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Individual differences |
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The triceps reflex, a deep tendon reflex, is a reflex as it elicits involuntary contraction of the triceps brachii muscle. It is initiated by the Cervical (of the neck region) spinal nerve 7 nerve root (the small segment of the nerve that emerges from the spinal cord). The reflex is tested as part of the neurological examination to assess the sensory and motor pathways within the C7 and C8 spinal nerves.[How to reference and link to summary or text] The deep tendon reflex of the triceps is evaluating spinal levels C6, C7, and C8.[How to reference and link to summary or text]
The test is performed by tapping the triceps tendon[note 1] with the sharp end of a reflex hammer while the forearm is hanging loose at a right angle to the arm. A sudden contraction of the triceps muscle causes extension,[note 2] and indicates a normal reflex.
Reflex arc Edit
The arc involves the stretch receptors in the triceps tendon, from where the information travels through the C7 nerve root to the spinal cord, and the motor signal for contraction returns through the radial nerve.[note 3]
- Absence of a reflex (areflexia): If no reflex is elicited then it is essential to try again with reinforcement, with the patient clenching his or her teeth just as the reflex hammer strikes.
- Hyper-reflexia (a response far larger than considered normal): Indicates a potential upper motor neuron lesion.
Absence of reflexEdit
Other medical problems that may cause irregular reflexes include Hyperthyroidism.
- ↑ A tendon is a strip or sheet of connective tissue that transmits the force generated by the contraction of muscle to the bone by attaching with it. Thus, in simple words, a tendon attaches a muscle to a bone
- ↑ A straightening at the elbow joint) of the forearm
- ↑ A reflex arc is the path in the nervous system through which the sensory information (stimulation—sudden stretching of the triceps tendon in this case) travels to the spinal cord in form of an action potential through a sensory neuron, and comes in contact with a motor neuron at a synapse, which also carries an action potential back to the muscle of origin and results in its (triceps's) contraction. Note that the contact between the sensory and motor neurons does not require immediate involvement of the brain making it involuntary, though the sensation of stretch (as the hammer hits the skin and tendon beneath) and contraction of the muscle are both sent to the brain making the subject aware of the entire testing procedure.
See also Edit
- ↑ General Practice Notebook - UK. Triceps (anatomy). General Practice Notebook - UK. URL accessed on September 18, 2007.
- ↑ Jane M. Orient (2009). Sapira's Art and Science of Bedside Diagnosis, 570–, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. URL accessed 4 July 2011.
- ↑ H. K. Walker, W. D. Hall, J. W. Hurst (1990). Clinical Methods: The History, Physical and Laboratory Examinations - The triceps reflex. 3rd Edition. Butterworth Publishers. URL accessed on September 18, 2007.
- ↑ General Practice Notebook - UK. Triceps reflex. General Practice Notebook - UK. URL accessed on September 18, 2007.
- ↑ General Practice Notebook - UK. Absent reflexes. General Practice Notebook - UK. URL accessed on September 18, 2007.
Nervous system physiology: neurophysiology - reflex