Wikia

Psychology Wiki

Tricyclic antidepressant drugs

Talk0
34,117pages on
this wiki

Redirected from Tricyclic antidepressants

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Clinical: Approaches · Group therapy · Techniques · Types of problem · Areas of specialism · Taxonomies · Therapeutic issues · Modes of delivery · Model translation project · Personal experiences ·


Amitriptyline-2D-skeletal
Chemical structure of the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline.
AWeidmanAdded by AWeidman

Tricyclic antidepressant drugs (abbreviation TCA) are a class of antidepressant drugs first used in the 1950s. They are named after the drugs' molecular structure, which contains three rings of atoms (compare tetracyclic antidepressant).

Example compounds Edit

The first tricyclic antidepressant discovered was imipramine, which was discovered accidentally in a search for a new antipsychotic in the late 1950s.

Antidepressant drugs in the tricyclic drug group (along with their actions as listed in MeSH) include:

Name Brand Adrenergic uptake inhibitor Serotonin reuptake inhibitors Dopamine antagonist Histamine antagonist
amitriptyline (& butriptyline) Elavil, Endep, Tryptanol, Trepiline, Amyzol yes
amoxapine Asendin, Asendis, Defanyl, Demolox, Moxadil yes yes metabolite
clomipramine Anafranil yes
desipramine Norpramin, Pertofrane yes
dosulepin hydrochloride (dothiepin hydrochloride) Prothiaden, Thaden yes
doxepin Adapin, Sinequan yes yes
imipramine (& dibenzepin) Tofranil, Janimine yes
iprindole - yes
lofepramine Gamanil yes
nortriptyline Aventyl, Pamelor yes
opipramol Opipramol-neuraxpharm, Insidon yes
protriptyline Vivactil, Rhotrimine yes
trimipramine Surmontil yes

Note: Other sources suggest that most of the tricyclics combine adrenergic and serotonergic effects to some degree. This is often reported as selectivity ratios. Some of the above, in order from most selective for nor-epinephrine to most selective for serotonin: lofepramine, nortriptyline, amitriptyline, imipramine, clomipramine[1].

Amine classification Edit

Tricyclics are sometimes classified as tertiary amines and secondary amines. In general, the tertiary amines boost serotonin as well as nor-epinephrine (adrenergic) and produce more sedation, anticholinergic effects, and orthostatic hypotension.[2] The secondary amines act primarily on nor-epinephrine and tend to have a lower side-effect profile[3].

Tertiary amines include: amitriptyline, imipramine, trimipramine, doxepin, clomipramine, and lofepramine.

Secondary amines include: nortriptyline, desipramine, protriptyline, and amoxapine.

Mechanism of action Edit

The exact mechanism of action is not well understood, however it is generally thought that tricyclic antidepressants work by inhibiting the re-uptake of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin by neurons. Tricyclics may also possess an affinity for muscarinic and histamine H1 receptors to varying degrees. Although the pharmacologic effect occurs immediately, often the patient's symptoms do not respond for 2 to 4 weeks.[4] Although norepinephrine and dopamine are generally considered stimulatory neurotransmitters, tricyclic antidepressants also increase the effects H1 histamine, and thus most have sedative effects.[5]

Chemistry of re-uptake inhibitors Edit

The chemical action of re-uptake inhibitors in general was unknown for a long time. In August 2007, two research groups independently reported that the tricyclic molecule docks to the transporter protein in a cavity adjacent to where the neurotransmitter substrate binds, locking the substrate in place and thereby obstructing re-uptake transport.[6]

Clinical useEdit

Tricyclic antidepressants are used in numerous applications; mainly indicated for the treatment of clinical depression, neuropathic pain, nocturnal enuresis, and ADHD, but they have also been used successfully for headache (including migraine headache), anxiety, insomnia, smoking cessation, bulimia nervosa, irritable bowel syndrome, narcolepsy, pathological crying or laughing, persistent hiccups, interstitial cystitis, and ciguatera poisoning, and as an adjunct in schizophrenia.[4]

DepressionEdit

For many years they were the first choice for pharmacological treatment of depression. Although still considered effective, they have been increasingly replaced by SSRIs and other newer drugs. Newer antidepressants are thought to have fewer side effects and are also thought to be less effective if used in a suicide attempt, as the treatment and lethal doses (see therapeutic index) are farther apart than with the tricyclic antidepressants. Tricyclic antidepressants are sometimes still used to treat refractory depression that has failed to respond to standard SSRI therapy.[7] They are not considered addictive and are preferable to the MAOIs. Side effects usually occur before depression is effectively suppressed; for this reason and via other mechanisms they can be dangerous, as volition may be increased, giving the patient greater ability to attempt suicide.[8]

ADHDEdit

Tricyclic antidepressants have been shown to be effective in treating attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.[9] ADHD is thought to be caused by dopamine and norepinephrine shortages in the brain's prefrontal cortex. Tricyclic antidepressants block the reuptake of these neurotransmitters.[10] They are commonly used in patients for whom psychostimulants (the primary medication for ADHD) are ineffective or contraindicted. TCAs are more effective in treating the behavioral aspects of ADHD than the cognitive deficits; they help limit hyperactivity and impulsivity but have little effect on attention.[11]

AnalgesiaEdit

Tricyclics are also known as effective analgesics for different types of pain, especially neuropathic or neuralgic pain (like back pain in radiculitis).[12][13] A precise mechanism for their analgesic action is unknown, but it is thought that they modulate opioid systems in the CNS via an indirect serotonergic route.[14] Typically pain modification requires lower dosages than for treating depression (e.g. Amitriptyline at 10 to 30 mg rather than 75 to 150 mg). They are also effective in migraine prophylaxis, but not in relief of an acute migraine attack. This is also believed to be related to serotonergic effects. There is, however, little evidence for an analgesic effect in acute pain.[4]

Nocturnal enuresisEdit

Tricyclics with greater anti-muscarinic action (i.e., amitriptyline, imipramine and nortriptyline) may prove useful in helping to treat nocturnal enuresis (bedwetting) in children over the age of 7 years. The drug needs to be gradually withdrawn and the total treatment period is advised to be no greater than 3 months at a time. It is thought that the anticholinergic effects of tricyclics may inhibit urination, and/or the CNS stimulant effect may lead to easier arousal when the stimulus of a full bladder occurs.[15] However, one robust review of tricyclics for the treatment of enuresis found the benefits of tricyclics were relatively small and transient and due to potentially serious adverse effects suggested more research into other methods (bedwetting alarms, behavioural methods, desmopressin) which may be better suited for treatment of this condition.[16]

Side effects Edit

Many side effects are related to tricyclics antimuscarinic actions. The antimuscarinic side effects are relatively common and include:

  • Dry mouth (salivary secretion is affected)
  • Dry nose
  • Blurred vision (accommodation in the eye is affected)
  • Decreased gastro-intestinal motility and secretion. This may lead to constipation
  • Urinary retention or difficulty with urination
  • Hyperthermia

Tolerance to these adverse effects often develops if treatment is continued, side effects may also be less troublesome if treatment is initiated with low dose and then gradually increased, although this may delay the clinical effect.

Other side effects may include drowsiness, anxiety, restlessness, cognitive and memory difficulties, confusion, dizziness, akathisia, hypersensitivity reactions, increased appetite with weight gain, sweating, decrease in sexual ability and desire, muscle twitches, weakness, nausea and vomiting, hypotension, tachycardia, and rarely, irregular heart rhythms.[4] Rhabdomyolysis or muscle breakdown has been rarely reported with this class of drugs. [1]

InteractionsEdit

TCAs are highly metabolized by the cytochrome P450 hepatic enzymes. Drugs that inhibit cytochrome P450 (for example cimetidine, methylphenidate, antipsychotics, and calcium channel blockers) may produce decreases in the tricyclic's metabolism leading to increases in tricyclic blood concentrations and accompanying toxicity. Drugs which prolong the QT interval including antiarrythmics such as quinidine, the antihistamines astemizole and terfenadine, and some antipsychotics may increase the chance of ventricular dysrhythmias. TCAs may enhance the response to alcohol and the effects of barbiturates and other CNS depressants. Side effects may also be enhanced by other drugs which have antimuscarinic properties. [4]

OverdoseEdit

Tricyclic antidepressant overdose is a significant cause of fatal drug poisoning. The severe morbidity and mortality associated with these drugs is well documented and due to their cardiovascular and neurological toxicity. Additionally, they are a serious problem in the pediatric population due to their inherent toxicity[17] and the availability of these in the home when prescribed for bed wetting and depression.

SymptomsEdit

The central nervous system and heart are the two main systems that are affected. Initial or mild symptoms include drowsiness, a dry mouth, nausea, and vomiting. More severe complications, include hypotension, cardiac rhythm disturbances, hallucinations, and seizures. Electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities are frequent and a wide variety of cardiac dysrhythmias can occur, the most common being sinus tachycardia and intraventricular conduction delay (QRS prolongation).[18] Seizures and cardiac dysrhythmias are the most important life threatening complications.

