Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)

Tonic in physiology refers to a muscle which is predominantly toned. The opposite of tonic is phasic.

Human tonic musclesEdit

It can specifically refer to a muscle which is composed mainly of slow muscle fibers. As these types of muscles (trapezius, calves, jaw) tend to be toned, they tend to shorten and be relatively inflexible and therefore tend to be short in humans.[1]

Typical tonic muscles include muscles which are used to protect and prepare the body under fight or flight situations, a reaction to the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and cortisol and other innate autonomic nervous system reactions[2].

See alsoEdit


  1. "Back to the Basics for the New Year", by Paul Chek
  2. "Posture: Alternatives to The Prevailing Paradigm, Part One. Traditional Approaches to Postural And Musculoskeletal Dysfunction" by Steven Goldstein.

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

Ad blocker interference detected!

Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.