Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Developmental Psychology: Cognitive development · Development of the self · Emotional development · Language development · Moral development · Perceptual development · Personality development · Psychosocial development · Social development · Developmental measures
The relationship with gender
The relationship with disability
The effects of media advertising
Influences of androgens
Fetuses are exposed to prenatal androgens as early as 8 weeks into development. Male fetuses are exposed to much higher levels of androgens than female fetuses. It’s been found that toy preferences, as well as choice of play-mates, and play-styles vary with the child’s exposure to androgens. Regardless of the biological sex of the child, increased androgen exposure is associated with more masculine-type behaviours, while decreased androgen exposure is associated with more feminine-type behaviours.
Toy preference studies
Toys for girls tend to be round and pink, while toys for boy tend to be angular and blue. The subtle characteristics of toys may differentially appeal to the developing brains of female and male children. In a study of toy preferences of twelve- to 24-month-old infants, males spent more time looking at cars than females and females spent more time looking at dolls than males. No preference for color was found. Animal studies have lent further support for biologically determined gendered toy preferences. In a study of juvenile rhesus monkeys, when given the option between plush or wheeled toys, female monkeys gravitated toward plush toys, while male monkeys preferred toys with wheels. These findings suggest that gendered preferences for toys can occur without the socialization processes that we find in humans. Female rhesus monkeys also tend to engage in more nurturing play activities, while males tend to engage in more rough-and-tumble play.
Girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) have atypically high blood concentrations of testosterone. In studies of toy preference, these girls show increased interest in male-typical toys, like trucks and balls. Overall, their play habits and preferences more closely resembled male-typical play than female-typical play. Even with children exposed a normal range of prenatal androgens, increased testosterone was associated with increased preference for male-typical toys, and decreased prenatal testosterone was associated with greater interest in female-typical toys.
Overall, the degree of androgen exposure during prenatal and postnatal development may bias males and females toward specific cognitive processes, which are further reinforced through processes of socialization. The male interest in balls and wheeled toys may relate to the androgenised brains preference for objects that move through space. The higher levels of androgens in the developing male brain could elicit greater attraction to cars and balls, while lower levels of androgens elicit a preference for dolls and nurturing activities in the female brain.
There is some evidence that animals can display similar sex based toy selection as humans.
- ↑ Jadva, V., et al. (2010). Infants' preferences for toys, colors and shapes. Arch. Sex. Behav. 39 (6): 1261–73.
- ↑ Alexander, G.M. (2003). An evolutionary perspective of sex-typed toy preferences: pink, blue, and the brain. Arch. Sex. Behav. 32 (1): 7–14.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Hines, M. (2010). Sex-related variation in human behavior and the brain. Trends in Neurosciences 14 (10): 448.
- ↑ Hassett, Janice M., Siebert, Erin R., Wallen, Kim. (2008). Differences in Rhesus Monkey Toy Preferences Parallel those of Children. Hormones and Behavior 54 (3): 359–64.
- Goldstein, J. H. (1992). Sex differences in aggressive play and toy preference. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
- Hartmann, W., & Brougere, G. (2004). Toy Culture in Preschool Education and Children's Toy Preferences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Lederman, E. (1986). Developmental toys and equipment: A practical guide to selection and utilization. Springfield, IL, England: Charles C Thomas, Publisher.
- Alexander, G. M. (2003). An evolutionary perspective of sex-typed toy preferences: Pink, blue, and the brain: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 32(1) Feb 2003, 7-14.
- Alexander, G. M. (2006). Associations among gender-linked toy preferences, spatial ability, and digit ratio: Evidence from eye-tracking analysis: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 35(6) Dec 2006, 699-709.
- Allen, V. L., & Allen, P. S. (1974). On the attractiveness of forbidden objects: Developmental Psychology Vol 10(6) Nov 1974, 871-873.
- Almqvist, B. (1989). Age and gender differences in children's Christmas requests: Play & Culture Vol 2(1) Feb 1989, 2-19.
- Artar, M. (2006). Traditional toys in turkey: Comparison in a rural and urban setting: Cadernos de Psicologia e Educacao Paideia Vol 16(33) Jan-Apr 2006, 37-42.
- Berenbaum, S. A., & Hines, M. (1992). Early androgens are related to childhood sex-typed toy preferences: Psychological Science Vol 3(3) May 1992, 203-206.
- Blakemore, J. E., LaRue, A. A., & Olejnik, A. B. (1979). Sex-appropriate toy preference and the ability to conceptualize toys as sex-role related: Developmental Psychology Vol 15(3) May 1979, 339-340.
- Bradbard, M. R., & Parkman, S. A. (1984). Gender differences in preschool children's toy requests: Journal of Genetic Psychology Vol 145(2) Dec 1984, 283-284.
- Caldera, Y. M., & Sciaraffa, M. A. (1998). Parent-toddler play with feminine toys: Are all dolls the same? : Sex Roles Vol 39(9-10) Nov 1998, 657-668.
- Cameron, E., Eisenberg, N., & Tryon, K. (1985). The relations between sex-typed play and preschoolers' social behavior: Sex Roles Vol 12(5-6) Mar 1985, 601-615.
- Carter, D. B., & Levy, G. D. (1988). Cognitive aspects of early sex-role development: The influence of gender schemas on preschoolers' memories and preferences for sex-typed toys and activities: Child Development Vol 59(3) Jun 1988, 782-792.
- Christensen, K. E., & Stockdale, D. F. (1991). Predictors of toy selection criteria of preschool children's parents: Children's Environments Quarterly Vol 8(1) 1991, 25-36.
- Cobb, N. J., Stevens-Long, J., & Goldstein, S. (1982). The influence of televised models on toy preference in children: Sex Roles Vol 8(10) Oct 1982, 1075-1080.
- Costanzo, P. R., Grumet, J. F., & Brehm, S. S. (1974). The effects of choice and source of constraint on children's attributions of preference: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Vol 10(4) Jul 1974, 352-364.
- Coury, K., & Wolfgang, C. (1984). An overview of the measurement methods of toy and play preference studies: Early Child Development and Care Vol 14(3-4) Mar 1984, 217-232.
- Daldry, A. D., & Russell, P. A. (1982). Sex differences in the behavior of preschool children with novel and familiar toys: Journal of Genetic Psychology Vol 141(1) Sep 1982, 3-6.
- Didden, R., & de Moor, J. (2004). Preference Assessment in Toddlers With Mild Developmental and Physical Disabilities: A Comparative Study: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities Vol 16(1) Mar 2004, 107-116.
- DiLeo, J. C., Moely, B. E., & Sulzer, J. L. (1979). Frequency and modifiability of children's preferences for sex-typed toys, games, and occupations: Child Study Journal Vol 9(2) 1979, 141-159.
- Doering, R. W., Zucker, K. J., Bradley, S. J., & MacIntyre, R. B. (1989). Effects of neutral toys on sex-typed play in children with gender identity disorder: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Vol 17(5) Oct 1989, 563-574.
- Downs, A. C. (1983). Letters to Santa Claus: Elementary school-age children's sex-typed toy preferences in a natural setting: Sex Roles Vol 9(2) Feb 1983, 159-163.
- Drewes, A. A. (2008). Bobo revisited: What the research says: International Journal of Play Therapy Vol 17(1) Sum 2008, 52-65.
- Drewes, A. A. (2008). "Bobo revisited: What the research says": Correction to Drewes (2008): International Journal of Play Therapy Vol 17(2) Fal 2008, 101.
- Eaton, W. O., von Bargen, D., & Keats, J. G. (1981). Gender understanding and dimensions of preschooler toy choice: Sex stereotype versus activity level: Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement Vol 13(3) Jul 1981, 203-209.
- Eckerman, C. O., & Rheingold, H. L. (1974). Infants' exploratory responses to toys and people: Developmental Psychology Vol 10(2) Mar 1974, 255-259.
- Eisenberg, N., Tryon, K., & Cameron, E. (1984). The relation of preschoolers' peer interaction to their sex-typed toy choices: Child Development Vol 55(3) Jun 1984, 1044-1050.
- Eisenberg-Berg, N., Boothby, R., & Matson, T. (1979). Correlates of preschool girls' feminine and masculine toy preferences: Developmental Psychology Vol 15(3) May 1979, 354-355.
- Eisenberg-Berg, N., Murray, E., & Hite, T. (1982). Children's reasoning regarding sex-typed toy choices: Child Development Vol 53(1) Feb 1982, 81-86.
- Fagot, B. I., Leinbach, M. D., & Hagan, R. (1986). Gender labeling and the adoption of sex-typed behaviors: Developmental Psychology Vol 22(4) Jul 1986, 440-443.
- Fallon, M. A., & Harris, M. B. (1989). Factors influencing the selection of toys for handicapped and normally developing preschool children: Journal of Genetic Psychology Vol 150(2) Jun 1989, 125-134.
- Faulkender, P. J. (1980). Categorical habituation with sex-typed toy stimuli in older and younger preschoolers: Child Development Vol 51(2) Jun 1980, 515-519.
- Favell, J. E., & Cannon, P. R. (1977). Evaluation of entertainment materials for severely retarded persons: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 81(4) Jan 1977, 357-361.
- Feeney, S., & Magarick, M. (1984). Choosing good toys for young children: Young Children Vol 40(1) Nov 1984, 21-25.
- Ferrara, C., & Hill, S. D. (1980). The responsiveness of autistic children to the predictability of social and nonsocial toys: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders Vol 10(1) Mar 1980, 51-57.
- Fisher-Thompson, D. (1993). Adult toy purchases for children: Factors affecting sex-typed toy selection: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology Vol 14(3) Jul-Sep 1993, 385-406.
- Fisher-Thompson, D., & Burke, T. A. (1998). Experimenter influences and children's cross-gender behavior: Sex Roles Vol 39(9-10) Nov 1998, 669-684.
- Fisher-Thompson, D., Sausa, A. D., & Wright, T. F. (1995). Toy selection for children: Personality and toy request influences: Sex Roles Vol 33(3-4) Aug 1995, 239-255.
- Frasher, R. S., Nurss, J. R., & Brogan, D. R. (1980). Children's toy preferences revisited: Implications for early childhood education: Child Care Quarterly Vol 9(1) Spr 1980, 26-31.
- Goldman, J. A., Smith, J., & Keller, E. D. (1982). Sex-role preference in young children: What are we measuring? : Journal of Genetic Psychology Vol 141(1) Sep 1982, 83-92.
- Gopaul-Mc.Nicol, S.-a. (1988). Racial identification and racial preference of Black preschool children in New York and Trinidad: Journal of Black Psychology Vol 14(2) Feb 1988, 65-68.
- Gramza, A. F. (1976). Responses to manipulability of a play object: Psychological Reports Vol 38(3, Pt 2) Jun 1976, 1109-1110.
- Green, R., Fuller, M., Rutley, B. R., & Hendler, J. (1972). Playroom toy preferences of fifteen masculine and fifteen feminine boys: Behavior Therapy Vol 3(3) Jul 1972, 425-429.
- Green, V. A., Bigler, R., & Catherwood, D. (2004). The Variability and Flexibility of Gender-Typed Toy Play: A Close Look at Children's Behavioral Responses to Counterstereotypic Models: Sex Roles Vol 51(7-8) 2004, 371-386.
- Guillemaut, J. (1982). Games and children: General introduction: Neuropsychiatrie de l'Enfance et de l'Adolescence Vol 30(7-8) Jul-Aug 1982, 369-372.
- Harris, S., Kasari, C., & Sigman, M. D. (1996). Joint attention and language gains in children with Down syndrome: American Journal on Mental Retardation Vol 100(6) May 1996, 608-619.
- Hellendoorn, J., & Harinck, F. J. H. (1995). War toy play and aggression in kindergartners: Kind en Adolescent Vol 16(4) Nov 1995, 228-243.
- Henderson, B. A., & Berenbaum, S. A. (1997). Sex-typed play in opposite-sex twins: Developmental Psychobiology Vol 31(2) Sep 1997, 115-123.
- Henderson, B. B. (1981). Exploration by preschool children: Peer interaction and individual differences: Merrill-Palmer Quarterly Vol 27(3) Jul 1981, 241-255.
- Hendrickson, J. M., Strain, P. S., Tremblay, A., & Shores, R. E. (1981). Relationship between toy and material use and the occurrence of social interactive behaviors by normally developing preschool children: Psychology in the Schools Vol 18(4) Oct 1981, 500-504.
- Hom, H. L., & Maxwell, F. R. (1979). Methodological considerations in the forbidden toy paradigm: Developmental Psychology Vol 15(6) Nov 1979, 654-655.
- Hunter, M. A., Ames, E. W., & Koopman, R. (1983). Effects of stimulus complexity and familiarization time on infant preferences for novel and familiar stimuli: Developmental Psychology Vol 19(3) May 1983, 338-352.
- Hunter, M. A., Ross, H. S., & Ames, E. W. (1982). Preferences for familiar or novel toys: Effect of familiarization time in 1-year-olds: Developmental Psychology Vol 18(4) Jul 1982, 519-529.
- Idle, T., Wood, E., & Desmarais, S. (1993). Gender role socialization in toy play situations: Mothers and fathers with their sons and daughters: Sex Roles Vol 28(11-12) Jun 1993, 679-691.
