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Testwiseness arises from the practice effect of taking many tests and this may confer an advantage for experienced over naive subjects, when they are of otherwise even aptitude or intelligence etc. Sometimes people may organise test coaching in order to gain this advantage.

History Edit

Thorndike (1951)[1] first conceptualized "test wiseness" as a variable that can affect test scores. Thorndike viewed test wiseness as a general and lasting characteristic of the individual and a prominent source of score variance on cognitive tests second in its influence only to in­dividual cognitive ability. More specifically, Millman, Bishop, and Ebel ( 1965 , p. 707)[2] defined test wiseness as the "subject's capacity to utilize the characteristics and formats of the test and/or the test taking situation to receive a high score. Test wiseness is logically indepen­dent of the examinee's knowledge of the subject matter for which the items are supposedly measures."[3]

Testwiseness in educational psychologyEdit

Testwiseness in clinical psychologyEdit

Testwiseness in occupational psychologyEdit

See alsoEdit


ReferencesEdit

BooksEdit

  • Flippo, R. F., Becker, M. J., & Wark, D. M. (2000). Preparing for and taking tests. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • O'Connor, E. J., Chassie, M. B., Walther, F., Spiers, P. A., Pihl, R. O., Aamodt, M. G., et al. (1987). Improving academic performance. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

