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Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
In teratology teratogens are drugs, poisons or toxins that cause congenital disorders and developmental abnormalities, particularly where there is prenatal exposure which can affect prenatal development.
A wide range of different chemicals and environmental factors are suspected or are known to be teratogenic in humans and in animals. A selected few include:
- Infections: cytomegalovirus, herpes virus, parvovirus B-19, rubella virus (German measles), syphilis, toxoplasmosis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
- Metabolic imbalance: alcoholism, endemic cretinism, diabetes, folic acid deficiency, hyperthermia, phenylketonuria, rheumatic disease and congenital heart block, virilizing tumors
- Drugs and environmental chemicals: 13-cis-retinoic acid, isotretinoin (Accutane), temazepam (Restoril; Normisson), nitrazepam (Mogadon), nimetazepam (Ermin), aminopterin, androgenic hormones, busulfan, captopril, enalapril, chlorobiphenyls (PCBs), Dioxin, coumarin, cyclophosphamide, diethylstilbestrol, diphenylhydantoin (Phenytoin, Dilantin, Epanutin), ethanol, ethidium bromide, etretinate, lithium (Ebstein Anomalies), methimazole, organic mercury, penicillamine, tetracyclines, thalidomide, trimethadione, uranium, methoxyethyl ethers and valproic acid.
The status of some of the above substances (e.g. diphenylhydantoin) is subject to debate, and many other compounds are under varying degrees of suspicion. These include Agent Orange, nicotine, aspirin and other NSAIDs. Other compounds are known as severe teratogens based on veterinary work and animal studies, but aren't listed above because they have not been studied in humans, e.g. cyclopamine. Teratogenic effects also help to determine the pregnancy category assigned by regulatory authorities; in the United States, a pregnancy category of X, D, or C may be assigned if teratogenic effects (or other risks in pregnancy) are documented or cannot be excluded.
Isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic-acid; brand name Accutane), which is often used to treat severe acne, is such a strong teratogen that just a single dose taken by a pregnant woman may result in serious birth defects. Because of this effect, most countries have systems in place to ensure that it is not given to pregnant women, and that the patient is aware of how important it is to prevent pregnancy during and at least one month after treatment. Medical guidelines also suggest that pregnant women should limit vitamin A intake to about 700 μg/day, as it has teratogenic potential when consumed in excess.
- ↑ Linnainmaa K (1983). Sister chromatid exchanges among workers occupationally exposed to phenoxy acid herbicides 2,4-D and MCPA. Teratog., Carcinog. Mutagen. 3 (3): 269-79.
- ↑ Vaglenova J, Birru S, Pandiella NM, Breese CR (2004). An assessment of the long-term developmental and behavioral teratogenicity of prenatal nicotine exposure. Behav. Brain Res. 150 (1-2): 159-70.
- ↑ Hunt JR (1996). Teratogenicity of high vitamin A intake. N. Engl. J. Med. 334 (18): 1197.
- ↑ Hartmann S, Brørs O, Bock J, et al (2005). Exposure to retinoic acids in non-pregnant women following high vitamin A intake with a liver meal. International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift für Vitamin- und Ernährungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition 75 (3): 187-94.
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