- Jacklin, C. N., Maccoby, E. E., & Dick, A. E. (1973). Barrier behavior and toy preference: Sex differences (and their absence) in the year-old child: Child Development Vol 44(1) Mar 1973, 196-200.
- Joiner, R. W. (1998). The effect of gender on children's software preferences: Journal of Computer Assisted Learning Vol 14(3) Sep 1998, 195-198.
- Jones, M. L., Favell, J. E., Lattimore, J., & Risley, T. R. (1984). Improving independent engagement of nonambulatory multihandicapped persons through the systematic analysis of leisure materials: Analysis & Intervention in Developmental Disabilities Vol 4(4) 1984, 313-332.
- Kaplan, M. G., & McCornack, B. L. (1982). Toy choices and social behavior in noncompetitive, same- and opposite-sex preschool dyads: Child Study Journal Vol 12(4) 1982, 237-247.
- Karniol, R., & Ross, M. (1976). The development of causal attributions in social perception: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 34(3) Sep 1976, 455-464.
- Karpoe, K. P., & Olney, R. L. (1983). The effect of boys' or girls' toys on sex-typed play in preadolescents: Sex Roles Vol 9(4) Apr 1983, 507-518.
- Katz, P. A., & Zalk, S. R. (1974). Doll preferences: An index of racial attitudes? : Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 66(5) Oct 1974, 663-668.
- Landreth, G. L. (1978). Children communicate through play: TPGA (Texas Personnel & Guidance Association) Journal Vol 6(1) Spr 1978, 41-42.
- Langley, M. B. (1985). Selecting, adapting, and applying toys as learning tools for handicapped children: Topics in Early Childhood Special Education Vol 5(3) Fal 1985, 101-118.
- Le Maner, G., & Deleau, M. (1995). Choice of toys and peer interactions: Social behaviors of 24-month-old children in same-sex dyads and mixed-sex dyads: Enfance No 4 1995, 417-434.
- Leung, L. (1979). Sex-role adoption in free play among Hong Kong kindergarten children: Bulletin of the Hong Kong Psychological Society No 2 Jan 1979, 33-35.
- Libet, A. Q., & Forehand, R. (1979). A component analysis of positive practice overcorrection: An examination of re-educative effects: Psychological Record Vol 29(2) Spr 1979, 219-229.
- Linford, M. D., & Linford, A. G. (1977). Validity of the stimulus familiarization effect under varied choice instruction situations for young children: Psychological Reports Vol 41(1) Aug 1977, 251-254.
- Liss, M. B. (1979). Variables influencing modeling and sex-typed play: Psychological Reports Vol 44(3, Pt 2) Jun 1979, 1107-1115.
- Liss, M. B. (1981). Patterns of toy play: An analysis of sex differences: Sex Roles Vol 7(11) Nov 1981, 1143-1150.
- Lloyd, B., Duveen, G., & Smith, C. (1988). Social representations of gender and young children's play: A replication: British Journal of Developmental Psychology Vol 6(1) Mar 1988, 83-88.
- Lloyd, B., & Smith, C. (1985). The social representation of gender and young children's play: British Journal of Developmental Psychology Vol 3(1) Mar 1985, 65-73.
- Lobel, T. E., & Menashri, J. (1993). Relations of conceptions of gender-role transgressions and gender constancy to gender-typed toy preferences: Developmental Psychology Vol 29(1) Jan 1993, 150-155.
- Loovis, E. M. (1985). Evaluation of toy preference and associated movement behaviors of preschool orthopedically handicapped children: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly Vol 2(2) Apr 1985, 117-126.
- Maclennan, I. (1977). An hypothesis on thinking: Educational Research Vol 20(1) Nov 1977, 33-43.
- Martin, C. L., Eisenbud, L., & Rose, H. (1995). Children's gender-based reasoning about toys: Child Development Vol 66(5) Oct 1995, 1453-1471.
- Masters, A. (1986). The doll as delegate and disguise: Journal of Psychohistory Vol 13(3) Win 1986, 293-307.
- McGee, G. G., Krantz, P. J., & McClannahan, L. E. (1986). An extension of incidental teaching procedures to reading instruction for autistic children: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Vol 19(2) Sum 1986, 147-157.
- McLoyd, V. C., & Ratner, H. H. (1983). The effects of sex and toy characteristics on exploration in preschool children: Journal of Genetic Psychology Vol 142(2) Jun 1983, 213-224.