PapersEdit

  • Bajtelsmit, J. W. (1977). Test-wiseness and systematic desensitization programs for increasing adult test-taking skills: Journal of Educational Measurement Vol 14(4) Win 1977, 335-341.
  • Benson, J., Urman, H., & Hocevar, D. (1986). Effects of test-wiseness training and ethnicity on achievement of third- and fifth-grade students: Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development Vol 18(4) Jan 1986, 154-162.
  • Borrello, G. M., & Thompson, B. (1985). Correlates of selected test-wiseness skills: Journal of Experimental Education Vol 53(3) Spr 1985, 124-128.
  • Brozo, W. G., Schmelzer, R. V., & Spires, H. A. (1984). A study of test-wiseness clues in college and university teacher-made tests: Journal of Learning Skills Vol 3(2) Win 1984, 56-68.
  • Bruch, M. A., Pearl, L., & Giordano, S. (1986). Differences in the cognitive processes of academically successful and unsuccessful test-anxious students: Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol 33(2) Apr 1986, 217-219.
  • Carter, K. (1986). Test-wiseness for teachers and students: Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice Vol 5(4) Win 1986, 20-23.
  • Chalip, L. (1979). Learning on the Group Embedded Figures Test: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 48(3, Pt 2) Jun 1979, 1070.
  • Costar, E. (1980). Scoring high in reading: The effectiveness of teaching achievement test-taking behaviors: Elementary School Guidance & Counseling Vol 15(2) Dec 1980, 157-159.
  • Crehan, K. D., Gross, L. J., Koehler, R. A., & Slakter, M. J. (1978). Developmental aspects of test-wiseness: Educational Research Quarterly Vol 3(1) Spr 1978, 40-44.
  • Diamond, E. E. (1980). A response to Weinrach's "Discrepancy identification: A model for the interpretation of the Kuder DD and other interest inventories." Vocational Guidance Quarterly Vol 29(1) Sep 1980, 53-55.
  • DiClementi, J. D., & Handelsman, M. M. (1987). Effects of perceived sophistication and test validity on acceptance of generalized feedback: Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 43(3) May 1987, 341-345.
  • Dillard, J. M., Warrior-Benjamin, J., & Perrin, D. W. (1977). Efficacy of test-wiseness on test anxiety and reading achievement among Black youth: Psychological Reports Vol 41(3, Pt 2) Dec 1977, 1135-1140.
  • Dolly, J. P., & Vick, D. S. (1986). An attempt to identify predictors of test-wiseness: Psychological Reports Vol 58(2) Apr 1986, 663-672.
  • Dolly, J. P., & Williams, K. S. (1986). Using test-taking strategies to maximize multiple-choice test scores: Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol 46(3) Fal 1986, 619-625.
  • Dreisbach, M., & Keogh, B. K. (1982). Testwiseness as a factor in readiness test performance of young Mexican-American children: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 74(2) Apr 1982, 224-229.
  • Ebel, R. L. (1980). The feasibility of using more false than true test items: Academic Psychology Bulletin Vol 2(1) Mar 1980, 53-57.
  • Echterhoff, W. (1978). Reply to Wolf's critical remarks on the index LL for measuring learning effectiveness: Zeitschrift fur Empirische Padagogik Vol 2(2) 1978, 163-170.
  • Evans, W. (1984). Test wiseness: An examination of cue-using strategies: Journal of Experimental Education Vol 52(3) Spr 1984, 141-144.
  • Fagley, N. S. (1987). Positional response bias in multiple-choice tests of learning: Its relation to testwiseness and guessing strategy: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 79(1) Mar 1987, 95-97.
  • Flynn, J. T., & Anderson, B. E. (1977). The effects of test item cue sensitivity on IQ and achievement test performance: Educational Research Quarterly Vol 2(2) Sum 1977, 32-39.
  • Green, D. S., & Stewart, O. (1984). Test wiseness: The concept has no clothes: College Student Journal Vol 18(4) Win 1984, 416-424.
  • Gross, L. J. (1977). The effects of test-wiseness on standardized test performance: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research Vol 21(2) 1977, 97-111.
  • Hager, W., & Hasselhorn, M. (1997). Retest effects and effects of developmental changes on the CFT 1 Score in testing first grade children: Zeitschrift fur Psychologie mit Zeitschrift fur angewandte Psychologie Vol 205(2) 1997, 205-229.
  • Harmon, M. G., Morse, D. T., & Morse, L. W. (1996). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Gibb Experimental Test of Testwiseness: Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol 56(2) Apr 1996, 276-286.
  • Harvill, L. M. (1985). Assessing the test-wiseness of health science students: Development and validation of an instrument: Evaluation & the Health Professions Vol 8(4) Dec 1985, 494-508.
  • Haskins, R., & et al. (1978). Effects of repeated assessment on standardized test performance by infants: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 83(3) Nov 1978, 233-239.
  • Hess, A. K., & Neville, D. (1977). Testwiseness: Some evidence for the effect of personality testing on subsequent test results: Journal of Personality Assessment Vol 41(2) Apr 1977, 170-177.
  • Higham, P. A., & Brooks, L. R. (1997). Learning the experimenter's design: Tacit sensitivity to the structure of memory lists: The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology Vol 50A(1) Feb 1997, 199-215.
  • Holden, R. R., & Jackson, D. N. (1981). Subtlety, information, and faking effects in personality assessment: Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 37(2) Apr 1981, 379-386.
  • Kalechstein, P. B., Hocevar, D., & Kalechstein, M. (1988). Effects of test-wiseness training on test anxiety, locus of control and reading achievement in elementary school children: Anxiety Research Vol 1(3) Dec 1988, 247-261.
