Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)

Thiothixene chemical structure

IUPAC name
CAS number
ATC code


Chemical formula {{{chemical_formula}}}
Molecular weight 443.627
Bioavailability  ?
Metabolism Hepatic
Elimination half-life 10-20 hours
Excretion  ?
Pregnancy category  ?
Legal status  ?
Routes of administration oral, IM

Thiothixene (sold as Navane®) is a thioxanthene drug used as a typical antipsychotic medication. It is a thioxanthene derivative and is the cis isomer of N,Ndimethyl- 9-[3-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-propylidene] thioxanthene-2-sulfonamide.

Although widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia for several decades, thiothixene is seldom used today in favor of atypical antipsychotics such as olanzapine.

See alsoEdit


Abuzzahab, F. S., & Zimmerman, R. L. (1982). Psychopharmacological correlates of post-psychotic depression: A double-blind investigation of haloperidol vs thiothixene in outpatient schizophrenia: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 43(3) Mar 1982, 105-110.

  • Ananth, J., & Costin, A. (1977). Dyskinesia with thiothixene: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 134(6) Jun 1977, 689-690.
  • Balon, R., Berchou, R., & Zethelius, M. (1987). Thrombocytopenia associated with chlorpromazine, haloperidol and thiothixene: A case report: The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry / La Revue canadienne de psychiatrie Vol 32(2) Mar 1987, 149-150.
  • Ban, T. A., Lehmann, H. E., Sterlin, C., & Climan, M. (1975). Comprehensive clinical studies with thiothixene: Diseases of the Nervous System Vol 36(9) Sep 1975, 473-477.
  • Barrett, J. E. (1982). Effects of clozapine, haloperidol and thiothixene on schedule-controlled responding and schedule-induced eating and drinking of rabbits: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 17(5) Nov 1982, 1049-1053.
  • Barrett, J. E. (1983). Comparison of the effects of antipsychotic drugs on the schedule-controlled behavior of squirrel monkeys and pigeons: Neuropharmacology Vol 22(4) Apr 1983, 519-524.
  • Bartlett, E. J., Wolkin, A., Brodie, J. D., Laska, E. M., & et al. (1991). Importance of pharmacologic control in PET studies: Effects of thiothixene and haloperidol on cerebral glucose utilization in chronic schizophrenia: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging Vol 40(2) Oct 1991, 115-124.
  • Becker, R. E. (1983). Implications of the efficacy of thiothixene and a chlorpromazine-imipramine combination for depression in schizophrenia: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 140(2) Feb 1983, 208-211.
  • Bergling, R., & et al. (1975). Plasma levels and clinical effects of thioridazine and thiothixene: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Vol 15(2-3) Feb-Mar 1975, 178-186.
  • Birkett, D. P., Hirschfield, W., & Simpson, G. M. (1972). Thiothixene in the treatment of diseases of the senium: Current Therapeutic Research Vol 14(12) Dec 1972, 775-779.
  • Bjerkenstedt, L. (1989). Melperone in the treatment of schizophrenia: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 80(352, Suppl) 1989, 35-39.
  • Bjerkenstedt, L., Eneroth, P., Harnyrd, C., & Sedvall, G. (1977). Effects of melperone and thiothixene on prolactin levels in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of psychotic women: Archiv fur Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten Vol 224(4) 1977, 281-293.
  • Bjerkenstedt, L., & et al. (1978). A double-blind comparison of melperone and thiothixene in psychotic women using a new rating scale, the CPRS: Archiv fur Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten Vol 226(3) 1978, 157-172.
  • Bjerkenstedt, L., Gullberg, B., Harnryd, C., & Sedvall, G. (1977). Monoamine metabolite levels in cerebrospinal fluid of psychotic women treated with melperone or thiothixene: Archiv fur Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten Vol 224(2) 1977, 107-118.
