Wikia

Psychology Wiki

Thoracic diaphragm

Talk0
34,139pages on
this wiki
Revision as of 13:34, September 10, 2007 by Dr Joe Kiff (Talk | contribs)

(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)


Diaphragm
Respiratory system
Respiratory system
Latin diaphragma
Gray's subject #117 404
System {{{System}}}
MeSH A02.633.567.900.300
[[Image:|190px|center|]]
batty
For other types of diaphragm, see Diaphragm.

In the anatomy of mammals, the diaphragm is a shelf of muscle extending across the bottom of the ribcage. The diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity (with lung and heart) from the abdominal cavity (with digestive system and urogenital system). In its relaxed state, the diaphragm is shaped like a dome. It is controlled by the phrenic nerve.

In order to avoid confusion with other types of diaphragm, it is sometimes referred to as the thoracic diaphragm. Any reference to the diaphragm is understood to refer to this structure.


FunctionEdit

It is crucial in respiration: in order to draw air into the lungs, the diaphragm contracts, thus enlarging the thoracic cavity and reducing intra-thoracic pressure (the external intercostals muscles also participate in this enlargement). When the diaphragm relaxes, air is exhaled by elastic recoil of the lung and the tissues lining the thoracic cavity in conjunction with the abdominal muscle which act as the antagonist pair to diaphragm's contraction Antagonist (muscle). The diaphragm is also found in other vertebrates such as reptiles.

It is responsible for all the breathing related to voice.

The diaphragm also helps to expel vomit, feces, and urine from the body by increasing intra-abdominal pressure.

PathologyEdit

A hiatal hernia can result from a tear or weakness in the diaphragm near the gastroesophageal junction.

If the diaphragm is struck, or otherwise spasms, breathing will become difficult. This is called having the wind knocked out of you.


A hiccup occurs when the diaphragm contracts periodically without voluntary control.

Diaphragmatic injuries result from either blunt or penetrating trauma.

AnatomyEdit

The Diaphragm is a dome-shaped musculofibrous septum which separates the thoracic from the abdominal cavity, its convex upper surface forming the floor of the former, and its concave under surface the roof of the latter. Its peripheral part consists of muscular fibers which take origin from the circumference of the thoracic outlet and converge to be inserted into a central tendon.

The muscular fibers may be grouped according to their origins into three parts:

Part Origin
sternal two fleshy slips from the back of the xiphoid process.
costal the inner surfaces of the cartilages and adjacent portions of the lower six ribs on either side, interdigitating with the Transversus abdominis.
lumbar aponeurotic arches, named the lumbocostal arches, and from the lumbar vertebrae by two pillars or crura.

There are two lumbocostal arches, a medial and a lateral, on either side.

Crura and central tendonEdit

At their origins the crura are tendinous in structure, and blend with the anterior longitudinal ligament of the vertebral column.

The central tendon of the diaphragm is a thin but strong aponeurosis situated near the center of the vault formed by the muscle, but somewhat closer to the front than to the back of the thorax, so that the posterior muscular fibers are the longer.

Openings in the DiaphragmEdit

The diaphragm is pierced by a series of apertures to permit of the passage of structures between the thorax and abdomen. Three large openings—the aortic, the esophageal, and the vena cava—and a series of smaller ones are described.

opening level structures
caval opening T8 inferior vena cava, and some branches of the right phrenic nerve
esophageal hiatus T10 esophagus, the vagus nerves, and some small esophageal arteries
aortic hiatus T12 the aorta, the azygos vein, and the thoracic duct
two lesser aperture of right crus greater and lesser right splanchnic nerves
three lesser aperture of left crus greater and lesser left splanchnic nerves and the hemiazygos vein
behind the diaphragm, under the medial lumbocostal arches gangliated trunks of the sympathetic
areolar tissue between the sternal and costal parts (see also foramina of Morgagni) the superior epigastric branch of the internal mammary artery and some lymphatics from the abdominal wall and convex surface of the liver
areolar tissue between the fibers springing from the medial and lateral lumbocostal arches This interval is less constant; when this interval exists, the upper and back part of the kidney is separated from the pleura by areolar tissue only.

VariationsEdit

The sternal portion of the muscle is sometimes wanting and more rarely defects occur in the lateral part of the central tendon or adjoining muscle fibers.

Additional imagesEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit


External linksEdit

This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated. Please edit the article if this is the case, and feel free to remove this notice when it is no longer relevant. Template:Torso general

<span class="FA" id="de" style="display:none;" />


This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki