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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Time Management refers to tools or techniques for planning and scheduling time, usually with the aim to increase the effectiveness and/or efficiency of personal and corporate time use. These are embodied in a number of books, seminars and courses, which may offer conflicting advice. The common denominators of these strategies are a to-do-list, setting priorities and goal management. Some of the best known examples of time management strategies are tied to specific lines of time management products.
Time management for personal use is a type of self-management. In a corporate setting, time management software can satisfy the need to control employees, make it easier to coordinate work and increases accountability of individual employees.
Planning time and writing to-do-lists also consumes time and needs to be scheduled. This is one of the major criticisms of time management.
Time management strategies are usually associated with the recommendation to set goals. These goals are written down and broken down into a project, an action plan or a simple to-do-list. Deadlines are set and priorities are assigned to the individual items on the to-do-list. This process results in a daily plan with a to-do-list. Some authors recommend a weekly instead of a daily perspective.
Techniques for setting prioritiesEdit
There are several ways to set priorities.
A technique that has been used in business management for a long time is the categorization of large data into groups. These groups are often marked A, B, and C—hence the name. Activities are ranked upon these general criteria:
- A – Tasks that are perceived as being urgent and important,
- B – Tasks that are important but not urgent,
- C – Tasks that are neither urgent nor important.
Each group is then rank-ordered in priority. To further refine priority, some individuals choose to then force-rank all "B" items as either "A" or "C". ABC analysis can incorporate more than three groups.
ABC analysis is frequently combined with Pareto analysis.
This is the idea that 80% of tasks can be completed in 20% of the disposable time. The remaining 20% of tasks will take up 80% of the time. This principle is used to sort tasks into two parts. According to this form of Pareto analysis it is recommended that tasks that fall into the first category be assigned a higher priority.
The 80-20-rule can also be applied to increase productivity: it is assumed that 80% of the productivity can be achieved by doing 20% of the tasks. Similarly, 80% of results can be attributed to 20% of activity. If productivity is the aim of time management, then these tasks should be prioritized higher.
It depends on the method adopted to complete the task. There is always a simpler and easy way to complete the task. If one uses a complex way, it will be time consuming. So, one should always try to find out the alternate ways to complete each task.
The Eisenhower Method Edit
All tasks are evaluated using the criteria important/unimportant and urgent/not urgent and put in according quadrants. Tasks in unimportant/not urgent are dropped, tasks in important/urgent are done immediately and personally, tasks in unimportant/urgent are delegated and tasks in important/not urgent get an end date and are done personally. This method is said to have been used by US President Dwight D. Eisenhower, and is outlined in a quote attributed to him: What is important is seldom urgent and what is urgent is seldom important.
POSEC method Edit
POSEC is an acronym for Prioritize by Organizing, Streamlining, Economizing and Contributing.
The method dictates a template which emphasizes an average individual's immediate sense of emotional and monetary security. It suggests that by attending to one's personal responsibilities first, an individual is better positioned to shoulder collective responsibilities.
- Prioritize - Your time and define your life by goals.
- Organizing - Things you have to accomplish regularly to be successful. (Family and Finances)
- Streamlining - Things you may not like to do, but must do. (Work and Chores)
- Economizing - Things you should do or may even like to do, but they're not pressingly urgent. (Pastimes and Socializing)
- Contributing - By paying attention to the few remaining things that make a difference. (Social Obligations).
Different people may judge identical lengths of time quite differently. Time can "fly"; that is, a long period of time can seem to go by very quickly. Likewise, time can seem to "drag," as in when one performs a boring task.
In explaining his theory of relativity, Albert Einstein is often quoted as saying that although sitting next to a pretty girl for an hour feels like a minute, placing one's hand on a hot stove for a minute feels like an hour.
Management is the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people.
Management is "working with and through other people to accomplish the objectives of both the organization and its members." This definition places a greater emphasis on human beings in the organization; focus is on results to be accomplished (objectives), rather than just activities and adds the concept that personal objectives should be integrated with organizational objectives.
Time management in the business worldEdit
Time management in the business world is a key skill as "Time is money"
- Main article: Time management in the business world
Time management in clinical practiceEdit
Time management in educational settingsEdit
See also Edit
- Learning strategies
- Personal development
- Time estimation
- Time on task
- Time perception
- Time perspective
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Further reading Edit
- David Allen (2001). Getting Things Done: The Art of Stress-Free Productivity, Viking Adult. ISBN 0670899240.
- Stephen Covey. The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. ISBN 0671708635.
- Arnold Bennett. How to Live on 24 Hours a Day, Dodo Press. ISBN 1406501530.
Web books Edit
- What Time is it Now? Keys to Successful Time Management
- How to Live on 24 Hours a Day - The classic time management book
- How to Live on 24 Hours a Day - Full text online and free PDF
Web articles Edit
- A PPT based tutorial on http://www.tntech.edu/counsel/olr/Time-Management---Tutorial-imp.htmlde:Zeitmanagement
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