  • Bloomingdale, L. M. (1996). A safe, rapid, non-toxic antidepressant with no side-effects or drug interactions: International Medical Journal Vol 3(2) Jun 1996, 115-124.
  • Bombardt, P. A., & Friedel, R. O. (1977). A GC/CIMS assay for the cis and trans isomers of thiothixene in human plasma: Communications in Psychopharmacology Vol 1(1) 1977, 49-59.
  • Botte, L. (1983). Teflutixol (Lu 10-022): A new thioxanthene derivative with antipsychotic properties: A pilot study: Acta Psychiatrica Belgica Vol 83(4) Jul 1983, 397-406.
  • Buchsbaum, M. S., Potkin, S. G., Marshall, J. F., Lottenberg, S., & et al. (1992). Effects of clozapine and thiothixene on glucose metabolic rate in schizophrenia: Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 6(3) May 1992, 155-163.
  • Burnett, G. B., Little, S. R., Graham, N., & Forrest, A. D. (1975). The assessment of thiothixene in chronic schizophrenia: A double-blind controlled trial: Diseases of the Nervous System Vol 36(11) Nov 1975, 625-629.
  • Butterworth, A. T., & Watts, R. D. (1974). Double-blind comparison of thiothixene, trifluoperazine, and placebo in chronic alcoholism: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 15(2) 1974, 85-87.
  • Carter, J. H. (1983). Sociocultural factors in the psychiatric assessment of Black patients: A case study: Journal of the National Medical Association Vol 75(8) Aug 1983, 817-820.
  • Claghorn, J. L., Johnstone, E. E., Cook, T. H., & Itschner, L. (1974). Group therapy and maintenance treatment of schizophrenics: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 31(3) Sep 1974, 361-365.
  • Crowley, T. J., & Hydinger-Macdonald, M. (1981). Motility, parkinsonism, and prolactin with thiothixene and thioridazine: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 38(6) Jun 1981, 668-675.
  • d'Elia, G., & et al. (1977). Changes in psychopathology in relation to EEG variables and visual averaged evoked responses (V. AER) in schizophrenic patients treated with penfluirdol or thiothixene: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 55(4) Apr 1977, 309-318.
  • Denber, H. C., & Turns, D. (1972). Double blind comparison of thiothixene and trifluoperazine in acute schizophrenia: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 13(2) Mar 1972, 100-104.
  • Dilsaver, S. C., Leckrone, J., & Greden, J. F. (1984). Cholinergic syndrome from psychotropic withdrawal in a marijuana abuser: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 25(8) Aug 1984, 632-634.
  • DiMascio, A., & Demirgian, E. (1972). Study of the activating properties of thiothixene: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 13(2) Mar 1972, 105-108.
  • Dubin, W. R., & et al. (1985). Rapid tranquilization: The efficacy of oral concentrate: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 46(11) Nov 1985, 475-478.
  • Engelhardt, D. M., Rudorfer, L., & Rosen, B. (1978). Haloperidol and thiothixene in the long-term treatment of chronic schizophrenic outpatients in an urban community: Social and vocational adjustment: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 39(12) Dec 1978, 834-840.
  • Ereshefsky, L., Saklad, S. R., Watanabe, M. D., Davis, C. M., & et al. (1991). Thiothixene pharmacokinetic interactions: A study of hepatic enzyme inducers, clearance inhibitors, and demographic variables: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 11(5) Oct 1991, 296-301.
  • Ereshefsky, L., Saklad, S. R., Watanabe, M. D., Davis, C. M., & et al. (1992). "Thiothixene pharmacokinetic interactions: A study of hepatic enzyme inducers, clearance inhibitors, and demographic variables": Erratum: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 12(2) Apr 1992, 78.
  • Filho, U. V., Versiani Caldeira, M. V., & Romildo Bueno, J. (1975). The efficacy and safety of loxapine succinate in the treatment of schizophrenia: A comparative study with thiothixene: Current Therapeutic Research Vol 18(3) Sep 1975, 476-490.
