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Timeline of psychology

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This is a timeline of psychology.

See history of psychology for a description of the development of the subject, and psychology for a general description of the subject.

Also see timeline of psychotherapy.

Ancient history - B.C.E.

  • ca. 1550 BCE - The Ebers Papyrus briefly mentioned clinical depression.
  • ca. 600 BCE - Many cities had temples to Asklepios that provided cures for psychosomatic illnesses.[1]
  • 460 BC - 370 BCE - Hippocrates introduced principles of scientific medicine based upon observation and logic, and denied the influence of spirits and demons in diseases.[2][3]
  • 387 BCE - Plato suggested that the brain is the seat of mental processes. Plato's view of the "soul" (self) is that the body exists to serve the soul: "God created the soul before the body and gave it precedence both in time and value, and made it the dominating and controlling partner." from Timaeus[4]
  • ca. 350 BCE – Aristotle wrote on the psuchê (soul) in De Anima, first mentioning the Tabula Rasa concept of the mind.
  • ca. 340 BCE - Praxagoras
  • 123-43 BCE - Themison was a pupil of Asclepiades of Bithynia and founded a school of medical thought known as "methodism." He was criticized by Soranus for his cruel handling of mental patients. Among his prescriptions were darkness, restraint by chains, and deprivation of food and drink. Juvenal satirized him and suggested that he killed more patients than he cured.[2]
  • ca. 100 BCE – The Dead Sea Scrolls noted the division of human nature into two temperaments.[citation needed]

Ancient history - C.E.

Template:Empty section

First century

  • ca. 50 - Aulus Cornelius Celsus died, leaving De Medicina, a medical encyclopedia; Book 3 covers mental diseases. The term insania, insanity, was first used by him. The methods of treatment included bleeding, frightening the patient, emetics, enemas, total darkness, and decoctions of poppy or henbane, and pleasant ones such as music therapy, travel, sport, reading aloud, and massage. He was aware of the importance of the doctor-patient relationship.[2]
  • ca. 100 - Rufus of Ephesus believed that the nervous system was instrumental in voluntary movement and sensation. He discovered the optic chiasma by anatomical studies of the brain. He stressed taking a history of both physical and mental disorders. He gave a detailed account of melancholia, and was quoted by Galen.[2]
  • 93-138 - Soranus of Ephesus advised kind treatment in healthy and comfortable conditions, including light, warm rooms.[2]

Second century

  • ca. 130-200 - Galen "was schooled in all the psychological systems of the day: Platonic, Aristotelian, Stoic, and Epicurean"[3]
  • ca. 150-200 - Aretaeus of Cappadocia[3]

Third century

  • 205-270 Plotinus wrote Enneads a systematic account of Neoplatonist philosophy, also nature of visual perception and how memory might work.[4]

Fourth century

Fifth century

  • 5th century - Caelius Aurelianus opposed harsh methods of handling the insane, and advocated humane treatment.[2]
  • ca. 423-529 - Theodosius the Cenobiarch founded a monastery at Kathismus, near Bethlehem. Three hospitals were built by the side of the monastery: one for the sick, one for the aged, and one for the insane.[2]
  • ca. 451 - Patriarch Nestorius of Constantinople: his followers dedicated themselves to the sick and became physicians of great repute. They brought the works of Hippocrates, Aristotle, and Galen, and influenced the approach to physical and mental disorders in Persia and Arabia[2]

Seventh century

  • 625-690 - Paul of Aegina suggested that hysteria should be treated by ligature of the limbs, and mania by tying the patient to a mattress placed inside a wicker basket and suspended from the ceiling. He also recommended baths, wine, special diets, and sedatives for the mentally ill. He described the following mental disorders: phrenitis, delirium, lethargus, melancholia, mania, incubus, lycanthropy, and epilepsy

Eighth century

Ninth century

Tenth century

  • ca. 900 – The concept of mental health (mental hygiene) was introduced by Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi. He also recognized that illnesses can have both psychological and/or physiological causes.[7]
  • ca. 900 – al-Razi (Rhazes) recognized the concept of "psychotherapy" and referred to it as al-‘ilaj al-nafs.[8]

Eleventh century

Twelfth century

Thirteenth century

  • ca. 1180-1245 Alexander of Hales
  • ca. 1190 -1249 William of Auvergne
  • 1215 -1277 Peter Juliani taught in the medical faculty of the University of Siena, and wrote on medical, philosophical and psychological topics. He personal physician to Pope Gregory X and later became archbishop and cardinal. He was elected pope under the name John XXI in 1276.[4][11]
  • ca. 1214–1294 Roger Bacon
  • 1221 – 1274 Bonaventure
  • 1193 – 1280 Albertus Magnus
  • 1225 – Thomas Aquinas
  • 1240 - Bartholomeus Anglicus published De Proprietatibus Rerum, which included a dissertation on the brain, recognizing that mental disorders can have a physical or psychological cause.
  • 1247 - Bethlehem Royal Hospital in Bishopsgate outside the wall of London, one of the most famous old psychiatric hospitals was founded as a priory of the Order of St. Mary of Bethlem to collect alms for Crusaders; after the English government secularized it, it started admitting mental patients by 1377 (1403?), becoming known as Bedlam Hospital; in 1547 it was acquired by the City of London, operating until 1948; it is now part of the British NHS Foundation Trust.[12]
  • 1266 – 1308 Duns Scotus
  • ca. 1270 - Witelo wrote Perspectiva, a work on optics containing speculations on psychology, nearly discovering the subconscious.
  • 1295 Lanfranc writes Science of Cirurgie[4]

Fourteenth century

  • 1347-50 - The Black Death devastated Europe.
  • ca. 1375 - English authorities regarded mental illness as demonic possession, treating it with exorcism and torture.[13]

Fifteenth century

  • ca. 1400 - Renaissance Humanism caused a reawakening of ancient knowledge of science and medicine.
  • 1433-1499 Marsilio Ficino was a renowned figure of the Italian Renaissance, a Neoplatonist humanist, a translator of Greek philosophical writing, and the most influential exponent of Platonism in Italy in the fifteenth century.[3]
  • ca. 1450 - The pendulum in Europe swings, bringing Witch Mania, causing thousands of women to be executed for witchcraft until the late 17th century.

Sixteenth century

  • 1590 – Scholastic philosopher Rudolph Goclenius coined the term "psychology"; though usually regarded as the origin of the term, there is evidence that it was used at least six decades earlier by Marko Marulić.

Seventeenth century

Eighteenth century

  • 1781 - Immanuel Kant published Critique of Pure Reason, rejecting Hume's extreme empiricism and proposing that there is more to knowledge than bare sense experience, distinguishing between "a posteriori" and "a priori" knowledge, the former being derived from perception, hence occurring after perception, and the latter being a property of thought, independent of experience and existing before experience.

Nineteenth century

1800s

  • ca. 1800 - Franz Joseph Gall developed Cranioscopy, the measurement of the skull to determine psychological characteristics, which was later renamed Phrenology; it is now discredited.
  • 1807 - Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel published Phenomenology of Spirit (Mind), which describes his Thesis-Antithesis-Synthesis dialectical method, according to which knowledge pushes forwards to greater certainty, and ultimately towards knowledge of the noumenal world.

1810s

1820s

1840s

1850s

1860s


1870s

1880s

1890s

Twentieth century

1900s

1910s

1920s

1930s

1940s

1950s

1960s

1970s

1980s

1990s

Twenty-first century

2000s

2010s

  • 2010 - The draft of DSM-V by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) was thrown open for comment and critique.
  • 2013 - On April 2 U.S. President Barack Obama announced the 10-year BRAIN Initiative to map the activity of every neuron in the human brain.
  • 2013 - DSM-V was published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).

References

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  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Radden, Jennifer (2002-04-04). The Nature of Melancholy: From Aristotle to Kristeva, Oxford University Press. URL accessed 2 November 2012.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Kemp, Simon (1990). Medieval psychology: Simon Kemp, Greenwood Press. URL accessed 27 April 2013.
  5. Henry Chadwick, Augustine (Oxford, 1986), p.3.
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