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Main article: Major depression

Treatment-resistant depression or refractory depression is a term used in clinical psychiatry to describe cases of major depressive disorder that do not respond to at adequate courses of least two antidepressants.[1] particularly with tricyclic antidepressant drugs.

Treatment of refractory depression has traditionally most commonly involved electroconvulsive therapy and use of non-standard medications, but new technologies such as transcranial magnetic stimulation are being studied as a safer alternative. Treatment of refractory depression may also involve more invasive interventions, such as vagus nerve stimulation.

The term was first coined with the development of the concept in 1974.


See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Wijeratne, Chanaka, Sachdev, Perminder (2008). Treatment-resistant depression: critique of current approaches.. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 42: 751-62.

Further readingEdit

BooksEdit

  • Amsterdam, J. D., Rosenzweig, M., & Mozley, P. D. (1994). Assessment of adrenocortical activity in refractory depression: Steroid suppression with ketoconazole. Oxford, England: John Wiley & Sons.

PapersEdit

  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation: Potential new treatment for resistant depression. (2007).): Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 68(2) Feb 2007, 315-330.
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  • Abraham, G. (2004). Combined Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Right Unilateral Electroconvulsive Therapy in Patients with Treatment-Refractory Depression: The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry / La Revue canadienne de psychiatrie Vol 49(6) Jun 2004, No Pagination Specified.
  • Abraham, G., Milev, R., & Lawson, J. S. (2006). T3 augmentation of SSRI resistant depression: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 91(2-3) Apr 2006, 211-215.
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  • Alexopoulos, G. S., Canuso, C. M., Gharabawi, G. M., Bossie, C. A., Greenspan, A., Turkoz, I., et al. (2008). Placebo-controlled study of relapse prevention with risperidone augmentation in older patients with resistant depression: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Vol 16(1) Jan 2008, 21-30.
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