Psychology Wiki


34,203pages on
this wiki
Add New Page
Talk2 Share

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)

Thiothixene chemical structure

IUPAC name
CAS number
ATC code


Chemical formula {{{chemical_formula}}}
Molecular weight 443.627
Bioavailability  ?
Metabolism Hepatic
Elimination half-life 10-20 hours
Excretion  ?
Pregnancy category  ?
Legal status  ?
Routes of administration oral, IM

Thiothixene (sold as Navane®) is a thioxanthene drug used as a typical antipsychotic medication. It is a thioxanthene derivative and is the cis isomer of N,Ndimethyl- 9-[3-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-propylidene] thioxanthene-2-sulfonamide.

Although widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia for several decades, thiothixene is seldom used today in favor of atypical antipsychotics such as olanzapine.

See alsoEdit


Abuzzahab, F. S., & Zimmerman, R. L. (1982). Psychopharmacological correlates of post-psychotic depression: A double-blind investigation of haloperidol vs thiothixene in outpatient schizophrenia: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 43(3) Mar 1982, 105-110.

  • Ananth, J., & Costin, A. (1977). Dyskinesia with thiothixene: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 134(6) Jun 1977, 689-690.
  • Balon, R., Berchou, R., & Zethelius, M. (1987). Thrombocytopenia associated with chlorpromazine, haloperidol and thiothixene: A case report: The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry / La Revue canadienne de psychiatrie Vol 32(2) Mar 1987, 149-150.
  • Ban, T. A., Lehmann, H. E., Sterlin, C., & Climan, M. (1975). Comprehensive clinical studies with thiothixene: Diseases of the Nervous System Vol 36(9) Sep 1975, 473-477.
  • Barrett, J. E. (1982). Effects of clozapine, haloperidol and thiothixene on schedule-controlled responding and schedule-induced eating and drinking of rabbits: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 17(5) Nov 1982, 1049-1053.
  • Barrett, J. E. (1983). Comparison of the effects of antipsychotic drugs on the schedule-controlled behavior of squirrel monkeys and pigeons: Neuropharmacology Vol 22(4) Apr 1983, 519-524.
  • Bartlett, E. J., Wolkin, A., Brodie, J. D., Laska, E. M., & et al. (1991). Importance of pharmacologic control in PET studies: Effects of thiothixene and haloperidol on cerebral glucose utilization in chronic schizophrenia: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging Vol 40(2) Oct 1991, 115-124.
  • Becker, R. E. (1983). Implications of the efficacy of thiothixene and a chlorpromazine-imipramine combination for depression in schizophrenia: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 140(2) Feb 1983, 208-211.
  • Bergling, R., & et al. (1975). Plasma levels and clinical effects of thioridazine and thiothixene: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Vol 15(2-3) Feb-Mar 1975, 178-186.
  • Birkett, D. P., Hirschfield, W., & Simpson, G. M. (1972). Thiothixene in the treatment of diseases of the senium: Current Therapeutic Research Vol 14(12) Dec 1972, 775-779.
  • Bjerkenstedt, L. (1989). Melperone in the treatment of schizophrenia: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 80(352, Suppl) 1989, 35-39.
  • Bjerkenstedt, L., Eneroth, P., Harnyrd, C., & Sedvall, G. (1977). Effects of melperone and thiothixene on prolactin levels in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of psychotic women: Archiv fur Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten Vol 224(4) 1977, 281-293.
  • Bjerkenstedt, L., & et al. (1978). A double-blind comparison of melperone and thiothixene in psychotic women using a new rating scale, the CPRS: Archiv fur Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten Vol 226(3) 1978, 157-172.
  • Bjerkenstedt, L., Gullberg, B., Harnryd, C., & Sedvall, G. (1977). Monoamine metabolite levels in cerebrospinal fluid of psychotic women treated with melperone or thiothixene: Archiv fur Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten Vol 224(2) 1977, 107-118.