ToxicityEdit

Tricyclics have a narrow therapeutic index, i.e. the therapeutic dose is close to the toxic dose. In the medical literature the lowest reported toxic dose is 6.7 mg per kg body weight, ingestions of 10 to 20 mg per kilogram of body weight are a risk for moderate to severe poisoning, although doses ranging from 1.5 to 5 mg/kg may even present a risk. Most poison control centers refer any case of TCA poisoning (especially in children) to a hospital for monitoring.[19] Factors that increase the risk of toxicity include advancing age, cardiac status, and concomitant use of other drugs.[20] However, serum drug levels are not useful for evaluating risk of arrhythmia or seizure in tricyclic overdose.[21]

Toxic mechanismEdit

Most of the toxic effects of TCAs are caused by four major pharmacological effects. TCAs have anticholinergic effects, cause excessive blockade of norepinephrine reuptake at the postganglionic synapse, direct alpha adrenergic blockade, and importantly they block sodium membrane channels with slowing of membrane depolarization, thus having quinidine like effects on the myocardium.[22]

TreatmentEdit

Initial treatment of an acute overdose includes gastric decontamination of the patient. This is achieved by administering activated charcoal which adsorbs the drug in the gastrointestinal tract either orally or via a nasogastric tube. Other decontamination methods such as stomach pumps, ipecac induced emesis, or whole bowel irrigation are not recommended in TCA poisoning.[23][24]

Symptomatic patients are usually monitored in an intensive care unit for a minimum of 12 hours, with close attention paid to maintenance of the airways, along with monitoring of blood pressure, arterial pH, and continuous ECG monitoring.[22] Supportive therapy is given if necessary, including respiratory assistance, maintenance of body temperature, and administration of sodium bicarbonate as an antidote. Sodium bicarbonate is given intravenously and it has been shown to be an effective treatment for resolving the metabolic acidosis and cardiovascular complications of TCA poisoning. If sodium bicarbonate therapy fails to improve cardiac symptoms, conventional antidysrhythmic drugs such as phenytoin and magnesium can be used to reverse any cardiac abnormalities. However, no benefit has been shown from lidocaine or other class 1a and 1c antiarrhythmic drugs; it appears they worsen the sodium channel blockade, slow conduction velocity, and depress contractility and should be avoided in TCA poisoning.[25] Hypotension is initially treated with fluids along with bicarbonate to reverse metabolic acidosis (if present), if the patient remains hypotensive despite fluids then further measures such as the administration of epinephrine, norepinephrine, or dopamine can be used to increase blood pressure.[25] Another potentially severe symptom is seizures; often seizures resolve without treatment but administration of a benzodiazepine or other anticonvulsive may be required for persistent muscular overactivity. There is no role for physostigmine in the treatment of tricyclic toxicity as it may increase cardiac toxicity and cause seizures.[22]

Tricyclic antidepressants are highly protein bound and have a large volume of distribution; therefore removal of these compounds from the blood with hemodialysis, hemoperfusion or other techniques are unlikely to be of any significant benefit.[24]

EpidemiologyEdit

Studies in the 1990s in Australia and the United Kingdom showed that between 8 and 12% of drug overdoses were following TCA ingestion. TCAs may be involved in up to 33% of all fatal poisonings, second only to analgesics.[26][27]

Development historyEdit

Tricyclic antidepressants were developed amid the "explosive birth" of psychopharmacology in the early 1950s. The story begins with the synthesis of Chlorpromazine in December 1950 by Rhône-Poulenc's chief chemist, Paul Charpentier, from synthetic antihistamines developed by Rhône-Poulenc in the 1940s.[28] Its psychiatric effects were first noticed at a hospital in Paris in 1952. The first widely-used psychiatric drug, by 1955 it was already generating significant revenue as an antipsychotic.[29] Research chemists quickly began to explore other derivatives of chlorpromazine.

The first TCA reported for the treatment of depression was imipramine, an imino-dibenzyl analogue of chlorpromazine code-named G22355. It was not originally targeted for the treatment of depression. The drug's tendency to induce manic effects was "later described as 'in some patients, quite disastrous'". The paradoxical observation of a sedative inducing mania lead to testing with depressed patients. The first trial of imipramine took place in 1955 and the first report of antidepressant effects was published by Swiss psychiatrist Ronald Kuhn in 1957.[30] Some testing of Geigy’s imipramine, then known as Tofranil, took place at the Münsterlingen Hospital near Konstanz.[31] Geigy later became Ceiba-Geigy and eventually Novartis.

Many patents were filed in the 1950s and 1960s concerning variations on these three-ring structures with applications to psychiatric conditions.

  • Phenothiazine derivatives are described in U.S. patent 2,591,679 issued 1952-04-08 to John W. Cusic. The compounds described contain a sulphur group on the central carbon ring, and a nitrogen atom in the cental ring to which the side chain attaches, in the manner of chlorpromazine. Most of the illustrated side chains contain an amine group.

Merck introduced the second member of the TCA family, amitriptyline (Elavil), in 1961.[32]

These patents cover the structures of the compounds and their mode of chemical synthesis. Understanding of their mode of action as re-uptake inhibitors and development of the serotonin theory of depression came in the years to follow.


See alsoEdit


ReferencesEdit

  1. Antidepressants and upper gastrointestinal bleeding, http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1116881, table at http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1116881&blobname=bmj_319_7217_1081__index.html
  2. http://www.emsvillage.com/articles/article.cfm?id=2099
  3. Managing Neuropathic Pain: New Approaches for Today's Clinical Practice, slide 37
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 (2002) Sweetman SC Martindale. The complete drug reference, 33, Pharmaceutical Press. ISBN 0-85369-499-0.
  5. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3225/is_3_71/ai_n11836585
  6. http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/News/2007/August/09080702.asp
  7. Broquet K (1999). Status of treatment of depression. South Med J 92 (9): 846-56. PMID 10498158.
  8. Teicher M, Glod C, Cole J (1993). Antidepressant drugs and the emergence of suicidal tendencies. Drug Saf 8 (3): 186-212. PMID 8452661.
  9. Biederman J, Baldessarini R, Wright V, Knee D, Harmatz J (1989). A double-blind placebo controlled study of desipramine in the treatment of ADD: I. Efficacy. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 28 (5): 777-84. PMID 2676967.
  10. Biederman J, Spencer T (1999). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a noradrenergic disorder. Biol Psychiatry 46 (9): 1234-42. PMID 10560028.
  11. Popper C (1997). Antidepressants in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 58 (Suppl 14): 14-29; discussion 30-1. PMID 9418743.
  12. Micó J, Ardid D, Berrocoso E, Eschalier A (2006). Antidepressants and pain. Trends Pharmacol Sci 27 (7): 348-54. PMID 16762426.
  13. McQuay H, Tramèr M, Nye B, Carroll D, Wiffen P, Moore R (1996). A systematic review of antidepressants in neuropathic pain. Pain 68 (2-3): 217-27. PMID 9121808.
  14. Botney M, Fields H (1983). Amitriptyline potentiates morphine analgesia by a direct action on the central nervous system. Ann Neurol 13 (2): 160-4. PMID 6219612.
  15. (2005) McEvoy GK AHFS drug information, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. ISBN 1-58528-117-4.
  16. Glazener C, Evans J, Peto R. Tricyclic and related drugs for nocturnal enuresis in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3): CD002117. PMID 12917922.
  17. Rosenbaum T, Kou M (2005). Are one or two dangerous? Tricyclic antidepressant exposure in toddlers.. J Emerg Med 28 (2): 169-74. PMID 15707813.
  18. Thanacoody H, Thomas S (2005). Tricyclic antidepressant poisoning : cardiovascular toxicity. Toxicol Rev 24 (3): 205-14. PMID 16390222.
  19. McFee R, Mofenson H, Caraccio T (2000). A nationwide survey of the management of unintentional-low dose tricyclic antidepressant ingestions involving asymptomatic children: implications for the development of an evidence-based clinical guideline. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 38 (1): 15-9. PMID 10696919.
  20. Preskorn S, Irwin H (1982). Toxicity of tricyclic antidepressants--kinetics, mechanism, intervention: a review. J Clin Psychiatry 43 (4): 151-6. PMID 7068546.
  21. Boehnert M, Lovejoy F (1985). Value of the QRS duration versus the serum drug level in predicting seizures and ventricular arrhythmias after an acute overdose of tricyclic antidepressants. N Engl J Med 313 (8): 474-9. PMID 4022081.
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 Kerr G, McGuffie A, Wilkie S (2001). Tricyclic antidepressant overdose: a review. Emerg Med J 18 (4): 236-41. PMID 11435353.
  23. Teece S, Hogg K (2003). Gastric lavage in tricyclic antidepressant overdose. Emerg Med J 20 (1): 64. PMID 12533375.
  24. 24.0 24.1 Dargan P, Colbridge M, Jones A (2005). The management of tricyclic antidepressant poisoning : the role of gut decontamination, extracorporeal procedures and fab antibody fragments. Toxicol Rev 24 (3): 187-94. PMID 16390220.
  25. 25.0 25.1 Bradberry S, Thanacoody H, Watt B, Thomas S, Vale J (2005). Management of the cardiovascular complications of tricyclic antidepressant poisoning : role of sodium bicarbonate. Toxicol Rev 24 (3): 195-204. PMID 16390221.
  26. Thomas S, Bevan L, Bhattacharyya S, Bramble M, Chew K, Connolly J, Dorani B, Han K, Horner J, Rodgers A, Sen B, Tesfayohannes B, Wynne H, Bateman D (1996). Presentation of poisoned patients to accident and emergency departments in the north of England. Hum Exp Toxicol 15 (6): 466-70. PMID 8793528.
  27. Buckley N, Whyte I, Dawson A, McManus P, Ferguson N (1995). Self-poisoning in Newcastle, 1987-1992. Med J Aust 162 (4): 190-3. PMID 7877540.
  28. A Guide to the Extrapyramidal Side-Effects of Antipsychotic Drugs, D. G. Cunningham Owens, http://assets.cambridge.org/97805216/33536/excerpt/9780521633536_excerpt.pdf
  29. Becoming Neurochemical Selves, Nikolas Rose, p.3
  30. A Guide to the Extrapyramidal Side-Effects of Antipsychotic Drugs, D. G. Cunningham Owens, http://assets.cambridge.org/97805216/33536/excerpt/9780521633536_excerpt.pdf
  31. Becoming Neurochemical Selves, Nikolas Rose, p.3
  32. Becoming Neurochemical Selves, Nikolas Rose, p.3
  • Abbar, M., Carlander, B., & Castelnau, D. (1996). Tricyclics and malignant syndrome: European Psychiatry Vol 11(4) 1996, 212-213.
  • Alexopoulos, G. S. (1996). The treatment of depressed demented patients: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 57(Suppl 14) 1996, 14-20.
  • Altshuler, L. L., & Hendrick, V. C. (1996). Pregnancy and psychotropic medication: Changes in blood levels: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 16(1) Feb 1996, 78-80.
  • Amitai, Y., & Frischer, H. (2006). Excess fatality from desipramine in children and adolescents: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 45(1) Jan 2006, 54-60.
  • Amore, M. (2003). The pharmacological treatment of bipolar depression: Minerva Psichiatrica Vol 44(2) Jun 2003, 97-108.
  • Amrein, R., Stabl, M., Henauer, S., Affolter, E., & Jonkanski, I. (1997). Efficacy and tolerability of moclobemide in comparison with placebo, tricyclic antidepressants, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in elderly depressed patients: A clinical overview: The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry / La Revue canadienne de psychiatrie Vol 42(10) Dec 1997, 1043-1050.
  • Amsterdam, J. D., & Hornig-Rohan, M. (1996). Treatment algorithms in treatment-resistant depression: Psychiatric Clinics of North America Vol 19(2) Jun 1996, 371-386.
  • Anderson, I. M. (2000). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors versus tricyclic antidepressants: A meta-analysis of efficacy and tolerability: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 58(1) Apr 2000, 19-36.
  • Aragona, M., Bancheri, L., Perinelli, D., Tarsitani, L., Pizzimenti, A., Conte, A., et al. (2005). Randomized double-blind comparison of serotonergic (Citalopram) versus noradrenergic (Reboxetine) reuptake inhibitors in outpatients with somatoform, DSM-IV-TR pain disorder: European Journal of Pain Vol 9(1) Feb 2005, 33-38.
  • Arnold, L. E. (1996). Responders and nonresponders: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 35(12) Dec 1996, 1569-1570.
  • Arnon, J., Shechtman, S., & Ornoy, A. (2000). The use of psychiatric drugs in pregnancy and lactation: Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences Vol 37(3) 2000, 205-222.
  • Atkinson, J. H., Slater, M. A., Williams, R. A., Zisook, S., Patterson, T. L., Grant, I., et al. (1998). A placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of nortriptyline for chronic low back pain: Pain Vol 76(3) Jun 1998, 287-296.
  • Baillargeon, J., Contreras, S., Grady, J. J., Black, S. A., & Murray, O. (2000). Compliance with antidepressant medication among prison inmates with depressive disorders: Psychiatric Services Vol 51(11) Nov 2000, 1444-1446.
  • Baird, P. (2003). The interactive metabolism effect of oxcarbazepine with tricyclic antidepressant therapy for OCD symptoms: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 23(4) Aug 2003, 419-420.
  • Bakker, A., van Balkom, A. J. L. M., & Spinhoven, P. (2002). SSRIs vs. TCAs in the treatment of panic disorder: A meta-analysis: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 106(3) Sep 2002, 163-167.
  • Baldwin, D. S., & Birtwistle, J. (1998). The side effect burden associated with drug treatment of panic disorder: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 59(8) Aug 1998, 39-44.
  • Barbui, C., Guaiana, G., & Hotopf, M. (2004). Amitriptyline for inpatients and SSRIs for outpatients with depression? Systematic review and meta-regression analysis: Pharmacopsychiatry Vol 37(3) May 2004, 93-97.
  • Barbui, C., & Hotopf, M. (2001). Amitriptyline v. the rest: Still the leading antidepressant after 40 years of randomised controlled trials: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 178 Feb 2001, 129-144.
  • Barbui, C., Percudani, M., & Hotopf, M. (2003). Economic evaluation of antidepressive agents: A systematic critique of experimental and observational studies: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 23(2) Apr 2003, 145-154.
  • Barnet, C. S., Tse, J. Y., & Kohane, D. S. (2004). Site 1 sodium channel blockers prolong the duration of sciatic nerve blockade from tricyclic antidepressants: Pain Vol 110(1-2) Jul 2004, 432-438.
  • Beasley, C. M., Jr., Koke, S. C., Nilsson, M. E., & Gonzales, J. S. (2000). Adverse events and treatment discontinuations in clinical trials of fluoxetine in major depressive disorder: An updated meta-analysis: Clinical Therapeutics: The International Peer-Reviewed Journal of Drug Therapy Vol 22(11) Nov 2000, 1319-1330.
  • Bech, P., Ciadella, P., Haugh, M. C., Birkett, M. A., Hours, A., Boissel, J. P., et al. (2000). Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of fluoxetine v. placebo and tricyclic antidepressants in the short-term treatment of major depression: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 176 May 2000, 421-428.
  • Beerworth, E., & Tiller, J. (2000). Reply to Boyce and Judd: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry Vol 34(2) Apr 2000, 342-343.
  • Benazzi, F. (2004). How to treat bipolar II depression and bipolar II mixed depression? : International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 7(1) Mar 2004, 105-106.
  • Benazzi, F., & Ciucci, G. (1997). Neuropathy associated with tricyclic antidepressants: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Vol 12(8) Aug 1997, 868-869.
  • Berger, A., Dukes, E., Mercadante, S., & Oster, G. (2006). Use of antiepileptics and tricyclic antidepressants in cancer patients with neuropathic pain: European Journal of Cancer Care Vol 15(2) May 2006, 138-145.
  • Berger, M., & Gastpar, M. (1996). Trimipramine: A challenge to current concepts on antidepressives: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience Vol 246(5) 1996, 235-239.
  • Berzewski, H., Van Moffaert, M., & Gagiano, C. A. (1997). Efficacy and tolerability of reboxetine compared with imipramine in a double-blind study in patients suffering from major depressive episodes: European Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 7(Suppl 1) Apr 1997, S37-S47.
  • Besson, A., Privat, A. M., Eschalier, A., & Fialip, J. (1999). Dopaminergic and opioidergic mediations of tricyclic antidepressants in the learned helplessness paradigm: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 64(3) Nov 1999, 541-548.
  • Bhaumik, S., Duggirala, C., Bee, J., & Wildgust, H. (1997). Economic implications of the use of antidepressants in adults with learning disabilities suffering from affective disorders: Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental Vol 12(1) Jan-Feb 1997, 47-51.
  • Biederman, J., Spencer, T., & Wilens, T. (2004). Evidence-based pharmacotherapy for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 7(1) Mar 2004, 77-97.
  • Biederman, J., & Spencer, T. J. (2002). Nonstimulant treatments for ADHD. Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute.
  • Binder, A., Baron, R., Schattschneider, J., & Wasner, G. (2004). What do concepts carry into clinical practice? : Nervenheilkunde: Zeitschrift fur interdisziplinaere Fortbildung Vol 23(5) 2004, 287-291.
  • Birkenhager, T. K., Vegt, M., & Nolen, W. A. (1997). An open study of triiodothyronine augmentation of tricyclic antidepressants in inpatients with refractory depression: Pharmacopsychiatry Vol 30(1) Jan 1997, 23-26.
  • Blumer, D. (1997). Antidepressant and double antidepressant treatment for the affective disorder of epilepsy: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 58(1) Jan 1997, 3-11.
  • Blumer, D., Wakhlu, S., Montouris, G., & Wyler, A. R. (2000). Treatment of the interictal psychoses: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 61(2) Feb 2000, 110-122.
  • Bonin, B., Bertschy, G., Baumann, P., & Francois, T. (1996). Fluoxetine and tricyclic antidepressants: Short-term tolerance of the association: L'Encephale Vol 22(3) May-Jun 1996, 221-227.
  • Bowsher, D. (2003). Factors influencing the features of postherpeutic neuralgia and outcome when treated with tricyclics: European Journal of Pain Vol 7(1) Feb 2003, 1-7.
  • Boyce, P., & Judd, F. (1999). The place for tricyclic antidepressants in the treatment of depression: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry Vol 33(3) Jun 1999, 323-327.
  • Briley, M. (2004). Clinical experience with dual action antidepressants in different chronic pain syndromes: Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental Vol 19(Suppl1) Oct 2004, S21-S25.
  • Briscoe, J. J. D., Harrington, R. C., & Prendergast, M. (1995). Development of mania in close association with tricyclic antidepressant administration in children. A report of two cases: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 4(4) Oct 1995, 280-283.
  • Brokaw, D. K. (2002). Are SSRIs and TCAs equally effective for the treatment of panic disorder? : The Journal of Family Practice Vol 51(3) Mar 2002, 279.
  • Brunello, N., Davidson, J. R. T., Deahl, M., Kessler, R. C., Mendlewicz, J., Racagni, G., et al. (2001). Posttraumatic stress disorder: Diagnosis and epidemiology, comorbidity and social consequences, biology and treatment: Neuropsychobiology Vol 43(3) 2001, 150-162.
  • Brunnauer, A., Laux, G., Geiger, E., Soyka, M., & Moller, H.-J. (2006). Antidepressants and driving ability: Results from a clinical study: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 67(11) Nov 2006, 1776-1781.
  • Burke, W. J. (2004). Selective Versus Multi-Transmitter Antidepressants: Are Two Mechanisms Better Than One? : Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 65(Suppl4) 2004, 37-45.
  • Burrows, G. D., & Norman, T. (1997). Antidepressants: Clinical aspects: Stress Medicine Vol 13(3) Jul 1997, 167-172.
  • Calabrese, J. R. (2004). How to treat bipolar II depression and bipolar II mixed depression? - A reply to Benazzi: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 7(1) Mar 2004, 107.
  • Carilli, L. (1997). Depression in the elderly: Which drugs? : Rivista di Psichiatria Vol 32(Suppl 3) May-Jun 1997, 39-63.
  • Chen, Y.-W., Huang, K.-L., Liu, S.-Y., Tzeng, J.-I., Chu, K.-S., Lin, M.-T., et al. (2004). Intrathecal tri-cyclic antidepressants produce spinal anesthesia: Pain Vol 112(1-2) Nov 2004, 106-112.
  • Chung, S. (2005). Does the use of SSRIs reduce medical care utilization and expenditures? : Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics Vol 8(3) Sep 2005, 119-129.
  • Coccaro, E. F., Adan, F., Allen, D., & Cooper, T. B. (1987). Plasma-serum differences in the assessment of tricyclic antidepressant blood levels: International Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 2(3) Jul 1987, 217-224.
  • Cohn, J. B., Wilcox, C. S., & Goodman, L. I. (1993). Antidepressant efficacy and cardiac safety of trimipramine in patients with mild heart disease: Clinical Therapeutics: The International Peer-Reviewed Journal of Drug Therapy Vol 15(1) Jan -Feb 1993, 114-126.
  • Conrad, C. D., Galea, L. A. M., Kuroda, Y., & McEwen, B. S. (1996). Chronic stress impairs rat spatial memory on the Y maze, and this effect is blocked by tianeptine treatment: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 110(6) Dec 1996, 1321-1334.
  • Consogno, E., Racagni, G., & Popoli, M. (2001). Modifications in brain CaM Kinase II after long-term treatment with desmethylimipramine: Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 24(1) Jan 2001, 21-30.
  • Conti, A. C., Kuo, Y.-C., Valentino, R. J., & Blendy, J. A. (2004). Inducible cAMP Early Represser Regulates Corticosterone Suppression after Tricyclic Antidepressant Treatment: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 24(8) Feb 2004, 1967-1975.
  • Corruble, E., Berlin, I., Lemoine, A., & Hardy, P. (2004). Should Major Depression with 'High Normal' Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Be Treated Preferentially with Tricyclics? : Neuropsychobiology Vol 50(2) 2004, 144-146.
  • Cotter, P. A., Raven, P. W., & Hudson, M. (1996). Asymptomatic tricyclic toxicity associated with diltiazem: Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine Vol 13(4) Dec 1996, 168-169.
  • Daniel, W. A., Haduch, A., Syrek, M., & Boksa, J. (2006). Direct and indirect interactions between antidepressant drugs and CYP2C6 in the rat liver during long-term treatment: European Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 16(8) Dec 2006, 580-587.
  • Davidson, J. R. T. (1997). Biological therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: An overview: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 58(Suppl 9) 1997, 29-32.
  • den Boer, J. A., & Slaap, B. R. (1998). Review of current treatment in panic disorder: International Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 13(Suppl 4) Apr 1998, S25-S30.
  • DeVane, C. L. (1998). Clinical implications of dose-dependent cytochrome P-450 drug-drug interactions with antidepressants: Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental Vol 13(5) Jul 1998, 329-336.
  • Dick, I. E., Brochu, R. M., Purohit, Y., Kaczorowski, G. J., Martin, W. J., & Priest, B. T. (2007). Sodium channel blockade may contribute to the analgesic efficacy of antidepressants: The Journal of Pain Vol 8(4) Apr 2007, 315-324.
  • Diers, J. A., Ivey, K. D., El-Alfy, A., Shaikh, J., Wang, J., Kochanowska, A. J., et al. (2008). Identification of antidepressant drug leads through the evaluation of marine natural products with neuropsychiatric pharmacophores: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 89(1) Mar 2008, 46-53.
  • Donovan, S., Clayton, A., Beeharry, M., Jones, S., Kirk, C., Waters, K., et al. (2000). Deliberate self-harm and antidepressant drugs. Investigation of a possible link: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 177 Dec 2000, 551-556.
  • Doyle, A., & Pollack, M. H. (2004). Long-Term Management of Panic Disorder: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 65(Suppl5) 2004, 24-28.
  • Dursun, S. M., Patel, J. K. M., Drybala, T., Shinkwin, R., Drybala, G., & Reveley, M. A. (2001). Effects of antidepressant treatments on first-ECT seizure duration in depression: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 25(2) Feb 2001, 437-443.
  • Dworkin, R. H., Backonja, M., Rowbotham, M. C., Allen, R. R., Argoff, C. R., Bennett, G. J., et al. (2003). Advances in neuropathic pain: Diagnosis, mechanisms, and treatment recommendations: Archives of Neurology Vol 60(11) Nov 2003, 1524-1534.
  • Ebert, D., Jaspert, A., Murata, H., & Kaschka, W. P. (1995). Initial lithium augmentation improves the antidepressant effects of standard TCA treatment in non-resistant depressed patients: Psychopharmacology Vol 118(2) Mar 1995, 223-225.
  • Elliott, D. P., & Newbrough, M. (2001). Regarding weight outcomes in antidepressant users in nursing facilities: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Vol 49(11) Nov 2001, 1572.
  • Evans, C. L., Ha, Y., Saisch, S., Ellison, Z., & Fombonne, E. (1998). Tricyclic antidepressants in adolescent depression: A case report: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 7(3) Sep 1998, 166-171.
  • Faigel, H. C., & Heiligenstein, E. (1996). Medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Commentary and response: Journal of American College Health Vol 45(1) Jul 1996, 40-42.
  • Fairman, K. A., Drevets, W. C., Kreisman, J. J., & Teitelbaum, F. (1998). Course of antidepressant treatment, drug type, and prescriber's specialty: Psychiatric Services Vol 49(9) Sep 1998, 1180-1186.
  • Fairweather, D. B., Ashford, J., & Hindmarch, I. (1996). Effects of fluvoxamine and dothiepin on psychomotor abilities in healthy volunteers: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 53(2) Feb 1996, 265-269.
  • Fairweather, D. B., Stanley, N., Yoon, J. S., & Hindmarch, I. (1999). The effects of fluoxetine and dothiepin on cognitive function in depressed patients in general practice: Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental Vol 14(5) Jul 1999, 325-332.
  • Faludi, G. (1993). Fluvoxamine: A role in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: Psychiatria Hungarica Vol 8(2) Apr 1993, 179-190.
  • Faravelli, C., Cosci, F., Ciampelli, M., Scarpato, M. A., Spiti, R., & Ricca, V. (2003). A self-controlled, naturalistic study of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors versus tricyclic antidepressants: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics Vol 72(2) Mar-Apr 2003, 95-101.
  • Feenstra, M. G. P., van Galen, H., Te Riele, P. J. M., Botterblom, M. H. A., & Mirmiran, M. (1996). Decreased hypothalamic serotonin levels in adult rats treated neonatally with clomipramine: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 55(4) Dec 1996, 647-652.
  • Fontenelli, L., Nardi, A. E., Marques, C., Figueira, I., Possidente, E., & Versiani, M. (1997). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Jornal Brasileiro de Psiquiatria Vol 46(9) Sep 1997, 487-498.
  • Ford, N. (1996). The use of anticonvulsants in posttraumatic stress disorder: Case study and overview: Journal of Traumatic Stress Vol 9(4) Oct 1996, 857-863.
  • French, D. J., Holroyd, K. A., Pinell, C., Malinoski, P. T., O'Donnell, F., & Hill, K. R. (2000). Perceived self-efficacy and headache-related disability: Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain Vol 40(8) Sep 2000, 647-656.
  • Frey, R., Schreinzer, D., Stimpfl, T., Vycudilik, W., Berzlanovich, A., & Kasper, S. (2000). Suicide by antidepressant intoxication identified at autopsy in Vienna from 1991-1997: The favourable consequences of the increasing use of SSRIs: European Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 10(2) Mar 2000, 133-142.
  • Fuchs, E., Czeh, B., & Flugge, G. (2004). Examining novel concepts of the pathophysiology of depression in the chronic psychosocial stress paradigm in tree shrews: Behavioural Pharmacology Vol 15(5-6) Sep 2004, 315-325.
  • Furukawa, T. A., McGuire, H., & Barbui, C. (2002). Meta-analysis of effects and side effects of low dosage tricyclic antidepressants in depression: Systematic review: BMJ: British Medical Journal Vol 325(7371) Nov 2002, 991-995.
  • Galer, B. S. (1995). Neuropathic pain of peripheral origin: Advances in pharmacologic treatment: Neurology Vol 45(12, Suppl 9) Dec 1995, S17-S25.
