Individual differences |
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Anger is associated with a large array of physiological variables.
- In response to an electrical stimulation to the hypothalamus area of the brain, production of the hormone adrenaline is increased.
- Respiration deepens.
- The heart beats more rapidly and may palpitate. Blood pressure rises.
- The sympathetic nervous system diverts blood from the skin, liver, stomach and intestines to the heart, central nervous system and muscles.
- The digestive processes are suspended.
- Glucose is freed from reserves in the liver.
- Cortisol production is increased in order to depress the immune system.
- The spleen contracts and discharges its content of concentrated corpuscles.
- Men have an increased supply of the hormone testosterone.
- Involvement of amygdala.
- Increase in left prefrontal cortical activation.
More noticeable effects of anger include: