until the administrator corrected him. After the administrator did so, the demonstrator would trace the rest of the maze and indicate that it must be done quickly. After this, the administrator would order the army recruits to take the maze test in their books by pointing to the subjects, then the books and telling them to "hurry up". While they are taking the test, the demonstrator would attempt to rush the army recruits and after 2 minutes, tell them to stop [4]

Test 2Edit

This test assessed the ability of cube analysis. In order to administer this, the administrator would point to a three-cube model on the blackboard and have the army recruits count how many there were. He would then do the same with a 12-cube model. After demonstrating how the test works, he would then have the army recruits turn the next page in their books and begin. The test had 17 items ascending difficulty: 1) 2-cube model, 2) 4-cube model, 3) 6-cube model, 4) 8-cube model, 5) 12-cube model, 6) 27-cube model, 7) 15-cube model, 8) 15-cube model, 9) 18-cube model, 10) 19-cube model, 11) 40-cube model, 12) 10-cube model, 13) 22-cube model, 14) 13-cube model, 15) 20-cube model, 16) 50-cube model. After 2 minutes and 30 seconds, the test was over and the administrator would tell them to stop [5]

Test 3Edit

This test assessed the ability of pattern analysis using an X-O series. In order to administer this, the administrator would first point to the blank rectangles at the end, then draw an O. The demonstrator would then draw the rest of the pattern in. The administrator and the demonstrator would do the same with another pattern using an X. The administrator would then have the army recruits do the same with the problems in their books. After 1 minute and 45 seconds, the test was over and the administrator would tell them to stop [6]

Test 4Edit

This test assessed the ability of coding digits with symbols. In order to administer this, the administrator would first point to the first digit of the key on a blackboard then point to the symbol under it. He would then do the same for all nine digits in the key. Afterwards, the demonstrator would fill in all of the appropriate symbols for the digits. The administrator would then have the army recruits do the same with the problems they have in their books. After 2 minutes, the test was over and the administrator would tell them to stop [7]

Test 5Edit

This test assessed the ability of number checking. If digits were the same for both groups of numbers, then army recruits were to mark that they were the same with an 'X'. In order to administer this, the administrator would first need to try and get a "Yes" or "No" response from the group when pointing to the first number of the first group and first number of the second group and asking if they are the same. If army recruits gave the wrong response, the administrator would point to the two numbers again and tell them the right answer. Afterwards, the administrator would have the demonstrator make an imaginary cross in order to communicate with army recruits that this was the way to indicate they are the same. The administrator and demonstrator would do this with three more sets, then the administrator would point to the page and tell the army recruits to begin. After 3 minutes, the test was over and the administrator would tell them to stop http://books.google.com/books/reader?id=xhECAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&output=reader&pg=GBS.PA86. The following are the problems used:

1) 650.........................650 (X)____________________________________25) 10243586.....................10243586 (X)

2) 041..........................044_______________________________________26) 659012534....................659021354

3) 2570.......................2570 (X)___________________________________27) 888172902....................381872902

4) 3281.......................3281 (X)___________________________________28) 631027594....................631027594 (X)

5) 55100.....................55102_____________________________________29) 249901354....................2499901534

6) 39190.....................39190 (X)__________________________________30) 2261059310..................2261659310

7) 658049...................658049 (X)_________________________________31) 2911038227..................2911038227 (X)

8) 3295017.................3290517___________________________________32) 313377752.....................313377752 (X)

9) 63015991...............63019991_________________________________33) 1012938567...................1012938567 (X)

10) 39007106.............39007106 (X)______________________________34) 7166220988...................7162220988

11) 69931087..............69931087 (X)_____________________________35) 3177628449...................3177682449

12) 251004818.............251004418______________________________36) 468672063.....................468672663 (X)

13) 299056013..............299056013 (X)__________________________37) 9104529003....................9194529003

14) 36015902.................360155902_____________________________38) 3484657120....................3484657210

15) 3910066482..............391006482____________________________39) 8588172556.....................8581722556

16) 8510273301...............8510273301 (X)_______________________40) 3120166671.....................3120166671 (X)

17) 263136996.................263136996 (X)_________________________41) 7611348870......................76111345879

18) 451152903.................451152903 (X)_________________________42) 26557239164....................26557239164 (X)

19) 3259016275................3295016725___________________________43) 8819002341.......................8819002341 (X)

20) 582039144...................582039144 (X)________________________44) 6571018034.......................6571018034 (X)

21) 61558520......................61588520____________________________45) 38779762514......................38778765214

22) 211915883....................219913883___________________________46) 39008126557......................39008126657

23) 670413822....................670143822___________________________47) 75658100398.......................75658100398 (X)

24) 17198591......................17198591_____________________________48) 41181900726.......................41181900726 (X)

