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Thyroid hormone receptor

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thyroid hormone receptor, alpha (erythroblastic leukemia viral (v-erb-a) oncogene homolog, avian)
Symbol(s): THRA THRA1, THRA2, ERBA1
Locus: 17 q11.2 -17q12
EC number [1]
EntrezGene 7067
OMIM 190120
RefSeq NM_199334
UniProt P10827
thyroid hormone receptor, beta (erythroblastic leukemia viral (v-erb-a) oncogene homolog 2, avian)
Symbol(s): THRB ERBA2
Locus: 3 p24.1 -p22
EC number [2]
EntrezGene 7068
OMIM 190160
RefSeq NM_000461
UniProt P10828

The thyroid hormone receptor[1] is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding thyroid hormone.[2]


Amongst the most important functions of thyroid hormone receptors are regulation of metabolism and heart rate.[3][4] In addition, they play critical roles in the development of organisms.[5]


There are three forms of the thyroid hormone receptor designated alpha-1, beta-1 and beta-2 that are able to bind thyroid hormone. There are two TR-alpha receptor splice variants encoded by the THRA gene and two TR-beta isoform splice variants encoded by the THRB gene:[2]

  • TR-α1 (widely expressed and especially high expression in cardiac and skeletal muscles)
  • TR-α2 (homologous with viral oncogen c-erb-A, also widely expressed but unable to bind hormone)
  • TR-β1 (predominately expressed in brain, liver and kidney)
  • TR-β2 (expression primarily limited to the hypothalamus and pituitary)

Disease linkageEdit

Certain mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor are associated with thyroid hormone resistance.[6]

References Edit

  1. Spurr NK, Solomon E, Jansson M, Sheer D, Goodfellow PN, Bodmer WF, Vennstrom B (1984). Chromosomal localisation of the human homologues to the oncogenes erbA and B. EMBO J. 3 (1): 159-63.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Flamant F, Baxter JD, Forrest D, Refetoff S, Samuels H, Scanlan TS, Vennstrom B, Samarut J (2006). International Union of Pharmacology. LIX. The pharmacology and classification of the nuclear receptor superfamily: thyroid hormone receptors. Pharmacol Rev 58 (4): 705-11.
  3. Yen PM (2001). Physiological and molecular basis of thyroid hormone action. Physiol Rev 81 (3): 1097-142.
  4. Harvey CB, Williams GR (2002). Mechanism of thyroid hormone action. Thyroid 12 (6): 441-6.
  5. Brent GA (2000). Tissue-specific actions of thyroid hormone: insights from animal models. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 1 (1-2): 27-33.
  6. Olateju TO, Vanderpump MP (2006). Thyroid hormone resistance. Ann Clin Biochem 43 (Pt 6): 431-40.

External linksEdit

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