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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals is a book by the British naturalist Charles Darwin published in 1872, on how humans and non-human animals express their emotions. It was, along with his 1871 book The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, part of Darwin's attempt to address questions of human origins and human psychology using his theory of evolution by natural selection.When writing The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication in 1866, Darwin intended to include a chapter including man in his theory, but the book became too big and he decided to write a separate "short essay" on ape ancestry, sexual selection and human expression which became two large volumes in The Descent of Man. After completing work on the proofs of The Descent of Man in January 1871, Darwin started on another book, using left over material on emotional expressions.
Darwin noted the universal nature of facial expressions in the book: "...the young and the old of widely different races, both with man and animals, express the same state of mind by the same movements."
He became diverted into making extensive revisions to the Origin of Species, then in the spring of 1872 Darwin pressed on with The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals, pointing to shared evolution in contrast to Charles Bell's Anatomy and Physiology of Expression which claimed divinely created muscles to express man's exquisite feelings. Darwin drew on world wide responses to his questionnaires, hundreds of photographs of actors, babies and "imbeciles" in an asylum, as well as his own observations, with particular empathy for the grief following a family death.
The proofs, tackled by his daughter Henrietta and son Leo, needed major revision which made him "sick of the subject, and myself, and the world". It was to be one of the first books with photographs, with seven heliotype plates, and Murray warned that this "would poke a terrible hole in the profits". The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals proved very popular, selling over 5,000 copies.
Notes and referencesEdit
| This article or section includes a list of references or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations.|
You can improve this article by introducing more precise citations.
- Desmond, Adrian; Moore, James (1991), Darwin, London: Michael Joseph, Penguin Group, ISBN 0-7181-3430-3
- Freeman, R. B. (1977), The Works of Charles Darwin: An Annotated Bibliographical Handlist (2nd ed.), Folkstone: Dawson, http://darwin-online.org.uk/EditorialIntroductions/Freeman_TheExpressionoftheEmotions.html .
- Darwin, Charles (1872), The expression of the emotions in man and animals, London: John Murray, http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F1142&viewtype=text&pageseq=1 .
Free e-book versions available on the internet:
- Google Book Search:
- Project Gutenberg: New York, D. Appleton and Company, 1899
- Chimpanzee Facial Expression & Vocalizations
- Dog Laughter Vocalization Spectograph
Education · Voyage on HMS Beagle · Inception of theory · Development of theory · Publication of theory · Reaction to theory · Orchids to Variation · Descent of Man to Emotions · Insectivorous plants to Worms
|Darwin's family, beliefs and health|
The Voyage of the Beagle · Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle · On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection · The Origin of Species · The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex · The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals · The Power of Movement in Plants · Autobiography · Correspondence
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