- Messer, S. B., & Lewis, M. (1972). Social class and sex differences in the attachment and play behavior of the year-old infant: Merrill-Palmer Quarterly Vol 18(4) Oct 1972, 295-306.
- Moller, L. C., & Serbin, L. A. (1996). Antecedents of toddler gender segregation: Cognitive consonance, gender-typed toy preferences and behavioral compatibility: Sex Roles Vol 35(7-8) Oct 1996, 445-460.
- Moosmann, I. (1975). Preference for play materials with varying stimulus values among 3-6 yr old children: Zeitschrift fur Entwicklungspsychologie und Padagogische Psychologie Vol 7(4) 1975, 254-267.
- Nelson, A. (2005). Children's Toy Collections in Sweden--A Less Gender-Typed Country? : Sex Roles Vol 52(1-2) Jan 2005, 93-102.
- O'Brien, M., & Huston, A. C. (1985). Development of sex-typed play behavior in toddlers: Developmental Psychology Vol 21(5) Sep 1985, 866-871.
- O'Brien, M., Huston, A. C., & Risley, T. R. (1983). Sex-typed play of toddlers in a day care center: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology Vol 4(1) Jan-Mar 1983, 1-9.
- Paludi, M. A. (1982). A comment on the misuse of the chi-square statistic in research with the It Scale for Children: Sex Roles Vol 8(7) Jul 1982, 791-793.
- Peretti, P. O., & Sydney, T. M. (1984). Parental toy choice stereotyping and its effects on child toy preference and sex-role typing: Social Behavior and Personality Vol 12(2) 1984, 213-216.
- Peterson, G. L., Bishop, R. L., Michaels, R. M., & Rath, G. J. (1973). Children's choice of playground equipment: Development of methodology for integrating user preferences into environmental engineering: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 58(2) Oct 1973, 233-238.
- Poling, A. (1976). The effects of particular toys on the social play of preschool children: Mental Retardation Bulletin Vol 4(2) 1976, 85-93.
- Powell-Hopson, D., & Hopson, D. S. (1988). Implications of doll color preferences among Black preschool children and White preschool children: Journal of Black Psychology Vol 14(2) Feb 1988, 57-63.
- Quay, L. C., Weaver, J. H., & Neel, J. H. (1986). The effects of play materials on positive and negative social behaviors in preschool boys and girls: Child Study Journal Vol 16(1) 1986, 67-76.
- Raag, T., & Rackliff, C. L. (1998). Preschoolers' awareness of social expectations of gender: Relationships to toy choices: Sex Roles Vol 38(9-10) May 1998, 685-700.
- Rabinowitz, F. M., Moely, B. E., Finkel, N., & McClinton, S. (1975). The effects of toy novelty and social interaction on the exploratory behavior of preschool children: Child Development Vol 46(1) Mar 1975, 286-289.
- Reinhartsen, D. B., Garfinkle, A. N., & Wolery, M. (2002). Engagement with toys in two-year-old children with autism: Teacher selection versus child choice: Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities Vol 27(3) Fal 2002, 175-187.
- Rheingold, H. L., & Cook, K. V. (1975). The contents of boys' and girls' rooms as an index of parents' behavior: Child Development Vol 46(2) Jun 1975, 459-463.
- Richardson, J. G., & Simpson, C. H. (1982). Children, gender, and social structure: An analysis of the contents of letters to Santa Claus: Child Development Vol 53(2) Apr 1982, 429-436.
- Roberts, G. C., & Black, K. N. (1972). The effect of naming and object permanence on toy preferences: Child Development Vol 43(3) Sep 1972, 858-868.
- Robinson, C. C., Watson, J. A., & Morris, J. T. (1984). An examination of fundamental sex-role behavioral change: Mothers' toy purchasing behavior: Parenting Studies Vol 1(2) 1984, 61-66.
- Rodgers, C. S., Fagot, B. I., & Winebarger, A. (1998). Gender-typed toy play in dizygotic twin pairs: A test of hormone transfer theory: Sex Roles Vol 39(3-4) Aug 1998, 173-184.
- Rosenberg, M. (1989). Old myths die hard: The case of Black self-esteem: Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale Vol 2(3) Jul-Sep 1989, 355-365.
- Ross, D. D. (1982). Selecting materials for mainstreamed preschools: Topics in Early Childhood Special Education Vol 2(1) Apr 1982, 33-42.
- Rubin, K. H. (1977). The social and cognitive value of preschool toys and activities: Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement Vol 9(4) Oct 1977, 382-385.
- Ruble, D. N., Balaban, T., & Cooper, J. (1981). Gender constancy and the effects of sex-typed televised toy commercials: Child Development Vol 52(2) Jun 1981, 667-673.
- Ruskin, E. M., Mundy, P., Kasari, C., & Sigman, M. (1994). Object mastery motivation of children with Down syndrome: American Journal on Mental Retardation Vol 98(4) Jan 1994, 499-509.
- Schau, C. G., Kahn, L., Diepold, J. H., & Cherry, F. (1980). The relationships of parental expectations and preschool children's verbal sex typing to their sex-typed toy play behavior: Child Development Vol 51(1) Mar 1980, 266-270.
- Schmidtchen, S., Wormann, D., & Hobrucker, B. (1977). Process analysis of children's play in psychotherapy: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie Vol 26(6) Aug-Sep 1977, 208-217.
- Scholtz, G. J., & Ellis, M. J. (1975). Repeated exposure to objects and peers in a play setting: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology Vol 19(3) Jun 1975, 448-455.
- Serbin, L. A., Connor, J. M., Burchardt, C. J., & Citron, C. C. (1979). Effects of peer presence on sex-typing of children's play behavior: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology Vol 27(2) Apr 1979, 303-309.
- Serbin, L. A., Connor, J. M., & Iler, I. (1979). Sex-stereotyped and nonstereotyped introductions of new toys in the preschool classroom: An observational study of teacher behavior and its effects: Psychology of Women Quarterly Vol 4(2) Win 1979, 261-265.
- Servin, A., Bohlin, G., & Berlin, L. (1999). Sex differences in 1-, 3-, and 5-year-olds' toy-choice in a structured play-session: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology Vol 40(1) Mar 1999, 43-48.
- Sidorowicz, L. S., & Lunney, G. S. (1980). Baby X revisited: Sex Roles Vol 6(1) Feb 1980, 67-73.
- Stagnitti, K., Rodger, S., & Clarke, J. (1997). Determining gender-neutral toys for assessment of preschool children's imaginative play: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal Vol 44(3) Sep 1997, 119-131.
- Stoneman, Z., Cantrell, M. L., & Hoover-Dempsey, K. (1983). The association between play materials and social behavior in a mainstreamed preschool: A naturalistic investigation: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology Vol 4(2) Apr-Jun 1983, 163-174.
- Takasaka, S. (1996). A natural observation study on preschooler conflicts: Classification of strategies which children used to get to toys: Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology Vol 7(1) Aug 1996, 62-72.
- Tauber, M. A. (1979). Parental socialization techniques and sex differences in children's play: Child Development Vol 50(1) Mar 1979, 225-234.
- Teglasi, H. (1981). Children's choices of and value judgments about sex-typed toys and occupations: Journal of Vocational Behavior Vol 18(2) Apr 1981, 184-195.
- Thomas, B. (1984). Early toy preferences of four-year-old readers and nonreaders: Child Development Vol 55(2) Apr 1984, 424-430.
- Tracy, D. M. (1990). Toy-playing behavior, sex-role orientation, spatial ability, and science achievement: Journal of Research in Science Teaching Vol 27(7) Oct 1990, 637-649.
- Troster, H., & Brambring, M. (1994). The play behavior and play materials of blind and sighted infants and preschoolers: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness Vol 88(5) Sep-Oct 1994, 421-432.
- Turner, P. J., Gervai, J., & Hinde, R. A. (1993). Gender-typing in young children: Preferences, behaviour and cultural differences: British Journal of Developmental Psychology Vol 11(4) Nov 1993, 323-342.
- Ushiyama, T., Shimizu, T., & Takahashi, M. (1974). Interaction process of two children: Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 22(3) Sep 1974, 176-180.
- Valcarce Avello, M. (1988). The meaning and function of the child's playing: The psychoanalytic view: Psiquis: Revista de Psiquiatria, Psicologia y Psicosomatica Vol 9(1) 1988, 51-57.
- Van der Kooij, R. (1978). A study of the play behavior of retarded children: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research Vol 1(3) Jul 1978, 329-341.
- Van der Kooij, R. (1979). A study of the play behavior of retarded children: Acta Paedopsychiatrica: International Journal of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 45(1) Oct 1979, 25-42.
- Vespo, J. E., Pedersen, J., & Hay, D. F. (1995). Young children's conflicts with peers and siblings: Gender effects: Child Study Journal Vol 25(3) 1995, 189-212.