  • Gartside, S. E., Umbers, V., & Sharp, T. (1997). Inhibition of 5-HT cell firing in the DRN by non-selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors: Studies on the role of 5-HT-sub(1A ) autoreceptors and noradrenergic mechanisms: Psychopharmacology Vol 130(3) Apr 1997, 261-268.
  • Geller, B., Reising, D., Leonard, H. L., Riddle, M. A., & Walsh, B. T. (1999). Critical review of tricyclic antidepressant use in children and adolescents: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 38(5) May 1999, 513-528.
  • Ginsberg, D. L. (2004). Doxepin-induced hypercholesterolemia: Primary Psychiatry Vol 11(6) Jun 2004, 17.
  • Glassman, A. H. (1998). Cardiovascular effects of antidepressant drugs: Updated: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 59(Suppl 15) 1998, 13-18.
  • Goldberg, J. F., & Ghaemi, S. N. (2005). Benefits and limitations of antidepressants and traditional mood stabilizers for treatment of bipolar depression: Bipolar Disorders Vol 7(Suppl5) Dec 2005, 3-12.
  • Goodnick, P. J. (1997). Diabetes mellitus and depression: Issues in theory and treatment: Psychiatric Annals Vol 27(5) May 1997, 353-359.
  • Gorman, J. M., Browne, S. T., Papp, L. A., Martinez, J., Welkowitz, L., Coplan, J. D., et al. (1997). Effect of antipanic treatment on response to carbon dioxide: Biological Psychiatry Vol 42(11) Dec 1997, 982-991.
  • Greenshaw, A. J. (2003). Neurotransmitter interactions in psychotropic drug action: Beyond dopamine and serotonin: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience Vol 28(4) Jul 2003, 247-250.
  • Grohmann, R., Ruther, E., Engel, R. R., & Hippius, H. (1999). Assessment of adverse drug reactions in psychiatric inpatients with the AMSP Drug Safety Program: Methods and first results for trycyclic antidepressants and SSRI: Pharmacopsychiatry Vol 32(1) Jan 1999, 21-28.
  • Grunebaum, M. F., Ellis, S. P., Li, S., Oquendo, M. A., & Mann, J. J. (2004). Antidepressants and Suicide Risk in the United States, 1985-1999: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 65(11) Nov 2004, 1456-1462.
  • Grzesiak, M., Beszlej, J. A., & Szewczuk-Boguslawska, M. (2003). Therapeutic monitoring of tricyclic antidepressant drugs: Psychiatria Polska Vol 37(5) Sep-Oct 2003, 825-837.
  • Gullickson, T. (1997). Review of Living With Tricyclic Antidepressants: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 42 (1), Jan, 1997.
  • Gumilar, F., Arias, H. R., Spitzmaul, G., & Bouzat, C. (2003). Molecular mechanisms of inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by tricyclic antidepressants: Neuropharmacology Vol 45(7) Dec 2003, 964-976.
  • Hale, A. S. (2003). Pharmacological heterogeneity limits antidepressant study: BMJ: British Medical Journal Vol 327(7409) Aug 2003, 289.
  • Hall, S. M. (2007). Tricyclic Antidepressants in the Treatment of Nicotine Dependence. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
  • Hascoet, M., Bourin, M., Colombel, M. C., Fiocco, A. J., & Baker, G. B. (2000). Anxiolytic-like effects of antidepressants after acute administration in a four-plate test in mice: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 65(2) Feb 2000, 339-344.
  • Hazell, P. (1996). Tricyclic antidepressants in children: Is there a rationale for use? : CNS Drugs Vol 5(4) Apr 1996, 233-239.
  • Hazell, P. (2000). Tricyclic antidepressants in children: Is there a rationale for use? Kwai Chung, Hong Kong: Adis International Publications.
  • Healy, D., Power, N., Lloyd, K., Rockhold, F., Metz, A., & Traber, P. (2002). SSRIs and deliberate self-harm black small circle Response from Pfizer black small circle Response from GlaxoSmithKline: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 180(6) Jun 2002, 547-548.
  • Healy, D. G., Harkin, A., Cryan, J. F., Kelly, J. P., & Leonard, B. E. (1999). Metyrapone displays antidepressant-like properties in preclinical paradigms: Psychopharmacology Vol 145(3) Aug 1999, 303-308.
  • Henderson, P. (2007). Comments on "Postpartum depression" article by Dr. Wisner and colleagues: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 27(3) Jun 2007, 321.
  • Henriksson, S., Boethius, G., Hakansson, J., & Isacsson, G. (2003). Indications for and outcome of antidepressant medication in a general population: A prescription database and medical record study, in Jamtland county, Sweden, 1995: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 108(6) Dec 2003, 427-431.
  • Hill, M. N., Ho, W. S. V., Sinopoli, K. J., Viau, V., Hillard, C. J., & Gorzalka, B. B. (2006). Involvement of the Endocannabinoid System in the Ability of Long-Term Tricyclic Antidepressant Treatment to Suppress Stress-Induced Activation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis: Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 31(12) Dec 2006, 2591-2599.
  • Hindmarch, I. (1997). The effects of antidepressants on psychomotor function with particular reference to reboxetine: European Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 7(Suppl 1) Apr 1997, S17-S21.
  • Hippisley-Cox, J., Pringle, M., Hammersley, V., Crown, N., Wynn, A., Meal, A., et al. (2001). Antidepressants as risk factor for ischaemic heart disease: Case-control study in primary care: BMJ: British Medical Journal Vol 323(7314) Sep 2001, 666-669.
  • Hirschfeld, R. M. A. (1999). Efficacy of SSRIs and newer antidepressants in severe depression: Comparison with TCAs: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 60(5) May 1999, 326-335.
  • Holmes, D. T., Long, P., & Frohlich, J. (2005). Dysbetalipoproteinemia and Clomipramine: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 162(7) Jul 2005, 1384-1385.
  • Holroyd, K. A., O'Donnell, F. J., Stensland, M., Lipchik, G. L., Cordingley, G. E., & Carlson, B. W. (2001). Management of chronic tension-type headache with tricyclic antidepressant medication, stress management therapy, and their combination: A randomized controlled trial: JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association Vol 285(17) May 2001, 2208-2215.
  • Holroyd, K. A., Stensland, M., & Carlson, B. W. (2001). Antidepressant medication for chronic tension headache: Reply: JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association Vol 286(16) Oct 2001, 1969-1970.
  • Hotopf, M., & Barbui, C. (2005). Bias in the evaluation of antidepressants: Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale Vol 14(2) Apr-Jun 2005, 55-57.
  • Hotopf, M., Hardy, R., & Lewis, G. (1997). Discontinuation rates of SSRIs and tricyclic antidepressants: A meta-analysis and investigation of heterogeneity: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 170(2) Feb 1997, 120-127.
  • Hotopf, M., Lewis, G., & Normand, C. (1996). Are SSRIs a cost-effective alternative to tricyclics? : British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 168(4) Apr 1996, 404-409.
  • Hotopf, M., Lewis, G., & Normand, C. (1997). Putting trials on trial--the costs and consequences of small trials in depression: A systematic review of methodology: Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health Vol 51(4) Aug 1997, 354-358.
  • Howland, R. H. (2007). Unusual & serious adverse effects of SSRIs: Recognition & managment: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services Vol 45(3) Mar 2007, 15-18.
  • Hylan, T. R., Crown, W. H., Meneades, L., Heiligenstein, J. H., Melfi, C. A., Croghan, T. W., et al. (1998). Tricyclic antidepressant and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors antidepressant selection and health care costs in the naturalistic setting: A multivariate analysis: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 47(1-3) Jan 1998, 71-79.
  • Isacsson, G., Boethius, G., Henriksson, S., Jones, J. K., & Bergman, U. (1999). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have broadened the utilisation of antidepressant treatment in accordance with recommendations: Finding from a Swedish prescription database: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 53(1) Apr 1999, 15-22.
  • Joel, D., Ben-Amir, E., Doljansky, J., & Flaisher, S. (2004). 'Compulsive' lever-pressing in rats is attenuated by the serotonin re-uptake inhibitors paroxetine and fluvoxamine but not by the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine or the anxiolytic diazepam: Behavioural Pharmacology Vol 15(3) May 2004, 241-252.
  • Kamata, M., Naito, S., Takahashi, H., & Higuchi, H. (2003). Milnacipran for the treatment of chronic pain: Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental Vol 18(7) Oct 2003, 575-576.
  • Kasper, S., Pletan, Y., Solles, A., & Tournoux, A. (1996). Comparative studies with milnacipran and tricyclic antidepressants in the treatment of patients with major depression: A summary of clinical trial results: International Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 11(Suppl 4) Sep 1996, 35-39.
  • Kaube, H., Katsarava, Z., Przywara, S., Drepper, J., Ellrich, J., & Diener, H. C. (2002). Acute migraine headache: Possible sensitization of neurons in the spinal trigeminal nucleus? : Neurology Vol 58(8) Apr 2002, 1234-1238.
  • Keltner, N. L. (2000). Mechanisms of antidepressant action: In brief: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care Vol 36(2) Apr-Jun 2000, 69-71.
  • Kendrick, T., Peveler, R., Longworth, L., Baldwin, D., Moore, M., Chatwin, J., et al. (2006). Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and lofepramine: Randomised controlled trial: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 188(4) Apr 2006, 337-345.
  • Khan, A., Kelly, R., & Gill, M. (1999). Survey of symptoms associated with antidepressant discontinuation: Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine Vol 16(3) Sep 1999, 89-92.
  • Kitzlerova, E., Paclt, I., & Slavicek, J. (2002). Antidepressants and their Effect on the Cardiovascular System: Ceska a Slovenska Psychiatrie Vol 98(8) 2002, 429-433.
  • Koch, H. J. (1991). Influence of age on the distribution of tricyclic antidepressant concentrations including their principal metabolites: Psychologie Medicale Vol 23(8) Jun 1991, 969-971.
  • Konig, F., & Wolfersdorf, M. (1997). Combination therapy using moclobemide with tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants to treat therapy-resistant depression: Pharmacopsychiatry Vol 30(3) May 1997, 93-96.
  • Kragh-Sorensen, P., & Bjerregaard Stage, K. (2004). The concept of melancholia and antidepressant treatment: Salud Mental Vol 27(5) Oct 2004, 1-7.
  • Kumar, S., & Browne, M. O. (2002). Panic disorder. Williston, VT: BMJ Books.
  • Kurdyak, P. A., Gnam, W. H., & Streiner, D. L. (2002). Antidepressants and the Risk of Breast Cancer: The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry / La Revue canadienne de psychiatrie Vol 47(10) Dec 2002, 966-970.
  • Lader, M. H. (1996). Tolerability and safety-essentials in antidepressant pharmacotherapy: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 57(2, Suppl) 1996, 39-44.
  • Langosch, J. M., Repp, M., Berger, M., & Walden, J. (1998). Effects of the atypical antidepressant trimipramine on field potentials in the low Mg-super(2+)-model in guinea pig hippocampal slices: European Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 8(3) Aug 1998, 209-212.
  • Langosch, J. M., & Walden, J. (2002). Effects of the atypical antidepressant trimipramine on neuronal excitability and long-term potentiation in guinea pig hippocampal slices: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 26(2) Feb 2002, 299-302.
