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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
A tropism (from Greek τροπή, trope, "a turning") is a biological phenomenon, indicating growth or turning movement of a biological organism, in response to an environmental stimulus. A positive tropism indicates a turning toward the stimulus, a negative tropism results in a turning away.
In tropisms, this response is dependent on the direction of the stimulus. The absolute stimulus intensity is less decisive that the spatial or temporal intensity.
Tropisms are usually named for the stimulus involved (for example, a phototropism is a reaction to light) and may be either positive (towards the stimulus) or negative (away from the stimulus).
Tropisms are typically associated with plants (although not necessarily restricted to them). Where an organism is capable of directed physical movement (motility), movement or activity in response to a specific stimulus is more likely to be regarded by behaviorists as a taxis (directional response) or a kinesis (non-directional response).
In English, the word tropism is used in sometimes derisive way to indicate an action done without cognitive thought: However, "tropism" in this sense has a proper, although non-scientific, meaning as an innate tendency, natural inclination, or propensity to act in a certain manner.
Types of tropismsEdit
- Chemotropism, movement or growth in response to chemicals
- Geotropism (or gravitropism), movement or growth in response to gravity
- Heliotropism, movement or growth in response to sunlight
- Hydrotropism, movement or growth in response to water
- Phototropism, movement or growth in response to lights or colors of light
- Thermotropism, movement or growth in response to temperature
- Thigmotropism, movement or growth in response to touch or contact
- Photoperiodism, response to seasons
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