  • Bloomingdale, L. M. (1996). A safe, rapid, non-toxic antidepressant with no side-effects or drug interactions: International Medical Journal Vol 3(2) Jun 1996, 115-124.
  • Bombardt, P. A., & Friedel, R. O. (1977). A GC/CIMS assay for the cis and trans isomers of thiothixene in human plasma: Communications in Psychopharmacology Vol 1(1) 1977, 49-59.
  • Botte, L. (1983). Teflutixol (Lu 10-022): A new thioxanthene derivative with antipsychotic properties: A pilot study: Acta Psychiatrica Belgica Vol 83(4) Jul 1983, 397-406.
  • Buchsbaum, M. S., Potkin, S. G., Marshall, J. F., Lottenberg, S., & et al. (1992). Effects of clozapine and thiothixene on glucose metabolic rate in schizophrenia: Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 6(3) May 1992, 155-163.
  • Burnett, G. B., Little, S. R., Graham, N., & Forrest, A. D. (1975). The assessment of thiothixene in chronic schizophrenia: A double-blind controlled trial: Diseases of the Nervous System Vol 36(11) Nov 1975, 625-629.
  • Butterworth, A. T., & Watts, R. D. (1974). Double-blind comparison of thiothixene, trifluoperazine, and placebo in chronic alcoholism: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 15(2) 1974, 85-87.
  • Carter, J. H. (1983). Sociocultural factors in the psychiatric assessment of Black patients: A case study: Journal of the National Medical Association Vol 75(8) Aug 1983, 817-820.
  • Claghorn, J. L., Johnstone, E. E., Cook, T. H., & Itschner, L. (1974). Group therapy and maintenance treatment of schizophrenics: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 31(3) Sep 1974, 361-365.
  • Crowley, T. J., & Hydinger-Macdonald, M. (1981). Motility, parkinsonism, and prolactin with thiothixene and thioridazine: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 38(6) Jun 1981, 668-675.
  • d'Elia, G., & et al. (1977). Changes in psychopathology in relation to EEG variables and visual averaged evoked responses (V. AER) in schizophrenic patients treated with penfluirdol or thiothixene: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 55(4) Apr 1977, 309-318.
  • Denber, H. C., & Turns, D. (1972). Double blind comparison of thiothixene and trifluoperazine in acute schizophrenia: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 13(2) Mar 1972, 100-104.
  • Dilsaver, S. C., Leckrone, J., & Greden, J. F. (1984). Cholinergic syndrome from psychotropic withdrawal in a marijuana abuser: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 25(8) Aug 1984, 632-634.
  • DiMascio, A., & Demirgian, E. (1972). Study of the activating properties of thiothixene: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 13(2) Mar 1972, 105-108.
  • Dubin, W. R., & et al. (1985). Rapid tranquilization: The efficacy of oral concentrate: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 46(11) Nov 1985, 475-478.
  • Engelhardt, D. M., Rudorfer, L., & Rosen, B. (1978). Haloperidol and thiothixene in the long-term treatment of chronic schizophrenic outpatients in an urban community: Social and vocational adjustment: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 39(12) Dec 1978, 834-840.
  • Ereshefsky, L., Saklad, S. R., Watanabe, M. D., Davis, C. M., & et al. (1991). Thiothixene pharmacokinetic interactions: A study of hepatic enzyme inducers, clearance inhibitors, and demographic variables: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 11(5) Oct 1991, 296-301.
  • Ereshefsky, L., Saklad, S. R., Watanabe, M. D., Davis, C. M., & et al. (1992). "Thiothixene pharmacokinetic interactions: A study of hepatic enzyme inducers, clearance inhibitors, and demographic variables": Erratum: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 12(2) Apr 1992, 78.
  • Filho, U. V., Versiani Caldeira, M. V., & Romildo Bueno, J. (1975). The efficacy and safety of loxapine succinate in the treatment of schizophrenia: A comparative study with thiothixene: Current Therapeutic Research Vol 18(3) Sep 1975, 476-490.
  • Finkel, S. I., Lyons, J. S., Anderson, R. L., Sherrell, K., & et al. (1995). A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of thiothixene in agitated, demented nursing home patients: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Vol 10(2) Feb 1995, 129-136.
  • Gardos, G., & Cole, J. O. (1973). The dual action of thiothixene: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 29(2) Aug 1973, 222-225.
  • Gardos, G., Orzack, M. H., Finn, G., & Cole, J. O. (1974). High and low dose thiothixene treatment in chronic schizophrenia: Diseases of the Nervous System Vol 35(2) Feb 1974, 53-58.
  • Gillis, J. S., & Moran, T. J. (1985). The effects of selected antidepressives on interpersonal learning: Social Science International Vol 1(1) Jan 1985, 1-12.
  • Goldberg, S. C., & et al. (1986). Borderline and schizotypal personality disorders treated with low-dose thiothixene vs placebo: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 43(7) Jul 1986, 680-686.
  • Goldstein, B. J., & Brauzer, B. (1973). Thiothixene in the treatment of mixed anxiety and depression: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology & New Drugs Vol 13(4) Apr 1973, 167-173.
  • Granacher, R. P., & Ruth, D. D. (1982). A comparison of thioridazine (mellaril) and thiothixene (navane) in the treatment of hospitalized psychotic patients: Current Therapeutic Research Vol 31(5) May 1982, 692-705.
  • Holden, J. M. (1974). Clinical and electroencephalographical studies of the thioxanthenes: Acta Psychiatrica Belgica Vol 74(5) Sep 1974, 526-528.
  • Hollister, L. E., Lombrozo, L., & Huang, C. C. (1987). Plasma concentrations of thiothixene and clinical response in treatment-resistant schizophrenics: International Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 2(1) Jan 1987, 77-82.
  • Howard, J. S. (1974). Haloperidol for chronically hospitalized psychotics: A double-blind comparison with thiothixene and placebo: A follow-up open evaluation: Diseases of the Nervous System Vol 35(10) Oct 1974, 458-463.
  • Huang, C. C., Gerhardstein, R. P., Kim, D. Y., & Hollister, L. E. (1987). Treatment-resistant schizophrenia: Controlled study of moderate- and high-dose thiothixene: International Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 2(1) Jan 1987, 69-75.
  • Hullett, F. J., & Bidder, T. G. (1983). Phenelzine plus triiodothyronine combination in a case of refractory depression: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 171(5) May 1983, 318-320.
  • Jacobson, L., & et al. (1976). Penfluridol and thiothixene: Dosage, plasma levels and changes in psychopathology: International Pharmacopsychiatry Vol 11(4) 1976, 206-214.
  • Jacobsson, L., & et al. (1976). Controlled trial of penfluridol and thiothixene in the maintenance treatment of chronic schizophrenic syndromes: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 54(2) Aug 1976, 113-124.
  • Janicak, P. G., Bresnahan, D. B., Sharma, R. P., Davis, J. M., & et al. (1988). A comparison of thiothixene with chlorpromazine in the treatment of mania: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 8(1) Feb 1988, 33-37.
  • Janowsky, D. S., El-Yousef, M. K., Davis, J. M., & Fann, W. E. (1973). Antagonism of guanethidine by chlorpromazine: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 130(7) Jul 1973, 808-812.
  • Kelwala, S., Ban, T. A., Berney, S. A., & Wilson, W. H. (1984). Rapid tranquilization: A comparative study of thiothixene and haloperidol: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 8(1) 1984, 77-83.
  • Kiev, A. (1972). Double-blind comparison of thiothixene and protriptyline in psychotic depression: Diseases of the Nervous System Vol 33(12) Dec 1972, 811-816.
  • Langer, G., Sachar, E. J., Gruen, P. H., & Halpern, F. S. (1977). Human prolactin responses to neuroleptic drugs correlate with antischizophrenic potency: Nature Vol 266(5603) Apr 1977, 639-640.
  • Lavin, M. R. (1993). Neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal side effects: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 150(11) Nov 1993, 1752-1753.