  • Finkel, S. I., Lyons, J. S., Anderson, R. L., Sherrell, K., & et al. (1995). A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of thiothixene in agitated, demented nursing home patients: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Vol 10(2) Feb 1995, 129-136.
  • Gardos, G., & Cole, J. O. (1973). The dual action of thiothixene: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 29(2) Aug 1973, 222-225.
  • Gardos, G., Orzack, M. H., Finn, G., & Cole, J. O. (1974). High and low dose thiothixene treatment in chronic schizophrenia: Diseases of the Nervous System Vol 35(2) Feb 1974, 53-58.
  • Gillis, J. S., & Moran, T. J. (1985). The effects of selected antidepressives on interpersonal learning: Social Science International Vol 1(1) Jan 1985, 1-12.
  • Goldberg, S. C., & et al. (1986). Borderline and schizotypal personality disorders treated with low-dose thiothixene vs placebo: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 43(7) Jul 1986, 680-686.
  • Goldstein, B. J., & Brauzer, B. (1973). Thiothixene in the treatment of mixed anxiety and depression: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology & New Drugs Vol 13(4) Apr 1973, 167-173.
  • Granacher, R. P., & Ruth, D. D. (1982). A comparison of thioridazine (mellaril) and thiothixene (navane) in the treatment of hospitalized psychotic patients: Current Therapeutic Research Vol 31(5) May 1982, 692-705.
  • Holden, J. M. (1974). Clinical and electroencephalographical studies of the thioxanthenes: Acta Psychiatrica Belgica Vol 74(5) Sep 1974, 526-528.
  • Hollister, L. E., Lombrozo, L., & Huang, C. C. (1987). Plasma concentrations of thiothixene and clinical response in treatment-resistant schizophrenics: International Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 2(1) Jan 1987, 77-82.
  • Howard, J. S. (1974). Haloperidol for chronically hospitalized psychotics: A double-blind comparison with thiothixene and placebo: A follow-up open evaluation: Diseases of the Nervous System Vol 35(10) Oct 1974, 458-463.
  • Huang, C. C., Gerhardstein, R. P., Kim, D. Y., & Hollister, L. E. (1987). Treatment-resistant schizophrenia: Controlled study of moderate- and high-dose thiothixene: International Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 2(1) Jan 1987, 69-75.
  • Hullett, F. J., & Bidder, T. G. (1983). Phenelzine plus triiodothyronine combination in a case of refractory depression: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 171(5) May 1983, 318-320.
  • Jacobson, L., & et al. (1976). Penfluridol and thiothixene: Dosage, plasma levels and changes in psychopathology: International Pharmacopsychiatry Vol 11(4) 1976, 206-214.
  • Jacobsson, L., & et al. (1976). Controlled trial of penfluridol and thiothixene in the maintenance treatment of chronic schizophrenic syndromes: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 54(2) Aug 1976, 113-124.
  • Janicak, P. G., Bresnahan, D. B., Sharma, R. P., Davis, J. M., & et al. (1988). A comparison of thiothixene with chlorpromazine in the treatment of mania: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol 8(1) Feb 1988, 33-37.
  • Janowsky, D. S., El-Yousef, M. K., Davis, J. M., & Fann, W. E. (1973). Antagonism of guanethidine by chlorpromazine: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 130(7) Jul 1973, 808-812.
  • Kelwala, S., Ban, T. A., Berney, S. A., & Wilson, W. H. (1984). Rapid tranquilization: A comparative study of thiothixene and haloperidol: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 8(1) 1984, 77-83.
  • Kiev, A. (1972). Double-blind comparison of thiothixene and protriptyline in psychotic depression: Diseases of the Nervous System Vol 33(12) Dec 1972, 811-816.
  • Langer, G., Sachar, E. J., Gruen, P. H., & Halpern, F. S. (1977). Human prolactin responses to neuroleptic drugs correlate with antischizophrenic potency: Nature Vol 266(5603) Apr 1977, 639-640.
  • Lavin, M. R. (1993). Neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal side effects: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 150(11) Nov 1993, 1752-1753.
  • Lee, J. H., & et al. (1974). Once versus thrice daily thiothixene in the treatment of schizophrenic in-patients: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 125 Jul 1974, 73-78.
  • Levenson, A. J., & et al. (1976). Speed and rate of remission in acute schizophrenia: A comparison of intramuscularly administered fluphenazine HCl with thiothixene and haloperidol: Current Therapeutic Research Vol 20(5) Nov 1976, 695-700.
  • Maixner, S., Tandon, R., Eiser, A., Taylor, S., DeQuardo, J. R., & Shipley, J. (1998). Effects of antipsychotic treatment on polysomnographic measures in schizophrenia: A replication and extension: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 155(11) Nov 1998, 1600-1602.
  • Martinez Rodriguez, J. M., & et al. (1982). Thiothixene effects on cholinergic, histaminergic, serotoninergic and adrenergic receptors: Psiquis: Revista de Psiquiatria, Psicologia y Psicosomatica Vol 3(6) Dec 1982, 31-37.
  • May, P. R., & et al. (1982). A preliminary attempt to relate individual differences in EEG test dose response to clinical effect: Biological Psychiatry Vol 17(5) May 1982, 599-603.
  • McCance-Katz, E. F. (1991). New onset Raynaud's phenomenon in a schizophrenic patient: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 52(2) Feb 1991, 89-90.
  • Menolascino, F. J., Reudrich, S. L., Golden, C. J., & Wilson, J. (1985). Schizophrenia in the mentally retarded: A comparative study of the therapeutic efficacy of thiothixene and thioridazine: Psychiatric Hospital Vol 16(1) Win 1985, 21-25.
  • Menolascino, F. J., Wilson, J., Golden, C. J., & Ruedrich, S. L. (1986). Medication and treatment of schizophrenia in persons with mental retardation: Mental Retardation Vol 24(5) Oct 1986, 277-283.
  • Menza, M. A., & Harris, D. (1990). "Benzodiazepines and catatonia": Response: Biological Psychiatry Vol 28(2) Jul 1990, 179.
  • Mjorndal, T., Wiesel, F.-A., & Oreland, L. (1976). Biochemical and behavioural effects of thiothixene: Relation to tissue levels of the drug: Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica Vol 38(5) May 1976, 490-496.
  • Nava, V. (1974). Thiotixene in the treatment of chronic schizophrenics: Rivista Sperimentale di Freniatria e Medicina Legale delle Alienazioni Mentali Vol 98(3) Jun 1974, 578-583.
  • Panzer, M., Tandon, R., & Greden, J. F. (1990). Benzodiazepines and catatonia: Biological Psychiatry Vol 28(2) Jul 1990, 178-179.
  • Peterson, L. G., & Bongar, B. (1989). Navane versus Haldol: Treatment of acute organic mental syndromes in the general hospital: General Hospital Psychiatry Vol 11(6) Nov 1989, 412-417.
  • Rada, R. T., & Kellner, R. (1976). Thiothixene in the treatment of geriatric patients with chronic organic brain syndrome: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Vol 24(3) Mar 1976, 105-107.
  • Realmuto, G. M., & et al. (1984). Clinical comparison of thiothixene and thioridazine in schizophrenic adolescents: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 141(3) Mar 1984, 440-442.
  • Reifler, B. V., Ward, N., Davis, C. M., & Freidel, R. O. (1981). Thiothixene plasma levels and clinical response in acute schizophrenia: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 42(5) May 1981, 207-211.
  • Rickels, K., & et al. (1974). Thiothixene and thioridazine in anxiety: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 125 Jul 1974, 79-87.
  • Rickels, K., & et al. (1978). Double-blind trial of thiothixene and chlorpromazine in acute schizophrenia: International Pharmacopsychiatry Vol 13(1) 1978, 50-57.
  • Saarma, J., Saarma, M., Sild, L., & Tikk, P. (1974). Effects of thiothixene upon the higher nervous activity in chronic schizophrenics: International Pharmacopsychiatry Vol 9(2) 1974, 109-117.
  • Safko, S., & Klimo, Z. (1972). Casuistic contribution to the problem of pathological laughter: Ceskoslovenska Psychiatrie Vol 68(1) Feb 1972, 32-34.
  • Schneider, L. S., Gleason, R. P., & Chui, H. C. (1989). Progressive supranuclear palsy with agitation: Response to trazodone but not to thiothixine or carbamazepine: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology Vol 2(2) Apr-Jun 1989, 109-112.
  • Schneider, S. J. (1982). Electrodermal activity and therapeutic response to neuroleptic treatment in chronic schizophrenic in-patients: Psychological Medicine Vol 12(3) Aug 1982, 607-613.
  • Schulz, S. C. (1986). The use of low-dose neuroleptics in the treatment of "schizo-obsessive" patients: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 143(10) Oct 1986, 1318-1319.
  • Serban, G., & Siegel, S. (1984). Response of borderline and schizotypal patients to small doses of thiothixene and haloperidol: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 141(11) Nov 1984, 1455-1458.
  • Serban, G., Siegel, S., & Gaffney, M. (1992). Response of negative symptoms of schizophrenia to neuroleptic treatment: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 53(7) Jul 1992, 229-234.
  • Shaskam, E. G., Becker, R. E., Murphy, D. L., & Wyatt, R. J. (1975). Platelet monoamine oxidase in schizophrenics: Nature Vol 253(5493) Feb 1975, 659-660.
  • Shen, W. W., Baig, M. S., Sata, L. S., & Hofstatter, L. (1983). Dopamine receptor supersensitivity and the chemoreceptor trigger zone: Biological Psychiatry Vol 18(8) Aug 1983, 917-921.
  • Solomon, K. (1983). Thiothixene and bizarre nightmares: An association? : Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 44(2) Feb 1983, 77-78.
  • Stern, T. A., & Anderson, W. H. (1979). Benztropine prophylaxis of dystonic reactions: Psychopharmacology Vol 61(3) 1979, 261-262.
  • Stotsky, B. A. (1977). Relative efficacy of parenteral haloperidol and thiothixene for the emergency treatment of acutely excited and agitated patients: Diseases of the Nervous System Vol 38(12) Dec 1977, 967-973.
  • Tobin, J. M., & Robinson, G. M. (1980). Double-blind comparison of haloperidol and thiothixene with after-care treatment evaluation in psychiatric outpatients with schizophrenia: Psychiatric Journal of the University of Ottawa Vol 5(3) Sep 1980, 168-174.
  • Turek, I. S., & et al. (1973). Tiotixene and thioridazine in alcoholism treatment: Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol Vol 34(3, Pt A) Sep 1973, 853-859.
  • Van Putten, T., May, P. R., & Marder, S. R. (1984). Akathisia with haloperidol and thiothixene: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 41(11) Nov 1984, 1036-1039.
  • Van Putten, T., May, P. R., Marder, S. R., & Wittmann, L. A. (1981). Subjective response to antipsychotic drugs: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 38(2) Feb 1981, 187-190.
  • Waizer, J., & et al. (1972). A single-blind evaluation of thiothixene with outpatient schizophrenic children: Journal of Autism & Childhood Schizophrenia Vol 2(4) Oct 1972, 378-386.
  • Welbel, L., & Nurowska, K. (1975). The course and the results of treatment with three activating neuroleptics: Psychiatria Polska Vol 9(6) 1975, 613-620.
  • Yesavage, J. A. (1982). Inpatient violence and the schizophrenic patient: An inverse correlation between danger-related events and neuroleptic levels: Biological Psychiatry Vol 17(11) Nov 1982, 1331-1337.
  • Yesavage, J. A., & et al. (1982). Serum level monitoring of thiothixene in schizophrenia: Acute single-dose levels at fixed doses: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 139(2) Feb 1982, 174-178.
  • Yesavage, J. A., Holman, C. A., & Cohn, R. (1981). Correlation of thiothixene serum levels and age: Psychopharmacology Vol 74(2) Jul 1981, 170-172.
  • Yesavage, J. A., Tanke, E. D., & Sheikh, J. I. (1987). Tardive dyskinesia and steady-state serum levels of thiothixene: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 44(10) Oct 1987, 913-915.

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

Ad blocker interference detected!

Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.