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Teaching machines are an example of instructional technology where the presentation of programmed educational material is managed by a computer or similar machine so that people can learn independently at their own pace.

See alsoEdit



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  • Schank, R. C., & Cleary, C. (1995). Engines for education. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.


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  • Showalter, M. E. (1982). Interactive effects between field-dependence-independence and level of instructional support in elementary probability for non-science college students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Woolf, B. P. (1984). Context dependent planning in a machine tutor: Dissertation Abstracts International.

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