  • Lee, J. H., & et al. (1974). Once versus thrice daily thiothixene in the treatment of schizophrenic in-patients: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 125 Jul 1974, 73-78.
  • Levenson, A. J., & et al. (1976). Speed and rate of remission in acute schizophrenia: A comparison of intramuscularly administered fluphenazine HCl with thiothixene and haloperidol: Current Therapeutic Research Vol 20(5) Nov 1976, 695-700.
  • Maixner, S., Tandon, R., Eiser, A., Taylor, S., DeQuardo, J. R., & Shipley, J. (1998). Effects of antipsychotic treatment on polysomnographic measures in schizophrenia: A replication and extension: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 155(11) Nov 1998, 1600-1602.
  • Martinez Rodriguez, J. M., & et al. (1982). Thiothixene effects on cholinergic, histaminergic, serotoninergic and adrenergic receptors: Psiquis: Revista de Psiquiatria, Psicologia y Psicosomatica Vol 3(6) Dec 1982, 31-37.
  • May, P. R., & et al. (1982). A preliminary attempt to relate individual differences in EEG test dose response to clinical effect: Biological Psychiatry Vol 17(5) May 1982, 599-603.
  • McCance-Katz, E. F. (1991). New onset Raynaud's phenomenon in a schizophrenic patient: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 52(2) Feb 1991, 89-90.
  • Menolascino, F. J., Reudrich, S. L., Golden, C. J., & Wilson, J. (1985). Schizophrenia in the mentally retarded: A comparative study of the therapeutic efficacy of thiothixene and thioridazine: Psychiatric Hospital Vol 16(1) Win 1985, 21-25.
  • Menolascino, F. J., Wilson, J., Golden, C. J., & Ruedrich, S. L. (1986). Medication and treatment of schizophrenia in persons with mental retardation: Mental Retardation Vol 24(5) Oct 1986, 277-283.
  • Menza, M. A., & Harris, D. (1990). "Benzodiazepines and catatonia": Response: Biological Psychiatry Vol 28(2) Jul 1990, 179.
  • Mjorndal, T., Wiesel, F.-A., & Oreland, L. (1976). Biochemical and behavioural effects of thiothixene: Relation to tissue levels of the drug: Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica Vol 38(5) May 1976, 490-496.
  • Nava, V. (1974). Thiotixene in the treatment of chronic schizophrenics: Rivista Sperimentale di Freniatria e Medicina Legale delle Alienazioni Mentali Vol 98(3) Jun 1974, 578-583.
  • Panzer, M., Tandon, R., & Greden, J. F. (1990). Benzodiazepines and catatonia: Biological Psychiatry Vol 28(2) Jul 1990, 178-179.
  • Peterson, L. G., & Bongar, B. (1989). Navane versus Haldol: Treatment of acute organic mental syndromes in the general hospital: General Hospital Psychiatry Vol 11(6) Nov 1989, 412-417.
  • Rada, R. T., & Kellner, R. (1976). Thiothixene in the treatment of geriatric patients with chronic organic brain syndrome: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Vol 24(3) Mar 1976, 105-107.
  • Realmuto, G. M., & et al. (1984). Clinical comparison of thiothixene and thioridazine in schizophrenic adolescents: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 141(3) Mar 1984, 440-442.
  • Reifler, B. V., Ward, N., Davis, C. M., & Freidel, R. O. (1981). Thiothixene plasma levels and clinical response in acute schizophrenia: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 42(5) May 1981, 207-211.
  • Rickels, K., & et al. (1974). Thiothixene and thioridazine in anxiety: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 125 Jul 1974, 79-87.
  • Rickels, K., & et al. (1978). Double-blind trial of thiothixene and chlorpromazine in acute schizophrenia: International Pharmacopsychiatry Vol 13(1) 1978, 50-57.
  • Saarma, J., Saarma, M., Sild, L., & Tikk, P. (1974). Effects of thiothixene upon the higher nervous activity in chronic schizophrenics: International Pharmacopsychiatry Vol 9(2) 1974, 109-117.
  • Safko, S., & Klimo, Z. (1972). Casuistic contribution to the problem of pathological laughter: Ceskoslovenska Psychiatrie Vol 68(1) Feb 1972, 32-34.
