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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
|Molecular mass||266.4 g/mol|
|Melting point||248-250 °C (hydrochloride salt)|
|Boiling point||xx.x °C|
|Disclaimer and references|
- For the similarly-spelled nucleic acid, see Thymine
Thiamine was first discovered in 1910 by Umetaro Suzuki of Japan when researching how rice bran cured patients of Beriberi. He named it aberic acid. He did not determine its chemical composition, nor that it was an amine. It was first crystallized by Jansen and Donath in 1926 (they named it aneurin, for antineuritic vitamin). Its chemical compostition and synthesis was finally reported by Robert R. Williams in 1935. He also coined the name for it, thiamin.
Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is a coenzyme for pyruvate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and transketolase. The first two of these enzymes function in the metabolism of carbohydrates, while transketolase functions in the pentose phosphate pathway to synthesize NADPH and the pentose sugars deoxyribose and ribose. TPP is synthesized by the enzyme thiamine pyrophosphokinase, which requires free thiamine, magnesium, and adenosine triphosphate.
Also known as vitamin B1, thiamine plays an important role in helping the body convert carbohydrates and fat into energy. It is essential for normal growth and development and helps to maintain proper functioning of the heart and the nervous and digestive systems. Thiamine is water-soluble and cannot be stored in the body; however, once absorbed, the vitamin is concentrated in muscle tissue.
Thiamine is found naturally in the following foods, each of which contains at least 0.1mg of the vitamin per 28-100g (1-3.5oz): - Green peas - Spinach - Liver - Beef - Navy beans - Nuts - Pinto beans - Soybeans
Systemic thiamine deficiency can lead to myriad problems including neurodegeneration, wasting, and death. A lack of thiamine can be caused by malnutrition, a diet high in thiaminase-rich foods (raw freshwater fish, raw shellfish, ferns) and/or foods high in anti-thiamine factors (tea, coffee, betel nuts).
Diagnostic Testing for B1 DeficiencyEdit
The only known cases of thiamine overdose occurred with thiamine injections. Thiamine injection may result in anaphylactic reactions.
Genetic diseases of thiamine transport are rare but serious. Thiamine Responsive Megaloblastic Anemia with diabetes mellitus and sensorineural deafness (TRMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene SLC19A2 , a high affinity thiamine transporter. TRMA patients do not show signs of systemic thiamine deficiency, suggesting redundancy in the thiamine transport system. This has led to the discovery of a second high affinity thiamine transporter, SLC19A3.
Benefits for autismEdit
- ↑ "Thiamin", Jane Higdon, Micronutrient Information Center, Linus Pauling Institute
- ↑ Thiamine Responsive Megaloblastic Anemia with diabetes mellitus and sensorineural deafness (TRMA)
- ↑ SLC19A2
- ↑ SLC19A3
- ↑ Thiamine's Mood-Mending Qualities, Richard N. Podel, Nutrition Science News, January 1999.
- ↑ Treatment of autism spectrum children with thiamine tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide: A pilot studyDerrick Lonsdale, Raymond J. Shamberger 2 & Tapan Audhya
|All B vitamins | All D vitamins|
| Retinol (A) | Thiamine (B1) | Riboflavin (B2) | Niacin (B3) | Pantothenic acid (B5) | Pyridoxine (B6) | Biotin (B7) | Folic acid (B9) | Cyanocobalamin (B12) | Ascorbic acid (C) | Ergocalciferol (D2) | Cholecalciferol (D3) | Tocopherol (E) | Naphthoquinone (K)|
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