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The testicles are well-known to be very sensitive to impact and injury.
The most prominent diseases of testicles are:
- testicular cancer and other neoplasms
- swelling of a testicle, caused by hydrocele testis
- inflammation of the testicles, called orchitis
- inflammation of the epididymis, called epididymitis
- retention cyst of a tubule of the rete testis or the head of the epididymis, called spermatocele
- spermatic cord torsion also called testicular torsion
- varicocele — swollen vein from the testes, usually affecting the left testicle
- Hydrocele testis - Collection of fluid around the testicle, like a water balloon. Completely harmless.
- anorchidism is the absence of one or both testicles.
The removal of one or both testicles is termed:
- Inguinal orchiectomy, in medicine (where orchiectomy and orchectomy are synonymous), and
- castration in general use, especially when done as punishment or torture, or as a catch-all term for orchidectomy in a veterinary context.
- Gelding in the specifically equine sense.
Testicular prostheses are available to mimic the appearance and feel of one or both testicles, when absent as from injury or as treatment for gender identity disorder. There have also been some instances of their implanting in dogs 
Other testicular issues:
- Cryptorchidism or "undescended testicles", when the testicle does not descend into the scrotum of the infant boy.
Testes disorders can result in variious endocrine sexual disorders in the male. These are of interest to psychologists and can include:
Endocrine pathology of psychological interest (E00-35)
thyroid Hypothyroidism (Iodine deficiency, Cretinism, Congenital hypothyroidism, Goitre) - Hyperthyroidism (Graves-Basedow disease, Toxic multinodular goitre) - Thyroiditis (De Quervain's thyroiditis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis)
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