  • Schneider, L. S., Gleason, R. P., & Chui, H. C. (1989). Progressive supranuclear palsy with agitation: Response to trazodone but not to thiothixine or carbamazepine: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology Vol 2(2) Apr-Jun 1989, 109-112.
  • Schneider, S. J. (1982). Electrodermal activity and therapeutic response to neuroleptic treatment in chronic schizophrenic in-patients: Psychological Medicine Vol 12(3) Aug 1982, 607-613.
  • Schulz, S. C. (1986). The use of low-dose neuroleptics in the treatment of "schizo-obsessive" patients: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 143(10) Oct 1986, 1318-1319.
  • Serban, G., & Siegel, S. (1984). Response of borderline and schizotypal patients to small doses of thiothixene and haloperidol: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 141(11) Nov 1984, 1455-1458.
  • Serban, G., Siegel, S., & Gaffney, M. (1992). Response of negative symptoms of schizophrenia to neuroleptic treatment: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 53(7) Jul 1992, 229-234.
  • Shaskam, E. G., Becker, R. E., Murphy, D. L., & Wyatt, R. J. (1975). Platelet monoamine oxidase in schizophrenics: Nature Vol 253(5493) Feb 1975, 659-660.
  • Shen, W. W., Baig, M. S., Sata, L. S., & Hofstatter, L. (1983). Dopamine receptor supersensitivity and the chemoreceptor trigger zone: Biological Psychiatry Vol 18(8) Aug 1983, 917-921.
  • Solomon, K. (1983). Thiothixene and bizarre nightmares: An association? : Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 44(2) Feb 1983, 77-78.
  • Stern, T. A., & Anderson, W. H. (1979). Benztropine prophylaxis of dystonic reactions: Psychopharmacology Vol 61(3) 1979, 261-262.
  • Stotsky, B. A. (1977). Relative efficacy of parenteral haloperidol and thiothixene for the emergency treatment of acutely excited and agitated patients: Diseases of the Nervous System Vol 38(12) Dec 1977, 967-973.
  • Tobin, J. M., & Robinson, G. M. (1980). Double-blind comparison of haloperidol and thiothixene with after-care treatment evaluation in psychiatric outpatients with schizophrenia: Psychiatric Journal of the University of Ottawa Vol 5(3) Sep 1980, 168-174.
  • Turek, I. S., & et al. (1973). Tiotixene and thioridazine in alcoholism treatment: Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol Vol 34(3, Pt A) Sep 1973, 853-859.
  • Van Putten, T., May, P. R., & Marder, S. R. (1984). Akathisia with haloperidol and thiothixene: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 41(11) Nov 1984, 1036-1039.
  • Van Putten, T., May, P. R., Marder, S. R., & Wittmann, L. A. (1981). Subjective response to antipsychotic drugs: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 38(2) Feb 1981, 187-190.
  • Waizer, J., & et al. (1972). A single-blind evaluation of thiothixene with outpatient schizophrenic children: Journal of Autism & Childhood Schizophrenia Vol 2(4) Oct 1972, 378-386.
  • Welbel, L., & Nurowska, K. (1975). The course and the results of treatment with three activating neuroleptics: Psychiatria Polska Vol 9(6) 1975, 613-620.
  • Yesavage, J. A. (1982). Inpatient violence and the schizophrenic patient: An inverse correlation between danger-related events and neuroleptic levels: Biological Psychiatry Vol 17(11) Nov 1982, 1331-1337.
  • Yesavage, J. A., & et al. (1982). Serum level monitoring of thiothixene in schizophrenia: Acute single-dose levels at fixed doses: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 139(2) Feb 1982, 174-178.
  • Yesavage, J. A., Holman, C. A., & Cohn, R. (1981). Correlation of thiothixene serum levels and age: Psychopharmacology Vol 74(2) Jul 1981, 170-172.
  • Yesavage, J. A., Tanke, E. D., & Sheikh, J. I. (1987). Tardive dyskinesia and steady-state serum levels of thiothixene: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 44(10) Oct 1987, 913-915.

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

Ad blocker interference detected!

Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.

Also on Fandom

Random Wiki