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{{BioPsy}}
 
{{BioPsy}}
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The '''thorax''' (from [[Greek language|Greek]] "θώραξ" - ''thorax'', "breastplate, cuirass, corslet"<ref>[http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3Dqw%2Frac θώραξ],
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Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, ''A Greek-English Lexicon'', on Perseus Digital Library</ref>) is a division of an [[animal]]'s body that lies between the [[head (anatomy)|head]] and the [[abdomen]]. It is part of both the [[musculatory system]] and the [[respiratory system]]
   
{{dablink|This article mainly refers to animal anatomy. See [[Chest]] for the human anatomy article.}}
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==In tetrapods==
[[Image:Abdomen-head-thorax-en.svg|thumb|left|250px|The thorax in a human and an ant.]]
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{{main|Chest}}
[[Image:Tsetse_fly.png|frame|Diagram of a [[tsetse fly]], showing the head, thorax and abdomen]]
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In [[mammal]]s, the thorax is the region of the [[body]] formed by the [[sternum]], the thoracic [[vertebra]]e, and the [[rib]]s. It extends from the [[neck]] to the [[diaphragm (anatomy)|diaphragm]], and does not include the [[upper limb]]s. The [[heart]] and the [[lung]]s reside in the [[thoracic cavity]], as well as many [[blood vessel]]s. The inner organs are protected by the [[rib cage]] and the sternum.
   
The '''thorax''' is a division of an [[animal]]'s body that lies between the [[head (anatomy)|head]] and the [[abdomen]].
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==In arthropods==
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{{main article|Thorax (insect anatomy)}}
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In [[insect]]s and the extinct [[trilobite]]s, the thorax is one of the three main divisions (or [[Tagma (biology)|tagmata]]) of the creature's body, each of which is in turn composed of multiple segments. It is the area where the [[insect wing|wings]] and legs attach in insects, or an area of multiple articulating plates in trilobites. In most insects, the thorax itself is composed of three segments; the [[prothorax]], the [[mesothorax]], and the [[metathorax]]. In extant insects, the prothorax never has wings, though legs are always present in adults; wings (when present) are restricted to at least the mesothorax, and typically also the metathorax, though the wings may be reduced or modified on either or both segments. In the [[Apocrita]]n [[Hymenoptera]], the first abdominal segment is fused to the metathorax, where it forms a structure known as the [[propodeum]]. Accordingly, in these insects, the functional thorax is composed of four segments, and is therefore typically called the [[mesosoma]] to distinguish it from the "thorax" of other insects.
   
In [[mammal|mammals]], the thorax is the region of the [[body]] formed by the [[sternum]], the thoracic [[vertebra|vertebrae]] and the [[rib]]s. It extends from the [[neck]] to the [[diaphragm (anatomy)|diaphragm]], not including the [[upper limb]]s. The [[heart]] and the [[lung]]s reside in the [[thoracic cavity]], as well as many [[blood vessel]]s. The inner organs are protected by the [[rib cage]] and the sternum.
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Each thoracic segment in an insect is further subdivided into various parts, the most significant of which are the dorsal portion (the [[notum]]), the lateral portion (the [[Pleuron (insect)|pleuron]]; one on each side), and the ventral portion (the [[sternum (arthropod)|sternum]]). In some insects, each of these parts is composed of one to several independent exoskeletal plates with membrane between them (called [[sclerite]]s), though in many cases the sclerites are fused to various degrees.
 
In [[insect]]s and the extinct [[trilobite]]s, the thorax is one of the three main divisions (or [[Tagma (biology)|tagmata]]) of the creature's body, each of which is in turn composed of multiple segments. It is the area where the [[insect wing|wings]] and legs attach in insects, or an area of multiple articulating plates in trilobites. In most insects, the thorax itself is composed of three segments; the [[prothorax]], the [[mesothorax]], and the [[metathorax]]. In extant insects, the prothorax never has wings, though legs are always present in adults; wings (when present) are restricted to at least the mesothorax, and typically also the metathorax, though the wings may be reduced or modified on either or both segments (as in the fly shown, where the metathoracic wings have been reduced to tiny balancing organs called [[halteres]]). In the [[Apocrita]]n [[Hymenoptera]], the first abdominal segment is fused to the metathorax, where it forms a structure known as the [[propodeum]]. Accordingly, in these insects, the functional thorax is composed of four segments, and is therefore typically called the [[mesosoma]] to distinguish it from the "thorax" of other insects.
 
 
Each thoracic segment in insects is further subdivided into various parts, the most significant of which are the dorsal portion (the [[notum]]), the lateral portion (the [[Pleuron (insect)|pleuron]]; one on each side), and the ventral portion (the [[sternum (arthropod)|sternum]]). In some insects, each of these parts is composed of one to several independent exoskeletal plates with membrane between them (called [[sclerites]]), though in many cases the sclerites are fused to various degrees.
 
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
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== References ==
 
== References ==
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{{reflist}}
   
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== Further reading ==
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* Antonio Servadei; Sergio Zangheri; Luigi Masutti. ''General and Applied Entomology'' CEDAM, 1972.
   
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[[Category:Thorax (human anatomy)| ]]
 
[[Category:Animal anatomy]]
 
[[Category:Animal anatomy]]
[[Muscuoskeletal system]]
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[[Category:Animal anatomy]]
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[[Category:Muscuoskeletal system]]
 
[[Category:Respiratory system]]
 
[[Category:Respiratory system]]
 
[[Category:Thorax| ]]
 
[[Category:Thorax| ]]
 
   
 
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Latest revision as of 16:14, September 16, 2012

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The thorax (from Greek "θώραξ" - thorax, "breastplate, cuirass, corslet"[1]) is a division of an animal's body that lies between the head and the abdomen. It is part of both the musculatory system and the respiratory system

In tetrapodsEdit

Main article: Chest

In mammals, the thorax is the region of the body formed by the sternum, the thoracic vertebrae, and the ribs. It extends from the neck to the diaphragm, and does not include the upper limbs. The heart and the lungs reside in the thoracic cavity, as well as many blood vessels. The inner organs are protected by the rib cage and the sternum.

In arthropodsEdit

In insects and the extinct trilobites, the thorax is one of the three main divisions (or tagmata) of the creature's body, each of which is in turn composed of multiple segments. It is the area where the wings and legs attach in insects, or an area of multiple articulating plates in trilobites. In most insects, the thorax itself is composed of three segments; the prothorax, the mesothorax, and the metathorax. In extant insects, the prothorax never has wings, though legs are always present in adults; wings (when present) are restricted to at least the mesothorax, and typically also the metathorax, though the wings may be reduced or modified on either or both segments. In the Apocritan Hymenoptera, the first abdominal segment is fused to the metathorax, where it forms a structure known as the propodeum. Accordingly, in these insects, the functional thorax is composed of four segments, and is therefore typically called the mesosoma to distinguish it from the "thorax" of other insects.

Each thoracic segment in an insect is further subdivided into various parts, the most significant of which are the dorsal portion (the notum), the lateral portion (the pleuron; one on each side), and the ventral portion (the sternum). In some insects, each of these parts is composed of one to several independent exoskeletal plates with membrane between them (called sclerites), though in many cases the sclerites are fused to various degrees.

See alsoEdit

References Edit

  1. θώραξ, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library

Further reading Edit

  • Antonio Servadei; Sergio Zangheri; Luigi Masutti. General and Applied Entomology CEDAM, 1972.
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