  • Lasich, A. J. (1993). Lofepramine in the treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Southern African Journal of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 5(2) 1993, 102-105.
  • Lawrenson, R. A., Tyrer, F., Newson, R. B., & Farmer, R. D. T. (2000). The treatment of depression in UK general practice: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants compared: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 59(2) Aug 2000, 149-157.
  • Lehofer, M., Moser, M., Hoehn-Saric, R., McLeod, D., Liebmann, P., Drnovsek, B., et al. (1997). Major depression and cardiac autonomic control: Biological Psychiatry Vol 42(10) Nov 1997, 914-919.
  • Lejoyeux, M., & Ades, J. (1997). Antidepressant discontinuation: A review of the literature: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 58(Suppl 7) 1997, 11-16.
  • Leonard, B. E. (1996). Tricyclic antidepressants: Effective, cheap but are they safe? : Journal of Psychopharmacology Vol 10(Suppl 1) 1996, 35-38.
  • Lepine, J. P., Altamura, C., Ansseau, M., Gutierrez, J. L. A., Bitter, I., Lader, M., et al. (2001). Tianeptine and paroxetine in major depressive disorder, with a special focus on the anxious component in depression: An international, 6-week double blind study: Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental Vol 16(3) Apr 2001, 219-227.
  • Lepine, J. P., Goger, J., Blashko, C., Probst, C., Moles, M. F., Kosolowski, J., et al. (2000). A double-blind study of the efficacy and safety of sertraline and clomipramine in outpatients with severe major depression: International Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 15(5) Sep 2000, 263-271.
  • Lepping, P., & Menkes, D. B. (2007). Abuse of dosulepin to induce mania: Addiction Vol 102(7) Jul 2007, 1166-1167.
  • Leucht, S., Hackl, H.-J., Steimer, W., Angersbach, D., & Zimmer, R. (2000). Effect of adjunctive paroxetine on serum levels and side-effects of tricyclic antidepressants in depressive inpatients: Psychopharmacology Vol 147(4) Jan 2000, 378-383.
  • Levitt, A. J., Joffe, R. T., Kamil, R., & McIntyre, R. (1999). Do depressed subjects who have failed both fluoxetine and a tricyclic antidepressant respond to the combination? : Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 60(9) Sep 1999, 613-616.
  • Lotery, H. E., McClure, N., & Galask, R. P. (2004). Vulvodynia: Lancet Vol 363(9414) Mar 2004, 1058-1060.
  • Loze, J. Y., Azorin, J. M., Leguay, D., Parquet, P., Sechter, D., & Rouillon, F. (2001). Pharmaco-epidemiological survey about introduction and continuation of antidepressant treatments (EPICTA): Annales Medico-Psychologiques Vol 159(8) Oct 2001, 600-604.
  • Macaskill, N. D., & Macaskill, A. (1996). Rational-emotive therapy plus pharmacotherapy versus pharmacotherapy alone in the treatment of high cognitive dysfunction depression: Cognitive Therapy and Research Vol 20(6) Dec 1996, 575-592.
  • MacGillivray, S., Arroll, B., Hatcher, S., Ogston, S., Reid, I., Sullivan, F., et al. (2003). Efficacy and tolerability of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors compared with tricyclic antidepressants in depression treated in primary care: Systematic review and meta-analysis: BMJ: British Medical Journal Vol 326(7397) May 2003, 1014-1017.
  • Maj, M. (1997). Selection of the initial drug(s) in the treatment of bipolar disorder, depressed phase. Basel, Switzerland: Karger.
  • Makhay, M. M., & O'Donnell, J. M. (1999). Effects of antidepressants in rats trained to discriminate the beta-2 adrenergic agonist clenbuterol: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 63(2) Jun 1999, 319-324.
  • Manfredi, P. L., Raja, S. N., Haythornthwaite, J. A., & Max, M. B. (2003). Opioids versus antidepressants in postherpetic neuralgia: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial: Comment and Reply: Neurology Vol 60(6) Mar 2003, 1052-1053.
  • Marazziti, D., Baroni, S., Rossi, A., Masala, I., Giannaccini, G., Gori, V., et al. (2001). Pharmacological characterization of the serotonin transporter in young and elderly subjects: Neuropsychobiology Vol 44(2) Aug 2001, 78-83.
  • Markowitz, J. C. (2001). Antidepressants and suicide risk: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 178 May 2001, 477.
  • Martinez-Cano, H., Martinez-Gras, I., De Iceta, M., Rodao, J. M., & Vela-Bueno, A. (2001). Methylphenidate in stimulants abuse: Three case reports: The American Journal on Addictions Vol 10(2) Spr 2001, 192-193.
  • Martinez-Mota, L., Estrada-Camarena, E., Lopez-Rubalcava, C., Contreras, C. M., & Fernandez-Guasti, A. (2000). Interaction of desipramine with steroid hormones on experimental anxiety: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 25(2) Feb 2000, 109-120.
  • Martinsen, E. W., & Stanghelle, J. K. (1997). Drug therapy and physical activity. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis.
  • McLaughlin, T. P. (2000). Cost-effectiveness of antidepressants in childhood and adolescent depression. (SSRIS). Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • McManus, P., Mant, A., Mitchell, P., & Dudley, J. (2004). Length of therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants in Australia: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry Vol 38(6) Dec 2004, 450-454.
  • Melis, M., Lobo Lobo, S., Ceneviz, C., Zawawi, K., Al-Badawi, E., Maloney, G., et al. (2003). Atypical Odontalgia: A Review of the Literature: Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain Vol 43(10) Nov-Dec 2003, 1060-1074.
  • Meltzer, H., Bastani, B., Jayathilake, K., & Maes, M. (1997). Fluoxetine, but not tricyclic antidepressants, potentiates the 5-hydroxytryptophan-mediated increase in plasma cortisol and prolactin secretion in subjects with major depression or with obsessive compulsive disorder: Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 17(1) Jul 1997, 1-11.
  • Menkes, D. B. (2000). Antidepressants and suicide: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry Vol 34(1) Feb 2000, 168.
  • Mezzacappa, E., Steingard, R., Kindlon, D., Saul, J. P., & Earls, F. (1998). Tricyclic antidepressants and cardiac autonomic control in children and adolescents: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 37(1) Jan 1998, 52-59.
  • Miczek, K. A. (2004). More questions than answers. Commentary on Fuchs et al., Examining novel concepts of the pathophysiology of depression in the chronic psychosocial stress paradigm in tree shrews: Behavioural Pharmacology Vol 15(5-6) Sep 2004, 363-364.
  • Moleman, P., Bruijn, J. A., & Tulen, J. H. (1996). The usefulness of blood level assays of antidepressants in clinical practice: Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie Vol 38(1) 1996, 16-29.
  • Montgomery, S. (2006). Serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors: Logical evolution of antidepressant development: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice Vol 10(Suppl2) Jun 2006, 5-11.
  • Montgomery, S. A. (2001). A meta-analysis of the efficacy and tolerability of paroxetine versus tricyclic antidepressants in the treatment of major depression: International Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 16(3) May 2001, 169-178.
  • Montgomery, S. A., Prost, J. F., Solles, A., & Briley, M. (1996). Efficacy and tolerability of milnacipran: An overview: International Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 11(Suppl 4) Sep 1996, 47-51.
  • Moscarelli, M., & Rupp, A. (2005). Editorial: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics Vol 8(3) Sep 2005, 117-118.
  • Murray, J. B. (2000). Cardiac disorders and antidepressant medications: Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied Vol 134(2) Mar 2000, 162-168.
  • Murray, M. L., Wong, I. C. K., & de Vries, C. S. (2004). Treating major depression in children and adolescents: Research is needed into safer and more effective drugs: BMJ: British Medical Journal Vol 328(7438) 2004, 524-525.
  • Muzina, D. J., & Calabrese, J. R. (2003). Recent placebo-controlled acute trials in bipolar depression: Focus on methodology: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 6(3) Sep 2003, 285-291.
  • Nakashita, M., Sasaki, K., Sakai, N., & Saito, N. (1997). Effects of tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants on the three subtypes of GABA transporter: Neuroscience Research Vol 29(1) Sep 1997, 87-91.
  • Nelson, J. C. (1998). Augmentation strategies with serotonergic-noradrenergic combinations: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 59(Suppl 5) 1998, 65-69.
  • Nemeroff, C. B., & Schatzberg, A. F. (2002). Pharmacological treatments for unipolar depression. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Nettelbladt, P., Mattisson, C., Bogren, M., & Holmqvist, M. (2007). Suicide Rates in the Lundby Cohort before and after the Introduction of Tricyclic Antidepressant Drugs: Archives of Suicide Research Vol 11(1) 2007, 57-67.
  • Nielsen, C. K., Lewis, R. J., Alewood, D., Drinkwater, R., Palant, E., Patterson, M., et al. (2005). Anti-allodynic efficacy of the chi -conopeptide, Xen2174, in rats with neuropathic pain: Pain Vol 118(1-2) Nov 2005, 112-124.
  • Nordin, C., & Krijzer, F. (1996). Antidepressant and anxiolytic profiles of E-10-Hydroxynortriptyline on electrocorticograms of rats: Neuropsychobiology Vol 34(1) 1996, 44-48.
  • Nutt, D. J. (2005). Death by tricyclic: The real antidepressant scandal? : Journal of Psychopharmacology Vol 19(2) Mar 2005, 123-124.
  • Nutt, D. J., & Pinder, R. M. (1996). alpha -sub-2-Adrenoceptors and depression: Journal of Psychopharmacology Vol 10(Suppl 3) 1996, 35-42.
  • Oluyomi, A. O., Datla, K. P., & Curzon, G. (1997). Effects of the (+) and (-) enantiomers of the antidepressant drug tianeptine on 5-HTP-induced behaviour: Neuropharmacology Vol 36(3) Mar 1997, 383-387.
  • Otto, M. W., Tuby, K. S., Gould, R. A., McLean, R. Y. S., & Pollack, M. H. (2001). An effect-size analysis of the relative efficacy and tolerability of serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors for panic disorder: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 158(12) Dec 2001, 1989-1992.
  • Owens, D., & House, A. (2001). Declarations of interest: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 179 Aug 2001, 175.
  • Parker, G. (2001). 'New' and 'old' antidepressants: All equal in the eyes of the lore? : British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 179 Aug 2001, 95-96.
  • Parker, G. (2002). Differential effectiveness of newer and older antidepressants appears mediated by an age effect on the phenotypic expression of depression: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 106(3) Sep 2002, 168-170.
  • Peles, E., Schreiber, S., & Adelson, M. (2008). Tricyclic antidepressants abuse, with or without benzodiazepines abuse, in former heroin addicts currently in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT): European Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 18(3) Mar 2008, 188-193.
  • Perna, G., Bertani, A., Caldirola, D., Gabriele, A., Cocchi, S., & Bellodi, L. (2002). Antipanic drug modulation of 35% CO-sub-2 hyperreactivity and short-term treatment outcome: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 22(3) Jun 2002, 300-308.
  • Perry, P. J. (1996). Pharmacotherapy for major depression with melancholic features: Relative efficacy of tricyclic versus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants: Journal of Affective Disorders 39(1) Jun 1996, 1-6.
  • Pinkofsky, H. B., Dwyer, D. S., & Bradley, R. J. (1999). The inhibition of GLUT1 glucose transport and cytochalasin B binding activity by tricyclic antidepressants: Life Sciences Vol 66(3) Dec 1999, 271-278.