  • Koriat, A., & Bjork, R. A. (2006). Illusions of competence during study can be remedied by manipulations that enhance learners' sensitivity to retrieval conditions at test: Memory & Cognition Vol 34(5) Jul 2006, 959-972.
  • Ligon, G. D. (1983). Preparing students for standardized testing: New Directions for Testing & Measurement No 19 Sep 1983, 19-27.
  • Maspons, M. M., & Llabre, M. M. (1985). The influence of training Hispanics in test taking on the psychometric properties of a test: Journal for Research in Mathematics Education Vol 16(3) May 1985, 177-183.
  • McPhail, I. (1984). Coaching, test-wiseness and test scores: NAPW Journal Vol 1(2) Sum 1984, 19-26.
  • McPhail, I. P. (1978). A psycholinguistic approach to training urban high school students in test-taking strategies: Journal of Negro Education Vol 47(2) Spr 1978, 168-176.
  • Miller, P. M., Fagley, N. S., & Lane, D. S. (1988). Stability of the Gibb (1964) Experimental Test of Testwiseness: Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol 48(4) Win 1988, 1123-1127.
  • Miller, P. M., Fuqua, D. R., & Fagley, N. S. (1990). Factor structure of the Gibb Experimental Test of Testwiseness: Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol 50(1) Spr 1990, 203-208.
  • Monro, D. A., & Martin, F. N. (1977). Effects of sophistication on four tests for nonorganic hearing loss: Journal of Speech & Hearing Disorders Vol 42(4) Nov 1977, 528-534.
  • Morse, D. T. (1998). The relative difficulty of selected test-wiseness skills among college students: Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol 58(3) Jun 1998, 399-408.
  • Murayama, K. (2006). "Adaptation to the Test": A Review of Problems and Perspectives: Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 54(2) Jun 2006, 265-279.
  • Powers, D. E. (1987). Who benefits most from preparing for a "coachable" admissions test? : Journal of Educational Measurement Vol 24(3) Fal 1987, 247-262.
  • Powers, D. E., & Alderman, D. L. (1983). Effects of test familiarization on SAT performance: Journal of Educational Measurement Vol 20(1) Spr 1983, 71-79.
  • Rogers, W. T., & Bateson, D. J. (1991). Verification of a model of test-taking behavior of high school seniors: Journal of Experimental Education Vol 59(4) Sum 1991, 331-350.
  • Rogers, W. T., & Bateson, D. J. (1994). Verification of a model of test-taking behavior of high school seniors: Alberta Journal of Educational Research Vol 40(2) Jun 1994, 195-211.
  • Rogers, W. T., & Harley, D. (1999). An empirical comparison of three- and four-choice items and tests: Susceptibility to testwiseness and internal consistency reliability: Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol 59(2) Apr 1999, 234-247.
  • Rogers, W. T., & Yang, P. (1996). Test-wiseness: Its nature and application: European Journal of Psychological Assessment Vol 12(3) 1996, 247-259.
  • Roznowski, M., & Bassett, J. (1992). Training test-wiseness and flawed item types: Applied Measurement in Education Vol 5(1) 1992, 35-48.
  • Samson, G. E. (1985). Effects of training in test-taking skills on achievement test performance: A quantitative synthesis: Journal of Educational Research Vol 78(5) May-Jun 1985, 261-266.
  • Sarnacki, R. E. (1979). An examination of test-wiseness in the cognitive test domain: Review of Educational Research Vol 49(2) Spr 1979, 252-279.
  • Scruggs, T. E., & Lifson, S. (1986). Are learning disabled students "test-wise?" An inquiry into reading comprehension test items: Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol 46(4) Win 1986, 1075-1082.
  • Scruggs, T. E., & Lifson, S. A. (1985). Current conceptions of test-wiseness: Myths and realities: School Psychology Review Vol 14(3) 1985, 339-350.
  • Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (1988). Are learning disabled students "test-wise"?: A review of recent research: Learning Disabilities Focus Vol 3(2) Spr 1988, 87-97.
  • Smith, J. O. (1984). The role of Black Studies scholars in helping Black students cope with standardized tests: Journal of Negro Education Vol 53(3) Sum 1984, 334-340.
  • Stewart, O., & Green, D. S. (1983). Test-taking skills for standardized tests of reading: Reading Teacher Vol 36(7) Mar 1983, 634-638.
  • Tomkowicz, J., & Rogers, W. T. (2005). The Use of One-, Two-, and Three-Parameter and Nominal Item Response Scoring in Place of Number-Right Scoring in the Presence of Test-Wiseness: Alberta Journal of Educational Research Vol 51(3) Fal 2005, 200-215.
  • Towns, M. H., & Robinson, W. R. (1993). Student use of test-wiseness strategies in solving multiple-choice chemistry examinations: Journal of Research in Science Teaching Vol 30(7) Sep 1993, 709-722.
  • Van der Molen, H., te Nijenhuis, J., & Keen, G. (1994). Effects of test training: Preparation for psychological study in personnel selection: Psycholoog Vol 29(1) Jan 1994, 2-7.
  • Veit, D. T., & Scruggs, T. E. (1986). Can learning disabled students effectively use separate answer sheets? : Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 63(1) Aug 1986, 155-160.
  • Weinrach, S. G. (1980). Discrepancy identification: A model for the interpretation of the Kuder DD and other interest inventories: Vocational Guidance Quarterly Vol 29(1) Sep 1980, 42-52.
  • Wolf, B. (1978). Some critical remarks on Echterhoff's approach measuring learning effect: Zeitschrift fur Empirische Padagogik Vol 2(2) 1978, 155-162.
  • Wu, T.-h. (1984). Grade, sex, intelligence, achievement, risk taking and test wiseness: Bulletin of Educational Psychology Vol 17 May 1984, 121-130.
  • Wu, T.-h., & Slakter, M. J. (1978). Risk taking and test wiseness of Chinese students by grade level and residence area: Journal of Educational Research Vol 71(3) Jan-Feb 1978, 167-170.