- Vieira, K. G., & Miller, W. H. (1978). Avoidance of sex-atypical toys by five- and ten-year-old children: Psychological Reports Vol 43(2) Oct 1978, 543-546.
- Vieira, T. (1994). Motivational and cognitive aspects concerning the use of objects in make-believe play: Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa Vol 10(2) May-Aug 1994, 231-248.
- Wacker, D. P., Wiggins, B., Fowler, M., & Berg, W. K. (1988). Training students with profound or multiple handicaps to make requests via microswitches: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Vol 21(4) Win 1988, 331-343.
- Wallen, K., & Hassett, J. M. (2008). Determining preference requires measuring preference: Hormones and Behavior Vol 54(3) Aug 2008, 480-481.
- Washington, B. R. (1976). Sustained directed activity in 18 and 30-month-old twins: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Wehman, P. (1976). Selection of play materials for the severely handicapped: A continuing dilemma: Education & Training of the Mentally Retarded Vol 11(1) Feb 1976, 46-50.
- Weiner, E. A., & Weiner, B. J. (1974). Differentiation of retarded and normal children through toy-play analysis: Multivariate Behavioral Research Vol 9(2) Apr 1974, 245-252.
- Weinraub, M., & et al. (1984). The development of sex role stereotypes in the third year: Relationships to gender labeling, gender identity, sex-typed toy preference, and family characteristics: Child Development Vol 55(4) Aug 1984, 1493-1503.
- Wolf, T. M. (1973). Effects of live modeled sex-inappropriate play behavior in a naturalistic setting: Developmental Psychology Vol 9(1) Jul 1973, 120-123.
- Wolf, T. M. (1975). Influence of age and sex of model on sex-inappropriate play: Psychological Reports Vol 36(1) Feb 1975, 99-105.
- Wolf, T. M. (1975). Response consequences to televised modeled sex-inappropriate play behavior: Journal of Genetic Psychology Vol 127(1) Sep 1975, 35-44.
- Wolf, T. M. (1976). Effects of live adult modeled sex-inappropriate play behavior in a naturalistic setting: Journal of Genetic Psychology Vol 128(1) Mar 1976, 27-32.
- Wolfgang, C. H., & Phelps, P. (1983). Preschool Play Materials Preference Inventory: Early Child Development and Care Vol 12(2) 1983, 127-141.
- Yen, A. (1985). Characteristics of toys preferred by young children: Information on Psychological Sciences No 2 1985, 51-52.
- Zammuner, V. L. (1988). Sex-role knowledge and preference: A study with Dutch children and adults: Eta Evolutiva No 31 Oct 1988, 48-61.
- Zimmerman, B. J., & Koussa, R. (1979). Social influences on children's toy preferences: Effects of model rewardingness and affect: Contemporary Educational Psychology Vol 4(1) Jan 1979, 55-66.
- Zucker, K. J., & Corter, C. M. (1980). Sex-stereotyping in adult-infant interaction: Some negative evidence: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry Vol 50(1) Jan 1980, 160-164.
- Zucker, K. J., Doering, R. W., Bradley, S. J., & Finegan, J.-A. K. (1982). Sex-typed play in gender-disturbed children: A comparison to sibling and psychiatric controls: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 11(4) Aug 1982, 309-321.
- Zupancic, M. (2002). Object-related behaviors in solitary play with different toys: Two groups of toddlers compared: Studia Psychologica Vol 44(1) 2002, 15-28.
- Niel, B., & Landreth, G. L. (2001). Have toys--will travel: A traveling play therapist in the school setting. New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.
- Roberts, G. C., & Black, K. N. (1973). The effect of naming and object permanence on toy preferences. Oxford, England: Alfred A Knopf.
- Google Scholar
- Acosta-Alzuru, C., & Kreshel, P. J. (2002). "I'm an American girl...Whatever that means": Girls consuming Pleasant Company's American girl identity: Journal of Communication Vol 52(1) Mar 2002, 139-161.
- Ashton, E. (1983). Measures of play behavior: The influence of sex-role stereotyped children's books: Sex Roles Vol 9(1) Jan 1983, 43-47.
- Baer, R. A., & Detrich, R. (1990). Tacting and manding in correspondence training: Effects of child selection of verbalization: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 54(1) Jul 1990, 23-30.
- Barrett, K. C., Campos, J. J., & Emde, R. N. (1996). Infants' use of conflicting emotion signals: Cognition & Emotion Vol 10(2) Mar 1996, 113-135.
- Beisel, D. (1984). Thoughts on the Cabbage Patch Kids: Journal of Psychohistory Vol 12(1) Sum 1984, 133-142.
- Bell, N. J., & Carver, W. (1980). A reevaluation of gender label effects: Expectant mothers' responses to infants: Child Development Vol 51(3) Sep 1980, 925-927.
- Burkhard, B., Rachlin, H., & Schrader, S. (1978). Reinforcement and punishment in a closed system: Learning and Motivation Vol 9(4) Nov 1978, 392-410.
- Cook, A. S., & Culp, R. E. (1981). Mutual play of mothers with their Down's syndrome and normal infants: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research Vol 4(4) Dec 1981, 542-544.
- de Freitas Ribeiro, A. (1989). Correspondence in children's self-report: Tacting and manding aspects: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 51(3) May 1989, 361-367.
- Adubato, S. A. (1985). Father involvement, sex typing, and the toy play of children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Boston, M. B. (1985). Sex role models, implicit expectations, and sex typed behavior choice in 18 to 24 and 36 to 42 month old children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Burkhard, B. J. (1977). Contingent behavior in children: An economic approach to Premack's theory of reinforcement: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Chi, S. A. (1992). A comparison of the effects of play materials on preschool children's social play behaviors: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Chiang, L. (1986). Developmental differences in children's use of play materials: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Christmas, E. E. (1975). Children's interactions with social and nonsocial behavior objects in a multi-age evening care setting: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Conover, D. K. (1973). Object preference and resulting movement behaviors of three to seven year old custodial and trainable retarded boys: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Doering, R. W. (1982). Parental reinforcement of gender-typed behaviours in boys with atypical gender identity: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Flood, B. (1975). The effects of an infant environment on infant social interrelationships and infant relationships with the physical environment: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Frasher, R. S. (1975). Modification of children's toy preferences: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Fridy, J. L. (1986). Unstructured materials: A contextual approach to the attentional deficits of developmentally delayed preschool children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Gopaul-McNicol, S.-A. A. (1987). A cross-cultural study of the effects of modeling, reinforcement and color meaning word association on doll color preference of Black preschool children and White preschool children in New York and Trinidad: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Grumet, J. F. (1975). Effects of adult and peer sanctions on children's attributions of preference: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Guinn, M. F. (1985). Gender type toy preferences of native American, non-native American preschool children in day care, non-day care settings: Dissertation Abstracts International
- Liss, M. B. (1977). The effects of televised modeling cues on children's sex-typed toy preferences: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- May, B. W. (1978). Color preference for Black and White infants and young children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Merbler, J. B. (1977). The effects of elaborated play, linguistic marking, and object preference on the performance of infants on Piagetian object permanence tasks: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Moller, L. C. (1993). Toddler peer preferences: The role of gender awareness, sex-typed toy preferences and compatible play styles: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Moody, M. E. (1977). Developmental trends in children's imitation of parental sex-appropriate, sex-inappropriate, and non-sex-typed behavior: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- O'Brien, M. (1983). Sex-typed toy play in toddlers: Origin and development: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Olson, K. M. (1993). Preference and choice: Effects on play behavior of children with and without disabilities: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Parker, A. M. (1992). Toy preference and play of developmentally delayed boys and girls: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Pennell, G. E. (1999). Doing gender with Santa: Gender-typing in children's toy preferences. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Robinson, C. C. (1983). The effects of sex-typed labeling in conjunction with sex-typed modeling upon preschool children's toy preference behavior: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Roggman, L. A. (1989). Age differences in the goals of play: Toy preferences and organization of visual attention by 10-month-olds, 15-month-olds, and 29-month-olds: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Ross, H. S. (1972). Novelty and complexity as determinants of exploratory behavior in 12-month-old infants: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
- Schmid, J. L. (1973). The choice and use of toys by Montessori preschoolers: The relation with sex, age, SES and conceptual tempo: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Schneider, J. W. (1993). An investigation of focused attention in opioid-exposed toddlers: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Silverstein, J. M. (1992). The effects of modeling, reinforcement, and word associations on doll preferences of Black and White preschoolers: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Steiner, L. L. (1980). A study of female kindergarten teachers' sex-role attitudes and their effect on kindergarten girls' sex-typed toy preferences: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Winter, S. M. (1983). Toddler play behaviors and equipment choices in an outdoor playground: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Zubritzky, P. C. (1991). Toy preferences of three- and five-year-old children: Dissertation Abstracts International.