  • Pliszka, S. R. (2003). Non-stimulant treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: CNS Spectrums Vol 8(4) Apr 2003, 253-258.
  • Podewils, L. J., & Lyketsos, C. G. (2002). Tricyclic antidepressants and cognitive decline: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 43(1) Jan-Feb 2002, 31-35.
  • Potter, W. Z., Manji, H. K., & Rudorfer, M. V. (2001). Tricyclics and tetracyclics. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
  • Potter, W. Z., Padich, R. A., Rudorfer, M. V., & Krishnan, K. R. R. (2006). Tricyclics, Tetracyclics, and Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.
  • Preskorn, S. H. (2002). Clinical pharmacology case conference: A suicide attempt? : Journal of Psychiatric Practice Vol 8(5) Sep 2002, 306-310.
  • Puozzo, C., & Leonard, B. E. (1996). Pharmacokinetics of milnacipran in comparison with other antidepressants: International Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 11(Suppl 4) Sep 1996, 15-27.
  • Purper-Ouakil, D. (2002). Treatment of depression: A N A E Approche Neuropsychologique des Apprentissages chez l'Enfant Vol 14(5)[70] Dec 2002, 343-346.
  • Quisel, A., Gill, J., & Walters, D. (2004). Exercise and antidepressants improve fibromyalgia: The Journal of Family Practice Vol 53(4) Apr 2004, 280-291.
  • Raja, S. N., Haythornthwaite, J. A., Pappagallo, M., Clark, M. R., Travison, T. G., Sabeen, S., et al. (2002). Opioids versus antidepressants in postherpetic neuralgia: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial: Neurology Vol 59(7) Oct 2002, 1015-1021.
  • Ramchandani, P., Murray, B., Hawton, K., & House, A. (2000). Deliberate self poisoning with antidepressant drugs: A comparison of the relative hospital costs of cases of overdose of tricyclics with those of selective-serotonin re-uptake inhibitors: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 60(2) Nov 2000, 97-100.
  • Rao, M. L., Deister, A., Laux, G., Staberock, U., & et al. (1996). Low serum levels of tricyclic antidepressants in amitriptyline- and doxepin-treated inpatients with depressive syndromes are associated with nonresponse: Pharmacopsychiatry Vol 29(3) May 1996, 97-102.
  • Razali, S. M., & Hasanah, C. I. (1998). Cost-effectiveness of cyclic antidepressants in Malaysia 1998: European Psychiatry Vol 13(8) 1998, 435.
  • Razali, S. M., & Hasanah, C. I. (1999). Cost-effectiveness of cyclic antidepressants in a developing country: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry Vol 33(2) Apr 1999, 283-284.
  • Richeimer, S. H., Bajwa, Z. H., Kahraman, S. S., Ransil, B. J., & Warfield, C. A. (1997). Utilization patterns of tricyclic antidepressants in a multidisciplinary pain clinic: A survey: Clinical Journal of Pain Vol 13(4) Dec 1997, 324-329.
  • Rifkin, W., & Ward, L. (2001). Antidepressant medication for chronic tension headache: JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association Vol 286(16) Oct 2001, 1969.
  • Rigler, S. K., Webb, M. J., Redford, L., Brown, E. F., Zhou, J., & Wallace, D. (2001). Weight outcomes among antidepressant users in nursing facilities: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Vol 49(1) Jan 2001, 49-55.
  • Risby, E. D. (1996). Ethnic considerations in the pharmacotherapy of mood disorders: Psychopharmacology Bulletin Vol 32(2) 1996, 231-234.
  • Rodenbeck, A., Cohrs, S., Jordan, W., Huether, G., Ruther, E., & Hajak, G. (2003). The sleep-improving effects of doxepin are paralleled by a normalized plasma cortisol secretion in primary insomnia: A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, cross-over study followed by an open treatment over 3 weeks: Psychopharmacology Vol 170(4) Dec 2003, 423-428.
  • Roose, S. P. (2001). Depression, anxiety, and the cardiovascular system: The psychiatrist's perspective: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 62(Suppl8) 2001, 19-22.
  • Roose, S. P., & Spatz, E. (1999). Treatment of depression in patients with heart disease: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 60(Suppl 20) 1999, 34-37.
  • Rosenbaum, J. F., & Pollock, R. A. (1996). Depressions of milder severity: Listening to data: Harvard Review of Psychiatry Vol 4(2) Jul-Aug 1996, 102-104.
  • Rosenlicht, N. Z., & Riley-Lazo, K. P. (2005). Interactions of Cyclobenzaprine and Tricyclic Antidepressants: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 66(1) Jan 2005, 134-135.
  • Rupniak, N. M. J. (2004). Neural plasticity and the promise of novel pharmacotherapies for depression. Commentary on Fuchs et al., Examining novel concepts of the pathophysiology of depression in the chronic psychosocial stress paradigm in tree shrews: Behavioural Pharmacology Vol 15(5-6) Sep 2004, 369-371.
  • Ryan, N. D. (2003). Medication treatment for depression in children and adolescents: CNS Spectrums Vol 8(4) Apr 2003, 283-287.
  • Sargent, P. A., Quested, D. J., & Cowen, P. J. (1998). Clomipramine enhances the cortisol response to 5-HTP: Implications for the therapeutic role of 5-HT-sub-2 receptors: Psychopharmacology Vol 140(1) Nov 1998, 120-122.
  • Sato, K., Yoshida, K., Higuchi, H., & Shimizu, T. (2002). Rapid worsening of depressive symptoms in a patient with depression after switching from a TCA to an SSRI: Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences Vol 14(3) Sum 2002, 357.
  • Schiffman, S. S., Zervakis, J., Suggs, M. S., Budd, K. C., & Iuga, L. (2000). Effect of tricyclic antidepressants on taste responses in humans and gerbils: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 65(4) Apr 2000, 599-609.
  • Schloss, P., & Williams, D. C. (1998). The serotonin transporter: A primary target for antidepressant drugs: Journal of Psychopharmacology Vol 12(2) 1998, 115-121.
  • Schreiber, S., Backer, M. M., Herman, I., Shamir, D., Boniel, T., & Pick, C. G. (2000). The antinociceptive effect of trazodone in mice is mediated through both mu -opioid and serotonergic mechanisms: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 114(1-2) Sep 2000, 51-56.
  • Sclar, D. A., Pharm, B., Skaer, T. L., Pharm, D., & Robinson, L. M. (1999). Antidepressant pharmacotherapy: A review of pharmacoeconomic research: L'Encephale Vol 25(5) Sep-Oct 1999, 373-380.
  • Sclar, D. A., Robison, L. M., Skaer, T. L., & Galin, R. S. (1998). Trends in the prescribing of antidepressant pharmacotherapy: Office-based visits, 1990-1995: Clinical Therapeutics: The International Peer-Reviewed Journal of Drug Therapy Vol 20(4) Jul-Aug 1998, 871-884.
  • Sclar, D. A., Robison, L. M., Skaer, T. L., Legg, R. F., Nemec, N. L., Galin, R. S., et al. (1994). Antidepressant pharmacotherapy: Economic outcomes in a health maintenance organization: Clinical Therapeutics: The International Peer-Reviewed Journal of Drug Therapy Vol 16(4) Jul-Aug 1994, 715-730.
  • Serres, F., Dassa, D., Azorin, J.-M., & Jeanningros, R. (1997). Red blood cell L-tryptophan uptake in depression: II. Effect of an antidepressant treatment: Psychiatry Research Vol 66(2-3) Feb 1997, 87-96.
  • Shapiro, P. A., Lidagoster, L., & Glassman, A. H. (1997). Depression and heart disease: Psychiatric Annals Vol 27(5) May 1997, 347-352.
  • Sheehan, D. V. (1999). Current concepts in the treatment of panic disorder: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 60(Suppl 18) 1999, 16-21.
  • Sintzel, F., Mallaret, M., & Bougerol, T. (2004). Potentializing of tricyclics and serotoninergics by thyroid hormones in resistant depressive disorders: L'Encephale Vol 30(3) May-Jun 2004, 267-275.
  • Sloan, K. L., Haver, V. M., & Saxon, A. J. (2000). Quetiapine and false-positive urine drug testing for tricyclic antidepressants: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 157(1) Jan 2000, 148-149.
  • Sorrentino, T., & Bodkin, J. A. (2004). TCAs and SSRIs: Switching from One to the Other and Combination Strategies: Essential Psychopharmacology Vol 5(4) 2004, 273-279.
  • Sotsky, S. M., & Simmens, S. J. (1999). Pharmacotherapy response and diagnostic validity in atypical depression: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 54(3) Aug 1999, 237-247.
  • Spencer, T., Biederman, J., Wilens, T., Harding, M., & et al. (1996). Pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder across the life cycle: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 35(4) Apr 1996, 409-432.
  • Spencer, T. J., Biederman, J., Wilens, T. E., Harding, M., O'Donnell, D., & Griffin, S. (1998). Pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder across the life cycle. Philadelphia, PA: Brunner/Mazel.
  • Srinivas, B. N., Subhash, M. N., & Vinod, K. Y. (2001). Cortical 5-HT-sub(1A ) receptor downregulation by antidepressants in rat brain: Neurochemistry International Vol 38(7) Jun 2001, 573-579.
  • Stage, K. B., Bech, P., & Kragh-Sorensen, P. (2002). Age-related adverse drug reactions to clomipramine: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 105(1) Jan 2002, 55-59.
  • Stanley, N., Fairweather, D. B., & Hindmarch, I. (1999). Effects of fluoxetine and dothiepin on 24-hour activity in depressed patients: Neuropsychobiology Vol 39(1) Jan 1999, 44-48.
  • Stanley, N., & Hindmarch, I. (1997). Actigraphy can measure antidepressant-induced daytime sedation in healthy volunteers: Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental Vol 12(5) Sep-Oct 1997, 437-443.
  • Steckler, T., & Prickaerts, J. (2004). Depressed neurogenesis and its role in the genesis of depression. Commentary on Fuchs et al., Examining novel concepts of the pathophysiology of depression in the chronic psychosocial stress paradigm in tree shrews: Behavioural Pharmacology Vol 15(5-6) Sep 2004, 365-368.
  • Stephenson, D. A., Harris, B., Davies, R. H., Mullin, J. M., Richardson, E., Boardman, H., et al. (2000). The impact of antidepressants on sleep and anxiety: A comparative study of fluoxetine and dothiepin using the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire: Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental Vol 15(7) Oct 2000, 529-534.
  • Stewart, A. (1998). Choosing an antidepressant: Effectiveness based pharmacoeconomics: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 48(2-3) Mar 1998, 125-133.
  • Stokes, P. E. (1993). Fluoxetine: A five-year review: Clinical Therapeutics: The International Peer-Reviewed Journal of Drug Therapy Vol 15(2) Mar-Apr 1993, 216-243.
  • Stoner, S. C., Marken, P. A., Watson, W. A., Switzer, J. L., Barber, M. F., Meyer, V. L., et al. (1997). Antidepressant overdoses and resultant emergency department services: The impact of SSRIs: Psychopharmacology Bulletin Vol 33(4) 1997, 667-670.
  • Storosum, J. G., Elferink, A. J. A., van Zwieten, B. J., van den Brink, W., & Huyser, J. (2004). Natural Course and Placebo Response in Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled Studies in Major Depression: A Meta-Analysis of Published and Non-published Studies: Pharmacopsychiatry Vol 37(1) Jan 2004, 32-36.
  • Strober, M. (1998). Mixed mania associated with tricyclic antidepressant therapy in prepubertal delusional depression: Three cases: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology Vol 8(3) 1998, 181-185.
  • Su, S., Ohno, Y., Lossin, C., Hibino, H., Inanobe, A., & Kurachi, Y. (2007). Inhibition of Astroglial Inwardly Rectifying Kir4.1 Channels by a Tricyclic Antidepressant, Nortriptyline: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Vol 320(2) Feb 2007, 573-580.
  • Su, X., & Gebhart, G. F. (1998). Effects of tricyclic antidepressants on mechanosensitive pelvic nerve afferent fibers innervating the rat colon: Pain Vol 76(1-2) May 1998, 105-114.