DissertationsEdit

  • Anderson, C. W. (1983). The effects of modality-based instruction in the development of test-taking skills upon the performance of young children on standardized reading achievement tests: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bailey, G. Z. (1987). An experimental study of the effects of test-wiseness and test practice on the standardized reading achievement test scores of fourth grade students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Benson-Pfiefle, B. L. (1988). Effects on achievement test scores resulting from teaching test-taking skills in the fifth grade: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Borrello, G. M. (1984). Personality and aptitude correlates of selected test-wiseness skills: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Butler, D. D. (1983). An assessment of the effects of instruction and practice on the test-wiseness of fourth graders as measured by changes in standardized test scores: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Catterson, S. K. (1993). A comparison of computerized adaptive and paper-and-pencil tests on reliability and susceptibility to testwiseness: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Chang, T. J. (1979). Test-wiseness and passage-dependency in standardized reading comprehension test items: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Cornwell, G. G. (1984). Test-wiseness, test anxiety and racial bias in employment testing: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Crozier, P. W. (1978). An evaluation of the effectiveness of two audio-visual methods of test orientation upon the achievement test performance of tenth grade vocational school students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Derby, T. L. (1979). The effects of instruction in selected aspects of test-wiseness on the administration of standardized reading test items in the upper elementary school: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • DiGiovanni, M. R. (1989). The influence of test-wiseness and positive test motivation training versus test-taking self-esteem awareness training on eighth-grade students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Eckholdt, C. S. (1999). The relationship among testwiseness, test anxiety, and study strategies. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Fagley, N. S. (1984). Positional response bias in multiple-choice test performance revisited: Its relation to test-wiseness and guessing strategy: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Fenstermaker, D. (1985). The effect of Rorschach scoring knowledge on the structural summary of Rorschach-naive subjects: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ford, V. A. (1977). The influence of two test-wiseness programs upon students' test pe*Jessup, D. L. (1995). The influence of cognitive ability, test-wiseness and reading strategy awareness on students reading comprehension test performance. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.rformance: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kalechstein, P. W. (1986). The effects of test-wiseness training upon the reading achievement, test anxiety, and locus of control of elementary school children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Keysor, R. E. (1977). The effect of test wiseness on professional school screening test scores: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kouzekanani, K. (1989). Analysis of testwiseness components: A quasi-experimental approach: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Lagana, J. L. (1979). The effects of incentive motivation and testwiseness coaching on the standardized reading test scores of third-grade students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Langer, G. R. (1980). Relation of test-taking strategy and selected factors to outcome on objective tests: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Lee, P. A. (1982). The effects of training junior high learning disabled students to use a test-taking strategy: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Levine, M. A. (1980). Training in testwiseness on reading scores of low and middle SES pupils: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Livingston, M. H. (1988). The effects of testwiseness instruction using the Soaring High with Test-taking Tactics--Mathematics Program on the mathematics scores of third-grade students on the Stanford Achievement Test--Seventh Edition: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • McMullen, K. A. (1995). An examination of the relative importance of self-efficacy, test-wiseness, test anxiety, knowledge of content, and the ability to formulate the problem in the question on the total score on an objective test. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • McPhail, I. P. (1977). A psycholinguistic approach to training urban high school students in test-taking strategies: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Paulman, R. G. (1983). Test anxiety and exam-taking skills as mediators of information processing in college students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Petersen, G. A. (1990). Test-wise responses of third-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students to clued and unclued multiple-choice science items: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Romberg, E. (1978). The effects of test-taking skills and attitudes on validity of standardized achievement test scores of inner-city children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Rule, J. L. (1991). An investigation of the effect of instruction in test-wiseness on SRA Survey of Basic Skills scores for public school students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Sarnacki, R. E. (1979). The role of test-wiseness in undergraduate medical education: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Scheib, J. E. (1979). Convergent and discriminant validation of test-wiseness and risk-taking on objective examinations: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Schwabenbauer, M. (1985). Consistency of Rorschach variables with sophisticated subjects: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Schwanenberger, M. C. (1992). Test-wiseness training with sixth and seventh-grade students and its effect on standardized achievement test scores: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Soltz, D. F. (1992). An analysis of variables contributing to the effectiveness of test-wiseness preparation: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Stenning, P. C. (1980). The relationship of testwiseness, achievement, and degree of hearing loss for hearing impaired adolescents: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Strosser, W. L. (1990). Validity and score enhancements on standardized achievement tests as a function of test-wiseness with an urban fourth-grade population: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Tallarico, I. (1985). Effects of ecological factors on elementary school student performance on norm-referenced standardized tests: Nonreading behaviors: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Taylor, C. (1983). The effect of reinforcement and training on group standardized test behavior: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Thomas, R. J. (1977). The effects of three methods on test anxiety and the achievement test performance of elementary students: Providing test-taking information, test-wiseness training, and systematic desensitization: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Thornton, S. A. (1986). Assessing achievement gains of students of color as related to internality and affected by ethnicity, gender, and knowledge of taking a standardized test: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Tomkowicz, J. T. (2001). Comparison of ability estimates from dichotomously and nominally scored testwise susceptible and non-susceptible items. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Yang, P. (2001). Effects of test-wiseness upon performance on the Test of English as a Foreign Language. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.

This article incorporates text from the Citizendium, which is in the public domain.


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