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Tetrabenazine chemical structure
| 1,3,4,6,7,11b-Hexahydro- 9,10-dimethoxy-3- (2-methylpropyl)- 2H-benzo[a]quinoline; Ro-1-9569|
| CAS number |
| ATC code |
| PubChem |
| DrugBank |
|Legal status||Orphan drug|
|Routes of administration||tablets: 25 mg|
Tetrabenazine is a drug for the symptomatical treatment of hyperkinetic movement disorder and is marketed under the trade names Nitoman® in Canada and Xenazine® in New Zealand and some parts of Europe, and is also available in the USA as an orphan drug. The compound is known since the 1950s. Tetrabenazine works mainly as a VMAT-inhibitor and as such promotes the early metabolic degradation of the neurotransmitter dopamine.
- Huntington's Disease - specificially the chorea associated with it
- Tourette's Syndrome and other tic disorders
- Tardive dyskinesia, a serious and sometimes irreversible side effect of long-term use of many antipsychotics, mainly typical antipsychotics
- Hemiballismus, spontaneous flinging limb movements due to subthalamic nucleus damage
Because tetrabenazine is closely related to the antipsychotics, many of its side effects are similar. Some of these include:
- Depression - the most common side effect, reported in roughly 15% of those who take the medication
- Akathisia (aka "restless pacing" - an inability to keep still, with intense anxiety when forced to do so)
Unlike many of the antipychotics, tetrabenazine is not known to cause Tardive dyskinesia, and in fact can be an effective treatment for the antipsychotic-induced movement disorder.
- Because of the relatively high incidence of depression, it has been recommended that people with a history of depression avoid taking tetrabenazine. Research into this is ongoing however, and this warning may be dropped in the future.
- The concomitant intake of MAO inhibitors is contraindicated.
- ↑ Guangrong Zheng et al. (2006): "Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2: Role as a Novel Target for Drug Development", AAPSJ. Fulltext
- ↑ Jankovic J, Beach J (1997). Long-term effects of tetrabenazine in hyperkinetic movement disorders.. Neurology 48 (2): 358-62. PMID 9040721.
- NIMH Repository data sheet
- Detailed monograph on tetrabenazine on rxmed.com
- Information on tetrabenazine from netdoctor.co.uk
Psycholeptics: antipsychotics (N05A)
|Phenothiazine typical antipsychotics||Chlorpromazine • Fluphenazine • Mesoridazine • Perphenazine • Prochlorperazine • Promazine • Thioridazine/Sulforidazine • Trifluoperazine|
|Other typical antipsychotics||Indoles (Molindone) • Butyrophenones (Azaperone, Benperidol, Droperidol, Haloperidol) • Thioxanthenes (Flupentixol, Chlorprothixene, Thiothixene, Zuclopenthixol) • diphenylbutylpiperidines (Fluspirilene, Penfluridol, Pimozide) • other (Loxapine)|
|Atypical antipsychotics||Butyrophenones (Melperone) • Indoles (Sertindole, Ziprasidone) • Benzamides (Sulpiride, Remoxipride, Amisulpride) • diazepines/oxazepines/thiazepines (Clozapine, Olanzapine, Quetiapine) • other (Aripiprazole, Risperidone, Paliperidone, Zotepine)|
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