  • Subhash, M. N., Nagaraja, M. R., Sharada, S., & Vinod, K. Y. (2003). Cortical alpha-adrenoceptor downregulation by tricyclic antidepressants in the rat brain: Neurochemistry International Vol 43(7) Dec 2003, 603-609.
  • Sudoh, Y., Gaboon, E. E., Gerner, P., & Wang, G. K. (2003). Tricyclic antidepressants as long-acting local anesthetics: Pain Vol 103(1-2) May 2003, 49-55.
  • Sugawara, Y., Higuchi, H., Yoshida, K., Takahashi, H., Kamata, M., Naito, S., et al. (2006). Response rate obtained using milnacipran depending on the severity of depression in the treatment of major depressive patients: Clinical Neuropharmacology Vol 29(1) Jan-Feb 2006, 6-9.
  • Sullivan, E. M., Griffiths, R. I., Frank, R. G., Strauss, M. J., Herbert, R. J., Clouse, J., et al. (2000). One-year costs of second-line therapies for depression: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 61(4) Apr 2000, 290-298.
  • Terao, T., & Ikemura, N. (2000). SSRI-TCA combination in the treatment of resistant depression: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 61(7) Jul 2000, 529.
  • Thompson, C. (2001). Amitriptyline: Still efficacious, but at what cost? : British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 178 Feb 2001, 99-100.
  • Thompson, C. (2001). "Declarations of interest": Reply: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 179 Aug 2001, 175.
  • Thompson, C., Peveler, R. C., Stephenson, D., & McKendrick, J. (2000). Compliance with antidepressant medication in the treatment of major depressive disorder in primary care: A randomized comparison of fluoxetine and a tricyclic antidepressant: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 157(3) Mar 2000, 338-343.
  • Trick, L., Stanley, N., Rigney, U., & Hindmarch, I. (2004). A double-blind, randomized, 26-week study comparing the cognitive and psychomotor effects and efficacy of 75 mg (37.5 mg b.i.d.) venlafaxine and 75 mg (25 mg mane, 50 mg nocte) dothiepin in elderly patients with moderate major depression being treated in general practice: Journal of Psychopharmacology Vol 18(2) Jun 2004, 205-214.
  • Tsaltas, E., Kontis, D., Chrysikakou, S., Giannou, C., Biba, A., Pallidi, S., et al. (2002). Spatial reinforced alternation as a model of compulsion: Psychiatriki Vol 13(3) Jul-Sep 2002, 181-208.
  • Turner-Stokes, L., & Hassan, N. (2002). Depression after stroke: A review of the evidence base to inform the development of an integrated care pathway. Part 2: Treatment alternatives: Clinical Rehabilitation Vol 16(3) May 2002, 248-260.
  • Tyrer, P., Ferguson, B., Hallstrom, C., Michie, M., & et al. (1996). A controlled trial of dothiepin and placebo in treating benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 168(4) Apr 1996, 457-461.
  • Ueta, K., Suzuki, T., Uchida, I., & Mashimo, T. (2004). In vitro inhibition of recombinant ligand-gated ion channels by high concentrations of milnacipran: Psychopharmacology Vol 175(2) Sep 2004, 241-246.
  • Uzbay, I. T., Cinar, M. G., Aytemir, M., & Tuglular, I. (1999). Analgesic effect of tianeptine in mice: Life Sciences Vol 64(15) Mar 1999, 1313-1319.
  • Uzbay, T., Kayir, H., Celik, T., & Yuksel, N. (2006). Acute and chronic tianeptine treatments attenuate ethanol withdrawal syndrome in rats: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 30(3) May 2006, 478-485.
  • Vale, S. (2007). Preventing postpartum complications in the depressed pregnant women: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 27(3) Jun 2007, 321-322.
  • Vandel, P., Bonin, B., Leveque, E., Sechter, D., & et al. (1997). Tricyclic antidepressant-induced extrapyramidal side effects: European Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 7(3) Aug 1997, 207-212.
  • Vargas, L. C., & Schenberg, L. C. (2001). Long-term effects of clomipramine and fluoxetine on dorsal periaqueductal grey-evoked innate defensive behaviours of the rat: Psychopharmacology Vol 155(3) May 2001, 260-268.
  • Varley, C. K., & McClellan, J. (1997). Case study: Two additional sudden deaths with tricyclic antidepressants: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 36(3) Mar 1997, 390-394.
  • Varley, C. K., & McClellan, J. (1998). "Tricyclic antidepressants and sudden death": Commentary reply: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 37(7) Jul 1998, 684.
  • Vesely, C., Fischer, P., Goessler, R., & Kasper, S. (1997). Mania associated with serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 58(2) Feb 1997, 88.
  • Vieweg, W. V. R., Linker, J. A., Anum, E. A., Turf, E., Pandurangi, A. K., Sood, B., et al. (2005). Child and Adolescent Suicides in Virginia: 1987 to 2003: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology Vol 15(4) Sep 2005, 655-663.
  • Vieweg, W. V. R., & Wood, M. A. (2004). Tricyclic antidepressants, QT interval prolongation, and Torsade de Pointes: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 45(5) Oct 2004, 371-377.
  • Volz, H.-P., Moller, H.-J., Reimann, I., & Stoll, K.-D. (2000). Opipramol for the treatment of somatoform disorders results from a placebo-controlled trial: European Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 10(3) May 2000, 211-217.
  • Wade, A. G. (1999). Antidepressants in panic disorder: International Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 14(Suppl 2) May 1999, S13-S17.
  • Wadsworth, E. J. K., Moss, S. C., Simpson, S. A., & Smith, A. P. (2005). Psychotropic medication use and accidents, injuries and cognitive failures: Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental Vol 20(6) Aug 2005, 391-400.
  • Watanabe, Y., Shioiri, T., Kuwabara, H., & Someya, T. (2006). Mania after vascular dementia in a patient with bipolar II disorder: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences Vol 60(1) Feb 2006, 117-118.
  • Watson, A. (1998). Tricyclic antidepressants and sudden death: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 37(7) Jul 1998, 683-684.
  • Westenberg, H. G. M. (1996). Developments in the drug treatment of panic disorder: What is the place of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors? : Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 40(1-2) Sep 1996, 85-93.
  • Wheatley, D. (1998). Hypericum extract: Potential in the treatment of depression: CNS Drugs Vol 9(6) Jun 1998, 431-440.
  • Wilens, T. E., Biederman, J., Baldessarini, R. J., Geller, B., & et al. (1996). Cardiovascular effects of therapeutic doses of tricyclic antidepressants in children and adolescents: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 35(11) Nov 1996, 1491-1501.
  • Wilens, T. E., Biederman, J., Baldessarini, R. J., Geller, B., Schleifer, D., Spencer, T. J., et al. (1998). Cardiovascular effects of therapeutic doses of tricyclic antidepressants in children and adolescents. Philadelphia, PA: Brunner/Mazel.
  • Wilkinson, G. (2001). "Declarations of interest": Editor's reply: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 179 Aug 2001, 175.
  • Wilson, K., & Mottram, P. (2004). A comparison of side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants in older depressed patients: A meta-analysis: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Vol 19(8) Aug 2004, 754-762.
  • Wilson, S. J., Bailey, J. E., Alford, C., & Nutt, D. J. (2000). Sleep and daytime sleepiness the next day following single night-time does of fluvoxamine, dothiepin and placebo in normal volunteers: Journal of Psychopharmacology Vol 14(4) 2000, 378-386.
  • Wilson, S. J., Bailey, J. E., Alford, C., Weinstein, A., & Nutt, D. J. (2002). Effects of 5 weeks of administration of fluoxetine and dothiepin in normal volunteers on sleep, daytime sedation, psychomotor performance and mood: Journal of Psychopharmacology Vol 16(4) Dec 2002, 321-331.
  • Wisner, K. L., Hanusa, B. H., Perel, J. M., Peindl, K. S., Piontek, C. M., Sit, D. K. Y., et al. (2006). Postpartum Depression: A Randomized Trial of Sertraline Versus Nortriptyline: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 26(4) Aug 2006, 353-360.
  • Wisner, K. L., Peindl, K. S., & Gigliotti, T. V. (1999). Tricyclics vs SSRIs for postpartum depression: Archives of Women's Mental Health Vol 1(4) 1999, 189-191.
  • Wisner, K. L., Sit, D. K. Y., Hanusa, B. H., Moses-Kolko, E. L., & Perel, J. M. (2007). Reply to Drs. Henderson and Vale: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 27(3) Jun 2007, 322-325.
  • Wohlfarth, T., Storosum, J. G., Elferink, A. J. A., van Zwieten, B. J., Fouwels, A., & van den Brink, W. (2004). Response to Tricyclic Antidepressants: Independent of Gender? : American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 161(2) Feb 2004, 370-372.
  • Wolfsperger, M., & Greil, W. (2005). Galactorrhea during treatment with trimipramine: A case report: Pharmacopsychiatry Vol 38(6) Nov 2005, 326-327.
  • Wulkan, P. D. (2003). Average daily cost effect of switching patients from TCAs to SSRIs in a public mental health setting: Primary Psychiatry Vol 10(1) Jan 2003, 50-54.
  • Yokono, A., Morita, S., Someya, T., Hirokane, G., Okawa, M., & Shimoda, K. (2001). The effect of CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 genotypes on the metabolism of clomipramine in Japanese psychiatric patients: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 21(6) Dec 2001, 549-555.
  • Yoshida, K., Smith, B., Craggs, M., & Kumar, R. C. (1997). Investigation of pharmacokinetics and of possible adverse effects in infants exposed to tricyclic antidepressants in breast-milk: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 43(3) May 1997, 225-237.
  • Yoshida, K., Sugawara, Y., & Higuchi, H. (2006). Dramatic Remission of Treatment-resistant Depression after the Cessation of Tricyclic Antidepressants: A Case Report: Pharmacopsychiatry Vol 39(3) May 2006, 114.
  • Young, A. H. (2001). Gender differences in treatment response to antidepressants: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 179(6) Dec 2001, 561.
  • Yousefi, P., & Coffey, J. (2005). For fibromyalgia, which treatments are the most effective? : The Journal of Family Practice Vol 54(12) Dec 2005, 1094-1095.
  • Zafonte, R. D., Cullen, N., & Lexell, J. (2002). Serotonin agents in the treatment of acquired brain injury: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation Vol 17(4) Aug 2002, 322-334.


External linksEdit


Antidepressants (ATC N06A) edit
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) Harmaline, Iproclozide, Iproniazid, Isocarboxazid, Nialamide, Phenelzine, Selegiline, Toloxatone, Tranylcypromine
Reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) Brofaromine, Moclobemide
Dopamine reuptake inhibitor (DARI) Amineptine, Phenmetrazine, Vanoxerine, Modafinil
Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors Bupropion
Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) or (NARI) Atomoxetine, Maprotiline, Reboxetine, Viloxazine
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) Duloxetine, Milnacipran, Venlafaxine
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Alaproclate, Etoperidone, Citalopram, Escitalopram, Fluoxetine, Fluvoxamine, Paroxetine, Sertraline, Zimelidine
Selective serotonin reuptake enhancer (SSRE) Tianeptine
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) Amitriptyline, Amoxapine, Butriptyline, Clomipramine, Desipramine, Dibenzepin, Dothiepin, Doxepin, Imipramine, Iprindole, Lofepramine, Melitracen, Nortriptyline, Opipramol, Protriptyline, Trimipramine
Tetracyclic antidepressants Maprotiline, Mianserin, Nefazodone, Trazodone
Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA) Mirtazapine
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).
Advertisement | Your ad here

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki