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Token economies in the treatment of schizophrenia

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References & BibliographyEdit

Key textsEdit



  • Atthowe I M and Krasner L 1968, Preliminary report on the application of contingent reinforcement procedures (token economy) on a 'chronic' psychiatric ward, Journal or Abnormal Psychology 73: 37-43
  • Baker R, Hall J N and Hutchinson K 1974, A token economy project with chronic schizophrenic patients, British Journal of Psychiatry 124: 367-84
  • Baker R. Hall J N, Hutchinson K and Bridge G 1977, Symptom changes in chronic schizophrenic patients on a token economy: A controller) experiment, British Journal of Psychiatry 131: 381-93
  • Carlson C G, Hersen M and Eisler R M 1972, Token economy programs in the treatment of hospitalized adult psychiatric patients, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 155: 192-204
  • Cohen R, Florin I, Grusche A, Meyer-Osterkamp S and Sell H 1972. The introduction of a token economy in a psychiatric ward with extremely withdrawn chronic schizophrenics, Behaviour Research and Therapy 10: 69-74
  • Gershone J R, Erickson E A, Mitchell J E and Paulson D A 1977.Behavioral comparison of a token economy and standard psychiatric treatment ward, Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 8: 381-5
  • Gripp R F and Magaro P A 1974, The token economy programme in the psychiatric hospital: A review and analysis, Behaviour Research and Therapy 12: 205-28
  • Gripp R F and Magaro P A 1971, A token economy programme evaluation with untreated control ward comparisons, Behaviour Research and Therapy 9: 137-49
  • Hall J N and Baker R D 1973, Token economy systems: Breakdown and control, Behaviour Research and Therapy 11: 253-63
  • Hall J N, Baker R D and Hutchinson K 1977, A controlled evaluation of token economy procedures with chronic schizophrenic patients,Behaviour Research and Therapy 15: 261-83
  • Krasner L 1968, Assessment of token economy programmes in psychiatric hospitals. In R Porter (ed), CIBA Foundation Symposium: The Role of Learning in Psychotherapy London: Churchill Livingstone
  • Krasner L and Atthowe J M 1971, The token economy as a rehabilitative procedure in a mental hospital setting. In H C Richard (ed), Behavioral Intervention in Human Problems New York: Pergamon Press: 311-33
  • Lloyd K F and Abel L 1970, Performance on a token economy psychiatric

ward: A two year summary, Behaviour Research and Therapy 8: 1-9

  • Lloyd K E and Garlington W K 1968, Weekly variations in performance on a token economy psychiatric ward, Behaviour Research and Therapy 6: 407--10
  • McCreadie R.G., Main C.J., & Dunlop R.A. (1978). Token economy, pimozide and chronic schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry. Aug;133:179–181.
  • McMonagle T. & Sultana A. (2006).The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Abstract
  • Mumford S J, Lodge Patch I C. Andrews N and Wynder 1, 1975, A token economy ward programme with chronic schizophrenic patients, British Journal of Psychiatry 126: 60--72
  • Nelson G 1. and Cone J D 1979, Multiple-baseline analysis of a token economy for psychiatric patients, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis12: 255-71
  • Stoffelmayr B E. Faulkner G E and Mitchell W S 1979, The comparison of token economy and social therapy in the treatment of hard core schizophrenic patients, Behavioural Analysis and Modification 3: 3-17
  • Wincze J P, Leitenherg 11 and Agras W S 1972, The effects of token

reinforcement and feedback on the delusional verbal behavior of chronic Schizophrenia paranoid schizophrenics, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 5: 247-62

  • Winkler R C 1970, Management of chronic psychiatric patients by a token economy reinforcement system. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 3:47-55
  • Winkler R C 1973, An experimental analysis of economic balance, savings and wages in a token economy, Behavior Therapy 4: 22-40

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