Test 6Edit

This test assessed the ability of pictorial completion. Army recruits are present with pictures with something missing and they are supposed to draw it. In order to administer this, the administrator shows the demonstrator a picture of a hand with a missing finger and tells him to "Fix it". At first, the demonstrator does nothing and looks puzzled, then the administrator would point to place where the finger is missing and repeat to the demonstrator "Fix it; fix it". The demonstrator would then draw the missing finger. The administrator and demonstrator would then do the same procedure for a fish that is missing an eye. After which, the administrator points to four more samples and has the demonstrator solve all of them. The administrator would then have the army recruits solve the problems in their books. The test lasts 3 minutes, then the administrator would tell them to stop. Examples of missing items in pictures include a missing mouth on a face, missing eyes on a face, missing nose on a face, missing strings on a violin, missing trigger on a gun and missing net on a tennis court.[8]

Test 7Edit

This test assessed the ability of geometrical construction. Army recruits would need to make a rectangle out of pieces of cardboard. In order to administer this, the administrator would draw a figured on the blackboard. He would then take two pieces of cardboard and fit them together so it looks like the figure on the blackboard. The administrator would then remove the pieces and signal the demonstrator to draw the solution on the blackboard. The same procedure is done for the second and third samples, then the demonstrator would work through the fourth sample by himself. After the demonstrations are finished, the administrator would tell the army recruits to do the same with the problems they have in their book. After two minutes, the test was over and the administrator would tell them to stop.[9]

GradingEdit

The Army Beta yield numerical scores or intelligence scores which for practical military purposes are translated into letter grades. The several letter grades used in the Army, with their score-equivalents and appropriate definitions are presented in the following table.

Intelligence grade...........Definition..........Score (alpha)..........Score (beta)

A.......................................Very superior.........135-212...................100-118

B........................................Superior................105-134....................90-99

C+.....................................High Average..........75-104......................80-89

C........................................Average...................45-74.......................65-79

C-......................................Low Average...........25-44........................45-64

D........................................Inferior...................15-24........................20-44

D-......................................Very Inferior...........0-14..........................0-19

E grade was reserved for men who were recommended for rejection, discharge, development battalion, or service organization. All men deemed satisfactory for regular military duty were graded D- or higher.[10]

A = Very superior intelligence. This grade is ordinarily earned by only four or five percent of a draft quota. The "A" group is composed of men of marked intellectuality. "A" men are of high officer type when they are also endowed with leadership and other necessary qualities.

B = Superior intelligence. "B" intelligence is superior, but less exceptional than that represented by "A". The rating "B" is obtained by eight to ten soldiers out of a hundred. The group contains many men of the commissioned officer type and a large amount of non-commissioned officer material.

C+ = High average intelligence. This group includes fifteen to eighteen percent of all soldiers and contains a large amount of non-commissioned officer material with occasionally a man whose leadership and power to command fit him for commissioned rank.

C = Average intelligence. It includes about twenty-five percent of soldiers. Excellent private type with a certain amount of fair non-commissioned officer material.

C- = Low average intelligence. This group includes about twenty percent. Although below average intelligence, "C-" men are usually good privates and satisfactory in work of a routine nature.

D = Inferior intelligence. It includes about fifteen percent of soldiers. "D" men are likely to be fair soldiers, but they are usually slow in learning and rarely go above the rank of private. They are short on initiative and so require more than the usual amount of supervision. Many of them are illiterate or foreign.

D- and E = Very inferior intelligence. This group is divided into two classes (1) "D-" men, who are very inferior in intelligence but are considered fit for regular service; and (2) "E" men, those whose mental inferiority justifies their recommendation for development battalion, special service organization, rejection, or discharge. The majority of "D-" and "E" men are below ten years in "mental age."[11]

CriticismsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. http://official-asvab.com/history_rec.htm
  2. http://books.google.com/books/reader?id=xhECAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&output=reader&pg=GBS.PA43
  3. http://books.google.com/books?id=YdEiUjrLeiYC&pg=PT65&dq=army+beta&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ijzBUMG0M-yzigLrnoGICg&ved=0CDwQ6AEwBA
  4. http://books.google.com/books/reader?id=xhECAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&output=reader&pg=GBS.PA83
  5. http://books.google.com/books/reader?id=xhECAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&output=reader&pg=GBS.PA83
  6. http://books.google.com/books/reader?id=xhECAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&output=reader&pg=GBS.PA85
  7. http://books.google.com/books/reader?id=xhECAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&output=reader&pg=GBS.PA85
  8. http://books.google.com/books/reader?id=xhECAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&output=reader&pg=GBS.PA87
  9. http://books.google.com/books/reader?id=xhECAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&output=reader&pg=GBS.PA87
  10. Army mental tests. URL accessed 2012-09-24., pp.17
  11. http://books.google.com/books/reader?id=xhECAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&output=reader&pg=GBS.PA220, pp.22-23

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