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Token economies in the treatment of schizophrenia

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References & Bibliography

Key texts



  • Atthowe I M and Krasner L 1968, Preliminary report on the application of contingent reinforcement procedures (token economy) on a 'chronic' psychiatric ward, Journal or Abnormal Psychology 73: 37-43
  • Baker R, Hall J N and Hutchinson K 1974, A token economy project with chronic schizophrenic patients, British Journal of Psychiatry 124: 367-84
  • Baker R. Hall J N, Hutchinson K and Bridge G 1977, Symptom changes in chronic schizophrenic patients on a token economy: A controller) experiment, British Journal of Psychiatry 131: 381-93
  • Carlson C G, Hersen M and Eisler R M 1972, Token economy programs in the treatment of hospitalized adult psychiatric patients, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 155: 192-204
  • Cohen R, Florin I, Grusche A, Meyer-Osterkamp S and Sell H 1972. The introduction of a token economy in a psychiatric ward with extremely withdrawn chronic schizophrenics, Behaviour Research and Therapy 10: 69-74
  • Gershone J R, Erickson E A, Mitchell J E and Paulson D A 1977.Behavioral comparison of a token economy and standard psychiatric treatment ward, Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 8: 381-5
  • Gripp R F and Magaro P A 1974, The token economy programme in the psychiatric hospital: A review and analysis, Behaviour Research and Therapy 12: 205-28
  • Gripp R F and Magaro P A 1971, A token economy programme evaluation with untreated control ward comparisons, Behaviour Research and Therapy 9: 137-49
  • Hall J N and Baker R D 1973, Token economy systems: Breakdown and control, Behaviour Research and Therapy 11: 253-63
  • Hall J N, Baker R D and Hutchinson K 1977, A controlled evaluation of token economy procedures with chronic schizophrenic patients,Behaviour Research and Therapy 15: 261-83

  • McCreadie R.G., Main C.J., & Dunlop R.A. (1978). Token economy, pimozide and chronic schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry. Aug;133:179–181.
  • McMonagle T. & Sultana A. (2006).The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Abstract

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